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International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge, 2(3), pp. 151-159, 2014 Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.

com/ijsrk ISSN: 2322-4541; 2014 IJSRPUB http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsrk-2014-p0151-0159

Full Length Research Paper Impact of Asphalt Additives on Rutting Resistance of Asphalt Concrete
Saad Issa Sarsam*, Ibtihal Mouiad Laftaa
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq, *Corresponding Author: Email: saadisasarsam@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
Received 9 January 2014; Accepted 21 February 2014

Abstract. Rutting is considered as one of the major pavement distresses of flexible pavement in Iraq. The hot weather duration for five months with 40-50 C has negative impact on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete pavement. It was felt that modification of asphalt cement may be a possible solution to overcome such issue. In this paper, two penetration grade asphalt cement (40-50 and 60-70) have been modified in the laboratory by digestion with five types of locally available additives (fly ash; crumb rubber; fumed silica, sulfur; and Phospho-gypsum). Asphalt concrete mixture usually used for wearing course construction in Iraq as per SCRB specifications of 19 mm nominal size was considered in this investigation. Specimens were prepared using both of conventional asphalt cement and modified asphalt cement. The prepared modified asphalt concrete mixtures were evaluated by using Marshall Tests, resilient modulus determination (MR) and resistance to permanent deformation under repeated loads test, and then compared with the conventional mixture. The asphalt concrete mixtures modified by 10% fly ash by weight of asphalt cement (60-70) exhibit high resistance to permanent deformation as compared with the control mixture, while the mixture modified by 3% sulfur by weight of asphalt cement (60-70) generally showed lower resistance to permanent deformation as compared to the other tested mixtures. On the other hand, 1% of Phosphogypsum by weight of asphalt cement (40-50) exhibit an improvement in rutting resistance. Sulfur and fly ash showed negative impact on rutting resistance for the range of load repetition studied. Keywords: Asphalt additives; Dynamic indirect tensile tests; Modified asphalt concrete; Resilient modulus.

1. INTRODUCTION Over the past few years, road network in Iraq have been subjected to more severe traffic conditions characterized by an increase in the number of vehicles, the load limits and by tire inflation pressures (Sarsam, 2008). Asphaltic material with aggregate is usually used as a pavement mixture which is designed considering flexibility, durability and stability. Despite the use of asphalt mixes poor in binder quality and the enforcement of stricter specifications for materials especially asphalt, the limits of mechanical stability of road surfacing have often been exceeded and this has resulted in damage such as cracking and deformation. Increasing the resistance to permanent deformation and improving the resistance to fatigue at low temperatures could mark a good start, on the other hand, improving binder-aggregate adhesion (higher viscosity of the binder), Slowing down the ageing process (thicker film of binder around the aggregate) are considered to be vital for long term service of the pavement (Vonck and Van, 1989). The effect of fumed silica and Phospho - gypsum as additives have been studied by Sarsam (2012), and its

positive impact on asphalt rheological and physical properties were pointed out. Dong et al. (2011) investigated the properties of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) prepared with de-vulcanized crumb rubber modified asphalt. A series of laboratory tests including the submerged Marshall Stability, wheel tracking test, dynamic modulus test, small beam bending test, and four-point flexural fatigue test, were carried out to characterize the properties of HMA. They concluded that the pre de- vulcanized crumb rubber can be used as one kind of good modifier for asphalt rubber to improve hot storage stability. Cooper et al. (2011) compared the laboratory mechanistic properties of sulfur-modified warm-mix asphalt (WMA) with conventional asphalt mixtures. A suite of tests was performed to evaluate the rutting performance, moisture resistance, fatigue endurance, fracture resistance, and thermal cracking resistance of the three mixtures. Results of the experimental program showed that the rutting performance of sulfur-modified WMA was comparable or superior to conventional mixes prepared with polymer-modified and unmodified asphalt binders. Coplantz et al. (1993) evaluated sulfur-asphalt rutting resistance. The

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existing asphalt pavement was cracked and rutted. An 85/100 pen asphalt was used to make the sulfur asphalt binder. The sulfur-asphalt mixtures had higher resilient moduli than control by approximately 30% at 22 C and 50% at 4C. . The rut depths in all sections increased slightly over time, and the depths for all sections were approximately equal after one and five years. The rut depths on the original pavement were higher in the sulfur-asphalt test section locations. Ali et al. (1996) studied the effect of fly ash on the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures to evaluate the effect of using fly ash in mitigating pavement distress and improving performance of asphalt concrete pavement. This study evaluated four groups of specimens with various fly ash contents and 5% asphalt content. They concluded that fly ash, when used as a mineral, improved strength and stripping resistance. Mechanical properties testing results indicated that the use of 2% fly ash improved the resilient modulus of the mix at high and low temperatures. Kumar, et al. (2010) stated that the climatic conditions play an important role in selecting
Property Penetration Softening point Ductility

the type of materials to be used in road construction. In order to increase the life of bituminous pavement, quality of bitumen needs to be enhanced. To achieve the improvement of binder, it is necessary to add the polymers to bitumen. It indicates that the SBSmodified binder is more resistant to cracking and rutting at low as well as high temperatures hand, by addition of 3% EVA with 60/70 bitumen, the rutting resistance is substantially increased at 58C. The aim of this study is to verify the impact of using five different types of additives in modification of two types of asphalt cement on resilient modulus, resistance o deformation under load repetitions, and Marshal properties of modified asphalt concrete. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The materials used in this study are asphalt cement, aggregate, mineral filler and additives. The properties of these materials were evaluated using routine types of test.

Table 1: Properties of asphalt cement


Asphalt cement (40-50) 44 50 >100 Asphalt cement (60-70) 66 48 >100

Table 2: Physical properties of aggregate


Property Bulk specific gravity % water absorption Abrasion% (Los Angeles) Coarse aggregate 2.610 0.448 22.2 % Fine aggregate 2.640 0.720 ----------

Table 3: physical properties of mineral filler


Property Specific gravity % Passing sieve No.200 (0.075mm) Test results 2.794 94

Table 4: physical properties of asphalt additives


Additive type Specific gravity Specific surface area (m2/kg) Fly ash 2.010 700 Fumed silica 0.16 100000 Sulfur 2.070 -----Crumb rubber 1.130 ----------Phospho-gypsum 2.350 500

2.1. Asphalt cement For the purpose of this work, two types of penetration grade asphalt cement were considered, (40-50) and (60-70). Both types are obtained from the Dura refinery, south-west of Baghdad. The asphalt cement properties are shown in Table 1. 2.2. Aggregate The coarse aggregate used in this work was crushed aggregate obtained from AL-Nibaai quarry. The coarse and fine aggregates used in this work were

sieved and recombined in the proper proportions to meet the wearing course gradation as required by SCRB specification (SCRB, R/9. 2007). The wearing course was selected because this layer is always in direct contact with traffic loadings and variations in environmental conditions. Routine tests were performed on the aggregate to evaluate their physical Properties. The results are summarized in Table 2. The selected gradation with specification limits are presented in Figure 1.

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2.3. Mineral Filler The mineral filler used in this work is limestone dust obtained from the lime factory in Karbala governorate. The physical properties of the used filler are presented in Table 3 below:
Additive Control (%) Asphalt 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 Stability (kN) 8.2 11.7 9.5 8.9 10.0 9.0 9.2 10.3 9.4 9.5 10.5 10.0 6.9 8.3 7.9 8.7 10.1 9.1 Flow (mm) 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.2 3.0 3.7 2.7 3.0 3.2 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.2 3.0 3.1

2.4. Asphalt additives Five types of additives were implemented in this work; their physical properties are shown in Table 4.

Table 5: Marshall Test Result for asphalt cement (40-50) mix.


Bulk density (gm./cm3) 2.3225 2.33 2.335 2.321 2.365 2.396 2.321 2.341 2.358 2.293 2.322 2.331 2.296 2.318 2.332 2.308 2.345 2.335 Voids (%) 5.358 4.39 3.5123 4.09 2.954 2.363 4.09 3.939 3.911 6.56 4.718 3.677 6.438 4.883 3.636 4.628 3.775 3.5123 Vfa (%) 68.1 72.7 77.3 75.7 79.4 82.1 73.2 74.1 75.7 61.3 71.2 77.7 61.8 70.4 77.9 73.2 75.7 76.1 VMA (%) 16.8 16.1 15.4 16.8 14.3 13.2 16.8 15.2 14.6 16.9 16.4 16.5 16.8 16.5 16.4 17.3 15.5 14.7

5% Rubber 5% Fly ash 1% Fumed silica 1% Phospho - gypsum 5% Sulfur

Fig. 1: Gradation Curve of Aggregate used for Wearing Course.

Fig. 2: Part of the prepared specimens

Fig. 3: Mode of failure after load repetitions

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3. RESULTS AND TESTING PROGRAM The testing program was divided into two phases, in the first phase; the modified asphalt cement was prepared in the laboratory as follows: Asphalt cement was heated to a temperature of 160C for asphalt cement (40-50), 150C for asphalt cement (60-70), and then additive in its powder form was added gradually and mixed using manual stirring on the hot plate for 60 minutes as a constant blending time. Three percentage of each type of additive was considered, and an optimum additive content was selected based on physical properties determination of the blend. The details of the testing was published elsewhere (Sarsam and Lafta, 2014). For asphalt cement (40-50), the selected additives were (5% rubber; 5% fly ash; 1% fumed silica; 5% sulfur; 1% Phospho-gypsum), on the other hand, the selected additives percentages for asphalt cement (60-70) were (7% rubber; 10% fly ash; 3% fumed silica; 3% sulfur; 3% Phospho-gypsum). The second phase consist of preparation of asphalt concrete specimen using Marshal Test procedure, such specimens have been implemented for Marshal properties and resilient modulus determination, and for indirect tension repeated load test. Figure 2 illustrates part of the prepared specimens. 3.1. Marshall Test Marshall Test has been implemented to find the optimum asphalt content; it was conducted on a cylindrical specimen (101.6 mm) diameter and (63.5 mm) height. Asphalt was heated up to 160 0C prior to mixing for asphalt cement (40-50) and150 0C prior to mixing for asphalt cement (60-70), and it was added to the hot aggregate and mixed thoroughly at (1600C) in the bowl for two minutes, then was placed in the mold and compacted with 75 blows on each face of the specimen, using hammer of 4.53 kg sliding weight and a free fall of (457.2 mm). The optimum asphalt content was (5 %). Test specimens were fabricated for

a range asphalt contents (4.5, 5, and 5.5) % by total weight of the mix as per the requirements of superpave. 3.2. Indirect Tension Repeated Load Test (IDT) The indirect tension repeated load test specified by (ASTM D4123) was conducted using the pneumatic repeated load system (PRLS). The tests were performed on Marshall Specimens. In these tests, repetitive loading is applied to the diametric specimen and the resilient vertical strain is measured under the load repetitions. Diametric loading is applied with a constant loading frequency of 60 cycles per minute and loading sequence for each cycle is 0.1 sec load duration and 0.9 sec rest period. Two testing temperatures (25, 40) C have been implemented, and the applied stress level was 0.138 MPa. The specimen was placed in the testing chamber for two hours at 40C or 25 C to allow for a uniform temperature distribution within the specimen. The experiment was commenced by application of repeated stress and recording the permanent deformation. The dial gauge was set to zero reading after completion of the specimen "setup" in the testing equipment. The pressure actuator was adjusted to the specified stress level. The timer (both loading port and rest port) was also set to the required load and rest durations. A video camera was located at proper place to cover the view of dial gauge reading and set ready to start recordings. Upon completion of test, the number of load repetitions was recorded when the specimen failed. The required deformation data analyses include the determination of the permanent deformation at the following load repetitions: (1, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 ) or until the specimen failed. The permanent vertical strain was measured as a function of the number of load applications at 40C and stress of 0.138 MPa. Figure 3 shows the failure mode after load repetitions, while figure 4 shows the repeated load testing system.

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Fig. 4: Repeated load testing system Table 6: Marshall Test Result for asphalt cement (60-70)
Additive Control (%) Asphalt 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 4.5 5 5.5 Stability (kN) 7.625 10.408 8.755 6.475 7.959 7.437 8.652 10 8.952 7.435 8.897 7.643 7.765 8.081 7.543 6.345 7.346 7.215 Flow (mm) 2.25 2.875 4.125 2.75 3 3.75 1.75 2 2.5 1.5 1.75 2.25 1.75 2 2.75 2 2.5 3 Bulk density (gm./cm3) 2.309 2.3542 2.373 2.312 2.336 2.372 2.322 2.337 2.348 2.326 2.336 2.355 2.314 2.328 2.336 2.342 2.356 2.357 Voids (%) 6.593 4.074 2.626 6.472 5.215 1.969 6.067 4.767 3.652 5.909 4.808 3.364 6.391 4.96 4.144 5.258 3.993 3.282 Vfa (%) 59.8 73.2 82.4 60.3 65.9 86.3 58.5 69.9 77.0 62.8 69.3 77.3 60.6 69.3 74.6 65.4 73.7 78.9 VMA (%) 16.4 15.2 14.9 16.3 15.3 14.4 15.9 15.8 15.8 15.9 15.7 15.6 16.2 16.1 16.3 15.2 15.1 15.5

7% Rubber

10% Fly ash 3% Fumed silica 3% Phosphogypsum 3% Sulfur

Table 7: Resilient Modulus value for asphalt concrete mixture


Specimen Control at (25C) Control at (40C) 5% rubber (40C) 7% rubber (40C) 5% fly ash (40C) 10% fly ash (40C) 1% fumed silica (40C) 3% fumed silica (40C) 1% Phospho-gypsum (40C) 3% Phospho-gypsum (40C) 5%sulfur (40C) Resilient Modulus(MPa) Asphalt cement (40-50) 267.2 248.6 284.2 ----242.2 -----238.0 -------258.7 -----233.8 Resilient Modulus (MPa) Asphalt cement (60-70) 298.8 268.4 ----277.5 ----249.0 -----248.8 ------248.6 259.5

4. DISCUSSIONS ON TEST RESULTS 4.1. Marshall Test A series of tests for Marshall stability, flow ,and density-voids analysis were carried out for selecting the optimum asphalt content for mixtures by using

aggregate (12.5 mm nominal maximum size gradation),7 percent lime stone dust (by weight of the total aggregate), and three different asphalt contents (4.5,5 and 5.5%) of (40-50) ,(60-70) penetration grade. Three specimens are prepared and tested for each mix variable. Tables 5 and 6 present Marshall Properties for asphalt cement (40-50), (60-70)

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respectively. The stability of mixtures containing 5% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) was lower than that of control mixtures, and the stability of mixtures containing 3% sulfur by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) was lower than those of control mixtures. While specimens containing 1% fumed silica by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) had almost higher stability values than the other percent of additives. Change in stability values of the mixture containing additives, may be attributed to the change in bulk density and voids of the mix. The flow values increased when additives were introduced to asphalt cement 40-50. The values were significantly higher for 1% fumed silica than the control specimens. The flow value decrease when additives were added to asphalt cement (60-70). These changes in flow values could be attributed to the change in viscosity of asphalt cement. Voids

decreases as the additives were introduced in the mix and the introduction of additives have also increased the voids filled with asphalt in general. The increase of Vfa indicates an increase of effective asphalt film thickness between aggregates, which will results in decreasing cracking. Specimens containing 5% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) had the lowest air void contents among other mixes. It was also noted that the specimens made with 7% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) contents had lower air void contents than the other specimens. The VMA property is significant as far as the pavements of hot regions are concerned because asphalt may be prone to bleeding and amounting void ratio could prevent bleeding by providing more spaces for the binder to move through. This was probably due to greater surface areas to be coated.

a.) Mixes with 40-50 asphalt cement

b.) Mixes with 60-70 asphalt cement

Fig. 5: Impact of testing temperature on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

4.2. Resilient Modulus Test The resilient modulus represents the ratio of an applied stress to the recoverable strain that takes place after the applied stress has been removed. The frequency of load application used in this work is 1 Hz, with load duration of 0.1 sec and a resting period of 0.9 sec to simulate the field conditions. Generally, higher modulus indicates greater resistance to deformation. Resilient modulus is determined at 40C temperature and a stress level of 0.138 MPa; testing procedures are in accordance with (ASTM D4123). Table 7 demonstrated that Resilient modulus of 5% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) was significantly higher than the values obtained for control mixture, while 10% fly ash by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) shows almost higher values among other additives. Generally, higher moduli indicate

greater resistance to deformation. A high modulus asphaltic surface layer will also protect the subgrade from being overstressed and therefore it will reduce the probability of subgrade failure as cited by (Huang, 1993). 4.3. Resistance to Permanent Deformation Figure 5 presents the impact of testing temperature on accumulation of permanent strain for both types of asphalt cement. The slope represents the rate of change in the permanent strain as a function of the change in loading cycles (N) in the log-log scale. High slope of the mix when tested at 40 C indicates an increase in material deformation rate, hence, less resistance against rutting. A mixture with low slope is preferable as it prevents the occurrence of rutting. On the other hand, the intercept (a) represents the

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permanent strain at N=1 (N is the number of load cycles), the higher the value of (a), the larger is the

strain and the potential of permanent deformation.

a.) Mixes with 40-50 asphalt cement

b.) Mixes with 60-70 asphalt cement

Fig. 6: Impact of asphalt additives on deformation behavior under load repetitions

Figure 6 shows the permanent micro strain, given as a function of load applications. The figure shows the effect of additives to asphalt cement (40-50) and (60-70) .Recognizing the fact that the lower permanent strain is related to the lower sensitivity for rutting and corrugation, it means that the modified bitumen mixes have a beneficial influence on the mix properties. The mixtures modified by 5% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) had higher resistance to permanent deformation as compared with the control mixture. The mixtures modified by 10% fly ash by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) had higher resistance to permanent deformation as compared with the control mixture. The mixture modified by 3% sulfur by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) generally showed lower resistance to permanent deformation as compared to the other tested mixtures. 5. CONCLUSION Based on the testing program, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) Asphalt Concrete Specimens containing 1% fumed silica by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) had higher stability value when compared to control mix. On the other hand, the stability of mixtures containing 3% sulfur by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) was lower than those of control mixtures. (2) The specimens containing 5% rubber by wt. of asphalt cement (40-50) had the lowest air void

contents among the control mixtures and the other mixtures with different additives. (3) The asphalt concrete mixtures modified by 10% fly ash by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) exhibit high resistance to permanent deformation as compared with the control mixture. (4) The mixture modified by 3% sulfur by wt. of asphalt cement (60-70) generally showed lower resistance to permanent deformation as compared to the other tested mixtures. REFERENCES Ali N, Chan J, Simms S, Bushman R, Bergan A (1996). Mechanistic Evaluation of Fly Ash Asphalt Concrete Mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 8(1): 1925, Technical paper. Asi I, Assaad A (2005). Effect of Jordanian Oil Shale Fly Ash on Asphalt Mixes. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 553-559. ASTM D-4123 (2002) Standard Test Method for Indirect Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures. American Society of Testing and Materials. Bahia H, Hanson DI, Zeng M, Zhai H, Khatri M, Anderson R (2001). Characterization of Modified Asphalt Binder in Super-pave Mix Design. TRB, NCHRP Report 459, National Academy Press, Washington.

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Cooper SB, Mohammad LN, Elseifi M (2011). Laboratory Performance Characteristics of Sulfur-Modified Warm-Mix Asphalt. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE. He Z, Lu Z, Zhang W (2010). Performance Study on Rubber Powder Modified Asphalt of Waste Tire. Integrated Transportation Systems Green. Intelligent, ASCE. SCRB/R9 (2003). Standard Specification for Roads and Bridges. Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement, Revised Edition. State

Commotion of Roads and Bridges, Ministry of Housing and Construction, Republic of Iraq. Tara L (2003). Resilient Modulus of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures. M.Sc. Thesis, Civil Engineering, university of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada. Tayebali AA, Goodrich JL, Sousa JB, Monismith CL (1992). Influence of the Rheological Properties of Modified Asphalt Binders on the Load Deformation Characteristics of the BinderAggregate Mixtures. Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders, ASTM STP1108, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, P. 78.

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Prof. Saad Issa Sarsam was born in Baghdad 1955, got his BSc. In Civil Engineering (1977), Post graduate diploma in Transportation Engineering (1978); MSc in Transportation Engineering (1980). He worked as senior material Engineer for NCCL (1982-1992); He joined the academic staff at University of Mosul (1992-2005) and got the Assistant Professor degree at 2002; He joined the academic staff at University of Baghdad (2005 until now) and got the Professor degree at 2007. Areas of specialization and interest: (Roller compacted concrete; modified asphalt concrete; Asphalt stabilized embankment models; Road user characteristics).

Ibtihal M. Laftaa was born in Baghdad 1988, got her BSc. in Civil Engineering (2010); MSc. in Civil Engineering (Transportation) in (2012).

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