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The term communications refers to the sending,receiving and processing of information by
electronic means.The fundamental purpose of an electronic communication s/m is to transfer
information from one place to another.The original source information can be in analog form
such as human voice or music or in digital form such as binary coded numbers or
alphanumeric codes.Analog signals are time varying voltages or currents that are
continuously changing such as sine and cosine waves.An analog signal contains an infinite
number of values.Digital signals are voltages or currents that change in discrete steps or
levels.The most common form of digital signals is binary. All forms of information must be
converted to electromagnetic energy before being propagated through an electronic
communication s/m.
A modern communication s/m is first concerned with the sorting , processing and sometimes
storing of information before its transmission.The actual transmission then follows with
further processing and the filtering of noise.Finally we have reception which may include
processing steps such as decoding,storage and interpretation. In this context , forms of
communications include radio telephony and telegraphy, broadcasting , point to point and
mobile communications , computer communications, radar, radio telemetry.

All electronic communication systems have a transmitter , a communication channel or
medium and a receiver. Figure below shows a simplified block diagram of an electronic
communication system.

The communication system exists to convey message. This message comes from the
information source, which originates it, in the sense of selecting one message from a group of
messages. The set or total number of messages consists of individual messages. The amount
of information contained in any given message can be measured on bits or in dits.

The first step in sending a message is to convert it into electronic form suitable for
transmission. For voice messages, a microphone is used to translate the sound into an
electronic audio signal. For TV, a camera converts the light information in the scene to a
video signal. In computer systems, the message is typed on a keyboard and converted to
binary codes. Transducers converts physical characteristics into electrical signals.
In a transmitter, the information modulates the carrier. ie; it is superimposed on a high
frequency signals. The actual method of modulation varies from one system to another.
Modulation may be high level or low level and the s/m itself may be amplitude modulation,
frequency modulation, pulse modulation or any variation or combination of these depending
on the requirements.
Communication Channel:
The communication channel is the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one
place to another. Many different types of media are used in communication system, including

wire conductors, fiber optic cable & free space. The term channel is often used to refer to the
frequency range allocated to a particular service or transmission such as TV channel.
Electrical Conductors:
In its simplest form, the medium may simply be a pair of wires that carry a voice
signal from a microphone to a handset. It may be a coaxial cable such as that used to carry
cable TV signals or it may be twisted pair cable used in a local area network(LAN) for
personal computers.
Optical Media :
The communication medium may also be a fiber optic cable or light pipe that carries the
message on a light wave. These are widely used today to carry long distance calls & internet
Free Space :
When free space is the medium, the resulting system is known as radio. Radio makes use of
the electromagnetic spectrum. Intelligence signals are converted to electric and magnetic
fields that propagate through space over long distance.

Other Types of Media :

Although the most widely used media are conducting cables and free space, other types of
media are used in special communication systems. Eg; in sonar, water is used as the medium.
Passing sonar listens for the underwater sounds with sensitive hydrophones. Active sonar
uses an echo reflecting technique similar to that used in RADAR for determining how far
away objects under water are and in what direction they are moving. The earth itself can be
used as a communication medium because it conducts electricity and can also carry low
frequency sound waves.
The signal will deteriorate during the process of transmission and reception as a result
of some distortion in the system or because of the introduction of noise which is unwanted
energy usually of random character present in a transmission system due to variety of causes.
Since noise will be received together with the signal, it places a limitation on the transmission
system as a whole. When noise is severe, it may mask a given signal so that the signal
becomes unintelligible and therefore useless. Noise may interfere with the signal at any point
in a communication system, but it will have its greatest effect when the signal is weakest.

Receiver :
There are a great variety of receivers in communication system, since the exact form
for a particular receiver is influenced by a great many requirements. Among the more
important requirements are the modulation system used, the operating frequency and its range
and its types of display require, which in turn depends on the destination of the intelligence

Receiver runs the whole range of complexity from a very simple crystal receiver with
headphones to a far more complex RADAR receiver with its involved antenna arrangements
and visual display system. The most important function of receiver is demodulation. The o/p
of a receiver may be fed to a loud speaker, video display unit, RADAR displays, TV picture
tubes or computer.
Modulation is the process of superimposing a low frequency modulating signal
(information signal) component on a high frequency carrier signal. It is impractical to
propagate the information signals over standard transmission media. It is necessary to
modulate the source information onto a high frequency carrier signal. The information signal
modulates the carrier by changing either its amplitude, frequency or phase.
Modulation is simply the process of changing one or more properties of the analog
carrier in proportion with information signals.

Needs for Modulation

Low frequency signals cannot be transmitted over long distances if radiated directly
into the space. This is because of the following reasons.
Short operating range : The energy of any wave depends on the frequency. The larger the
frequency of the wave, the greater the energy associated with it. The audio signal having
smallest frequency and consequently small power cannot be transmitted over long distance
when radiated directly onto the space. However, modulated wave can be transmitted over
long distance.
Poor Radiation Efficiency : At audio frequencies, radiation is not practically as efficiency of
radiation is poor. However, electrical energy can be radiated efficiently at high frequencies.

Antenna Requirement : For efficient radiation and reception, the transmitting & receiving
antennas would have to have length comparable to a quarter wavelength of the frequency
used. This is 75metre at 1MHz in the broadcast band, but at 15KHz it has increased to
5000metre. A vertical antenna of this size is impractical.
Mutual Interference:
If low frequency signals are transmitted directly from different
sources all of them would be mixed up. The audio signals are transmitted in the frequency
range 20Hz to 20 KHz. By modulation, different messages of different frequency levels can
be transmitted simultaneously without any interference.
By using unmodulated carrier, the signal can be transmitted. But this unmodulated carrier has
constant amplitude, frequency & phase and message signal will have all these factors
varying. So it is impossible to represent these varying parameters by a constant parameter.
Types of modulation
i) Amplitude Modulation.
ii) Frequency Modulation.
iii) Phase Modulation.

Amplitude Modulation:
In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of a carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. The frequency of the
modulating signal is invariably lower than that of the carrier. In practice, the carrier may be
high frequency while the modulating signal is audio. Amplitude modulation is relatively
inexpensive, low quality form of modulation that is used for commercial broadcasting of both
audio and video signals.

Amplitude of the carrier signal, vc = Vc sinwct

Amplitude of the modulating signal, vm = Vm sinwmt
Amplitude of the modulated signal is,
A = Vc + vm
= Vc + Vm sinwmt = Vc [1+ Vm/ Vc sinwmt]
= Vc [1+m sinwmt]
Where m = Vm/ Vc is the modulation index or depth of modulation, 0m1

The instantaneous voltage of the resulting amplitude modulated wave is,

V=A sin =A sinwct
= Vc [1+m sinwmt] sinwct
= Vc sinwct+mVc sinwmt sinwct
V= Vc sinwct+ m Vc/2[Cos (wc-wm)t- Cos (wc+wm)t]
ie , the equation of an amplitude modulated wave contain three terms
Vc sinwct is the voltage of the carrier wave of frequency fc
mVc/2Cos(wc-wm)t is the lower sideband(LSB)
mVc/2Cos (wc+wm)t is the upper sideband (USB)
AM frequency spectrum and bandwidth






An AM modulator is a non linear device. Therefore, non linear mixing occurs and the output
envelope is a complex wave made up of a dc voltage, the carrier frequency and the sum f c+fm
and difference fc-fm frequencies. The sum and difference frequencies are displaced from the
carrier frequency by an amount equal to the modulating signal frequency. Therefore an AM
signal spectrum contains frequency components spaced fm Hz on either side of the carrier. It
should be noted that the modulated wave does not contain a frequency component that is
equal to the modulating signal frequency. The effect of modulation is to translate the
modulating signal in the frequency domain so that it is reflected symmetrically about the
carrier frequency.
The AM spectrum extends from f c-fm to fc+fm. The band of frequencies between
fc-fm and fc is called LSB & any frequency within this band is called a lower side frequency
(LSF). The band of frequencies between fc and fc+fm is called USB and any frequency within
this band is called the upper side frequency (USF). The bandwidth of an AMDSBFC wave is

equal to the difference between the highest upper side frequency & the lowest lower side
frequency or two times the highest modulating signal frequency. ie; bandwidth = 2fm.

The AM Envelope
Although there are several types of amplitude modulation, AM double side band full
carrier (DSBFC) is probably the most commonly used. AMDSBFC is sometimes called
conventional AM or simply AM. The figure shows how an AM waveform is produced when
a single frequency modulating signal acts on a high frequency carrier signal. The o/p
waveform contains all the frequencies that make up the AM signal and is used to transport the
information through the system. Therefore the shape of the modulated wave is called the AM
With no modulating signal, the o/p waveform is simply the carrier signal. When the
modulating signal is applied, the amplitude of the o/p wave varies in accordance with the
modulating signal. The repetition rate of the envelope is equal to the frequency of the
modulating signal and the shape of the envelope is identical to the shape of the modulating
signal. From the above figure,
2Vm = Vmax - Vmin
Vm = (Vmax - Vmin)/2

Vc = Vmax - Vm
= Vmax-{ (Vmax - Vmin)/2}
Vc = (Vmax + Vmin)/2

m = Vm/Vc
m = {(Vmax - Vmin)/2}/{(Vmax + Vmin)/2}
m = (Vmax - Vmin)/ (Vmax + Vmin)
Power relations in AM wave
The carrier component of the modulated wave has the same amplitude as the un
modulated carrier. ie; the amplitude of the carrier is unchanged. The modulated wave
contains extra energy in two sideband components. Therefore the modulated wave contains
more power than the carrier had before modulation took place. Since the amplitude of the

sidebands depends on the modulation index, it is anticipated that the total power in the
modulated wave will depend on the modulation index also.
Total power of the modulated signal is,
Pt = Pcarrier + PUSB + PLSB
= V2carrier/R + V2USB/R +V2LSB/R
Where all the voltages are rms values and R is the resistance in which the power is dissipated.
Pc = V2carrier/R = ( Vc/2)2/R = Vc2/2R
PUSB = PLSB = (m2/4) ( Vc2 /2R)
Pt = Vc2/2R + (m2/4) (Vc2/2R)+ (m2/4)( Vc2/2R)
= Pc + (m2/4) Pc + (m2/4) Pc
= Pc+ (m2/2) Pc
Pt/Pc = 1 + m2/2
The above equation relates the total power in the amplitude modulated wave to the un
modulated carrier power. The maximum power in the AM wave is when m=1.
Pt = Pc (1+1/2) = 1.5Pc
Pt/Pc = (It/Ic)2 = 1+ m2/2
It = Ic 1+ m2/2

Modulation by several sine waves

Let V1, V2, V3 be the simultaneous modulation voltages. Then the total modulating voltage
Vt will be equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual voltages.
Vt = V12 + V22+ V32 +..
Vt/ Vc = (V12 + V22+ V32 +..)/ Vc
mt = m12+m22+m32+..
The total power in an AM wave consists of carrier power and sideband power.

Pt=Pc (1+m2/2) = Pc+Pcm2/2

PSB is total the sideband power
If several sine waves simultaneously modulate the carrier, the carrier power is unaffected ,
but the total sideband power will be the sum of individual sideband power.

Pcmt2/2= Pcm12/2+ Pcm22/2+ Pcm32/2+.

mt2= m12+ m22+ m32+
The total index will not exceed unity , or distortion will result as with over modulation by a
single sine wave.
Single side band transmission (SSB)
In conventional AM, double side band with full carrier communication
systems is used. This s/m has two inherent disadvantages.
i) Carrier power constitutes 2/3rd of total transmitted power. But carrier contains no
ii) Uses twice bandwidth than bandwidth needed with single sideband transmission.
The two sidebands contain identical information, thus the carrier with no
information and one of the two sidebands can be suppressed leading to a single sideband
transmission. Single sideband transmission has many advantages.
i) Occupies less spectrum space.
ii) Low power requirement.
iii) Because SSB signals occupy a narrower bandwidth , the amount of noise in the signal
is reduced.
iv) There is less selective fading of an SSB signal over long distances.
Disadvantages of DSB and SSB
i) They are harder to recover or modulate at the receiver. Demodulation depends upon
the carrier being present. If the carrier is not present , then it must be regenerated
at the receiver and reinserted into the signal. To faithfully recover the intelligence

signal , the reinserted carrier must have the same phase and frequency as those of
the original carrier. This is a difficult requirement.
ii) When SSB is used for voice transmission, the reinserted carrier can be made variable
in frequency so that it can be adjusted manually while listening to recover an
intelligible signal. This is not possible with some kinds of data signals.
iii) Cost of SSB receivers are higher than that of Double side band signal receivers.
iv) SSB receivers requires several precise frequency control settings to minimize
distortions and may require continuous adjustments during the use of the system .
This can be overcome by the use of automatic frequency control circuits. But this
makes the s/m more complex.

Different types of sideband communication systems and conventional AM are

compared by using frequency spectra and relative power.
i) Conventional double sideband full carrier AM(DSBFC)
ii) Double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC)AM
iii) Single sideband full carrier (SSBFC)
It is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is transmitted at fall power but
only one of the sidebands is transmitted. Therefore SSBFC transmissions require only half as
much bandwidth as conventional double sideband AM.
With 100% modulation, the carrier power Pc constitutes four-fifth(80%) of the total
transmitted power Pt and only one-fifth(20%) of the total power in the sideband. For

conventional double sideband AM with 100% modulation, two thirds (67%) of the total
transmitted power is in the carrier and one third (33%) is in the sidebands. Therefore,
although SSBFC requires less total power, it actually utilizes a smaller % of that power for
the information carrying portion of the signal.
With single sideband transmission, there is only one sideband (either the upper or lower)
to add to the carrier. Therefore, the peak change in the envelope is only half of what it is with
double sideband transmission. Consequently, with single sideband full carrier transmission,
the demodulated signals have only half the amplitude of the double sideband demodulated
wave. Thus a trade off is made. SSBFC requires less bandwidth than DSBFC but also
produces demodulated signal with lower amplitude. When the bandwidth is halved and if one
sideband is removed, the power in the information portion of the wave is also halved.
Consequently, the signal to noise ratios for single and double sideband is the same.
Pt=Pc+ PUSB=Pc (1+m2/4)
iv)Single sideband suppressed carrier AM(SSBSC)
Pt= PUSB=m2PC/4
AM SSBSC is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is totally
suppressed and one of the sidebands removed. Therefore SSBSC requires half as much
bandwidth as conventional double sideband AM and considerably less transmitted power.
Here the sideband power makes up 100% of the total transmitted power.
From the above figure, we can see that the waveform is not an envelope; it is
simply a sine wave at single frequency equal to the carrier frequency plus the modulating
signal frequency depending on which sideband is transmitted.
v)AM Single sideband reduced carrier
It is a form of amplitude modulation in which sideband is totally
removed and the carrier voltage is reduced to approximately 10% of its unmodulated
amplitude. Consequently as much as 96% of the total power transmitted is in the
unsuppressed sideband. To produce a reduced carrier component , the carrier is totally
suppressed during modulation and then reinserted at a reduced amplitude. Therefore SSBRC
is sometimes called single sideband reinserted carrier. The reinserted carrier is often called a
pilot carrier and is reinserted for demodulation purposes.

As with double sideband, full carrier AM, the repetition rate of the
envelope is equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. To demodulate a reduced carrier
waveform with a conventional peak detector, the carrier must be separated, amplified and
then reinserted at a higher level in the receiver.
Pc=.01 Pc
Pt=Pc (.01+m2/4)
SSBRC requires half as much bandwidth as conventional AM and because the carrier is
transmitted at a reduced level, it also conserves considerable power.
vi) AM independent sideband(ISB)
ISB is a form of amplitude modulation in which a single carrier
frequency is independently modulated by two different modulating signals. It is a form of
double sideband transmission in which the transmitter consist of two independent single
sideband suppressed carrier modulators. One modulator produces only the upper sideband
and the produces only the lower sideband. For demodulation purposes, the carrier is generally
reinserted at a reduced level as with SSBRC transmission
ISB conserves both transmit power and bandwidth, as two information
sources are transmitted within the same frequency spectrum, as would be required by a single
source using conventional double sideband transmission.
vii) AM vestigial sideband(VSB)
From figure,
PUSB= m2Pc/4
Pt= Pc+ m2Pc/4+ PLSB
VSB is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one complete
sideband are transmitted, but only a part of second sideband is transmitted. The carrier is
transmitted at full power. In VSB, the lower modulating signal frequencies are transmitted
double sideband, and the higher modulating signal frequencies are transmitted single
sideband. Consequently, the lower frequencies can appreciate the benefit of 100%

modulation, whereas the higher frequencies cannot achieve more than the effect of 50%
modulation. Consequently, the low frequency modulated signals are emphasized and
produce larger amplitude signals in the demodulator than the high frequencies.
The major advantage of single sideband is bandwidth saving. Consider the
transmission of video signals. The bandwidth occupied by such signals is at least 4MHz. If
we are using DSBFC system, the transmitted bandwidth of 9MHz would be the minimum
requirement. The use of some form of SSB is clearly indicated to ensure spectrum
conservation. So as to simplify video demodulation in the receiver, the carrier is sent
undiminished. Because the phase response of the filter near the edges of the flat band pass,
would have a harmful effect on the received video signals in a TV receiver, a portion of the
lower sideband must also be transmitted. The result is VSB transmission.

The frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM)
which are both forms of angle modulation. Angle modulation has several advantages over
amplitude modulation, such as noise reduction, improved s/m fidelity and more efficient use
of power. The main disadvantage of angle modulation is it requires a wider bandwidth and
utilizing more complex circuits in both transmitters & receivers.
Angle modulation was first introduced in 1931 as an alternative
to amplitude modulation. Major E.H. Armstrong developed the first successful FM radio s/m
in 1936 and in July 1939, the first regularly scheduled broadcasting of FM signals began in
Alpine , New Jersy. Today angle modulation is used extensively for commercial radio
broadcasting, TV sound transmission, two way mobile radio, cellular radio, and microwave
and satellite communication systems.
Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle () of a
sinusoidal wave is varied with respect to time. The difference between frequency and phase
modulation lie in which property of the carrier is directly varied by the modulating signal and
which property is indirectly varied. Whenever the frequency of a carrier is varied, the phase
is also varied and vice versa. If the frequency of the carrier is varied directly in accordance
with the modulating signal, FM results. If the phase of the carrier is varied directly in
accordance with the modulating signal, PM results. Therefore direct FM is indirect PM and
direct PM is indirect FM.
Frequency Modulation (FM)

In frequency modulation, the frequency of a constant amplitude carrier is varied directly

proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the
modulating signal.
As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the carrier frequency increases. If the
amplitude of the modulating signal decreases, the carrier frequency decreases. The reverse
relationship can also be implemented. A decreasing modulating signal increases the carrier
frequency above its centre value, whereas an increasing modulating signal decreases the
carrier frequency below its centre value. As the modulating signal amplitude varies, the
carrier frequency varies above and below its normal centre or resting frequency with no
modulation. The amount of change in carrier frequency produced by the modulating signal is
known as the frequency deviation.
Deviation ratio = fdev(max)/fAF (max)
Modulation index = fdev/fAF

Information: vm(t) =Vmcoswmt

Carrier: vc(t) = Vcsin 2fc t

The FM wave can now be used to convey information about the modulating pattern in a
manner similar to the AM variations we examined in an earlier section. Note that unlike
an AM wave the FM wave doesn't have a single frequency value. This makes an FM wave
obviously different to an AM one. Instead, we can define two distinct quantities; its
unmodulated (i.e. carrier) frequency, and its modulated frequency, fsignal, which can
change from instant to instant. That is
wsignal = wC + k wC vm(t)
The instantaneous phase of the modulated wave at any instant can be obtained by integrating
the above equation
(t) = 2 fCt+2 kfc 0 t Vmcoswmt
From the definition of frequency deviation, an equation can be written for the signal
frequency of an FM wave as a function of time:
fsignal = fC + kfc 0 t vm(t) = fC + kfc0 t Vmcoswmt
and substitution of = kfcVmyields:
fsignal = fC + 0 t cosfmt
= fC+ /fm sinmt
We can also define a modulation index for FM, analogous to AM:
mf = /fm
Where fm is the maximum modulating frequency used.
= is as a measure of the peak frequency deviation.
VFM(t) = Vc sin(ct + mf sinmt).





Since it is in sine of sine the form of the FM wave can be expanded by using the Bessel

The frequency spectrum can be found by rewriting the above expression as a sum of
components of constant frequency using the properties of the Bessel Functions. This gives:V= Vc {Jo(m) sin(wct) + J1(m)[sin(wc + wm)t - sin( wc - wm)t] + J2(m)[sin(wc + 2wm)t + sin( wc

This expression implies that the FM spectrum consists of a component at wc and an infinite
number of lines at wc nwm and that the amplitude of the components is given by the Bessel
functions. Applet below shows a modulating signal in orange, the FM signal in red, the
frequency spectrum in green and how they vary with the frequency deviation, modulating
frequency and modulation index. J0 , J1 , J2 etc are Bessel coefficients.

A graph of the Bessel coefficients

There are an infinite number of sidebands. Thus the theoretical bandwidth of FM is infinite.

Band width calculation

J.R. Carson showed in the 1920's that a good approximation that for both very small and very
large mf,
BW = 2 (mf + 1) fm
Where mf is the modulation index and
fm is the maximum modulating frequency used.
The bandwidth of an FM signal has a more complicated dependency than in the AM case
(recall, the bandwidth of AM signals depend only on the maximum modulation frequency).
In FM, both the modulation index and the modulating frequency affect the bandwidth. As the
information is made stronger, the bandwidth also grows. Depending on the modulation index
chosen, the carrier and certain sideband frequencies may actually be suppressed. Zero
crossings of the Bessel functions, Jn(b), occur where the corresponding sideband, n,
disappears for a given modulation index, b. The composite spectrum for a single tone consists
of lines at the carrier and upper and lower sidebands (of opposite phase), with amplitudes
determined by the Bessel function values at those frequencies.
Comparison Between AM and FM

Amplitude Modulation

Frequncy modulation

Amplitude of carrier changes

Frequncy of carrier changes

Only two side bands

Infinte number of side bands

Band width requirment is less

Band width requirment is large

Band width is independent of mf

Band width is




As depth of modulation increases, the power

transmitted also increases

Power transmitted remains constant

Carrier component is constant

Change with the amplitude of side bands

AM is affected by noise signal

Amplitude limiters are used at FM

receivers in order to detect the noise. Also
by increasing deviation the noise can be

Sky wave transmission

Space wave transmission

Distance of transmission is more

Less due to Space wave transmission

Uses medium and high frequncy signal for


Uses very high and ultra high frequncy

signal for broadcasting

Simple equipments are used for transmission

and reception

Complicated equipments are used for

modulation and demodulation

Basic Principles of Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude modulation voltage is produced by a circuit that can multiply the carrier by
the modulating signal and then add the carrier. Product of the carrier and modulating
signal can be generated by applying both signals to a nonlinear component such as a
diode. Inter modulation products, third, fourth, and higher-order harmonics, are produced
by diodes and transistors. Tuned circuits filter out the modulating signal and carrier
harmonics, leaving only carrier and sidebands
AM Circuit Block Diagram

Square law circuit for producing AM

To produce AM, the carrier and modulating signals are added and applied to the
nonlinear device. A simple way to do this is to connect the carrier and modulating sources in
series and apply them to them to the diode circuit as shown above.
The voltage applied to the diode is,
v = v m + vc
The diode current in the resistor is,
i = a(vm + vc) + b(vm + vc)2
= a(vm + vc) + b(vc2 +2 vc vm +vm)
= a vcsinwct + a vmsinwmt+ bvc2/2 (1-cos2wct)+ bvmvc[ cos(wc-wm)t - cos(wc+wm)t]


1st term Carrier sine wave

2nd term Modulating signal, this is not a part of the AM wave. It is substantially lower
in frequency than the carrier, so it is easily filtered out
3rd term & 5th term second harmonic of the carrier and modulating wave respectively.
4th term upper & lower sidebands
If a parallel resonant circuit is substituted for the resistor in above figure, the
circuit is resonant at the carrier frequency and has a bandwidth wide enough to pass the
sidebands but narrow enough to filter out the modulating signal as well as the higher
harmonics of the carrier. The result is an AM wave across the tuned circuit.

Amplitude Modulators

There are two types of amplitude modulators. They are low-level and high-level modulators.

Low-level modulators generate AM with small signals and must be amplified

before transmission.

High-level modulators produce AM at high power levels, usually in the final

amplifier stage of a transmitter.

The different types of modulator circuits are

Diode modulator

Transistor modulator

PIN Diode Modulator

Differential Amplifier Modulator

1) Diode Modulator

It consists of a resistive mixing network, a diode rectifier and an LC tuned circuit. The
carrier is applied to one input resistor and the modulating signal to the other. The mixed
signals appear across R3. This network causes the two signals to be linearly mixed. But
modulation is a multiplication process, not an addition process. The composite
waveform is applied to the diode rectifier. The diode is connected so that it is forward

biased by the positive going half cycles of the input wave. During the negative portions
of the wave, the diode is cut off and no signal passes. The current through the diode is a
series of positive going pulses whose amplitude varies in proportion to the amplitude of
the modulating signal.
These positive going pulses are applied to the parallel tuned circuit made up of L & C,
which are resonant at the carrier frequency. Each time the diode conducts, a pulse of current
flows through the tuned circuit. The coil and capacitor repeatedly exchange energy, causing
an oscillation at the resonant frequency. The oscillation of the tuned circuit creates one
negative half cycle for every positive input pulse. High amplitude positive pulses cause the
tuned circuit to produce high amplitude negative pulses. Low amplitude positive pulses
produce corresponding low amplitude negative pulses. The resulting waveform across the
tuned circuit is an AM signal.
Transistor modulation consists of a resistive mixing network, a transistor, and an LC
tuned circuit. The emitter-base junction of the transistor serves as a diode and nonlinear
device. Modulation and amplification occur as base current controls a larger collector current.
The LC tuned circuit oscillates (rings) to generate the missing half cycle.
AM with a Simple Transistor

Single Transistor Emitter Modulator

A small signal Class A amplifier can be used to perform amplitude modulation. The
amplifier must have two inputs: one for the carrier signal and the second for the modulating
signal. With no modulating signal, the circuit operates as a linear classA amplifier and the
output is simply the carrier amplified by the quiescent voltage gain. When the modulating
signal is applied, the amplifier operates nonlinearly and signal multiplication occurs. In the
above circuit, the carrier is applied to the base and the modulating signal to the emitter.
Therefore the circuit configuration is called emitter modulation.
The modulating signal varies the gain of the amplifier at a sinusoidal rate equal to the
frequency of the modulating signal. The depth of modulation achieved is proportional to the
amplitude of the modulating signal. The voltage gain of an emitter modulator is expressed
Av = Aq [1+msinwmt]
Av = amplifier voltage gain with modulation
Aq = amplifier quiescent voltage gain
sinwmt goes from a maximum value of +1 to a minimum value of -1
Av = Aq [1m] where m equals the modulation coefficient.
The modulating signal is applied through isolation transformer to the emitter of Q1 and the
carrier is applied directly to the base. The modulating signal drives the circuit into both

saturation and cut off, thus producing the nonlinear amplification necessary for modulation to
occur. The collector waveforms include the carrier and the upper and lower side frequencies
as well as a component at the modulating. The signal frequency from the AM waveform, thus
producing a symmetrical AM envelope at output.
With emitter modulation, the amplitude of the amplitude of the output signal depends
on the amplitude of the input carrier and the voltage gain of the amplifier. The coefficient of
modulation depends entirely on the amplitude of the modulating signal.
The primary disadvantage of emitter modulation is the amplifier operates class A,
which is extremely inefficient. Emitter modulators are also incapable of producing high
power output waveforms.

High-Level AM
In high-level modulation, the modulator varies the voltage and power in the final RF
amplifier stage of the transmitter. The result is high efficiency in the RF amplifier and overall
high-quality performance.
High-level modulators include:
i) Collector modulator
ii) Series modulator
Collector Modulator
The collector modulator is a linear power amplifier. Low level modulating signals are
amplified to a high-power level. A modulating output signal is coupled through a
modulation transformer to a class C amplifier. The secondary winding of the
modulation transformer is connected in series with the collector supply voltage of the
class C amplifier.

High-Level Collector Modulator

The output stage of the transmitter is a high power class C amplifier. Class C
amplifiers conduct for only a portion of the positive half cycles of their input signals. The
collector current pulses cause the tuned circuit to oscillate at the desired output frequency.
The tuned circuit therefore reproduces the negative portion of the carrier signal. The
modulator is a power amplifier that takes the low level modulating signal and amplifies it to a
high power level. The modulating signal is coupled through modulation transformer to the
class C amplifier. The secondary winding of the modulation transformer is connected in
series with the collector supply voltage Vcc of the class C amplifier. With no modulating
signal, the Vcc is directly applied to the amplifier and the output carrier is a steady sine wave.
When the modulating signal is applied, the ac voltage of the modulating signal across the
secondary of the transformer is added to and subtracted from the collector supply voltage.
This varying supply voltage is then applied to the class C amplifier, causing the amplitude of
the carrier pulses through s transistor to vary. As a result, the amplitude of the carrier wave
varies in accordance with the modulating signal.
Amplitude Demodulators
Demodulators, or detectors, are circuits that accept modulated signals and recover the original
modulating information. Types include:
Diode detector
Synchronous detector
Diode Detector AM Demodulator

Diode Detector
On positive alternations of the AM signal, the capacitor charges quickly to the
peak value of pulses passed by the diode. When the pulse voltage drops to zero, the
capacitor discharges into the resistor. The time constant of the capacitor and resistor is
long compared to the period of the carrier. The capacitor discharges only slightly
when the diode is not conducting. The resulting waveform across the capacitor is a
close approximation to the original modulating signal. Because the diode detector
recovers the envelope of the AM (modulating) signal, the circuit is sometimes called
an envelope detector. If the RC time constant in a diode detector is too long, the
capacitor discharge will be too slow to follow faster changes in the modulating signal.
This is referred to as diagonal distortion.
Synchronous Detection
Synchronous detectors use an internal clock signal at the carrier frequency in the
receiver to switch the AM signal off and on, producing rectification similar to that in a
standard diode detector.

Balanced Modulator

A balanced modulator is a circuit that generates a DSB signal,

suppressing the carrier and leaving only the sum and difference frequencies at
the output. The output of a balanced modulator can be further processed by
filters or phase-shifting circuitry to eliminate one of the sidebands, resulting in
a SSB signal. The output of a balanced modulator can be further processed by
filters or phase-shifting circuitry to eliminate one of the sidebands, resulting in
a SSB signal.
Types of balanced modulators include lattice, 1496 IC, and the analog
Lattice Modulator

A popular and widely used balanced modulator is the diode ring or
lattice modulator. The lattice modulator consists of an input transformer, an
output transformer and four diodes connected in a bridge circuit. The carrier
signal is applied to the center taps of the input and output transformers. The
modulating signal is applied to the input transformer. The output appears
across the output transformer.

Operation of the Lattice Modulator

The carrier sine wave is considerably higher in frequency and amplitude than the
modulating signal. The carrier sine wave is used as a source of forward and reverse
bias for the diodes. The carrier turns the diodes off and on at a high rate of speed. The
diodes act like switches that connect the modulating signal at the secondary of T1 to
the primary of T2.

Single Sideband Circuits

Two methods of generating single sideband (SSB) signals are:
i)Filter method
ii) Phasing method
Generating SSB Signals: The Filter Method

The filter method is the simplest and most widely used. The filter method uses a
special modulator known as a balanced modulator to generate an AM signal that has
both sidebands and no carrier. This type of AM is known as double sideband
suppressed carrier, or DSB. Then the DSB signal is passed through a filter that
removes the unnecessary sideband. The modulating signal is applied to the audio
amplifier. The amplifiers output is fed to one input of a balanced modulator. A
crystal oscillator provides the carrier signal which is also applied to the balanced
modulator. The output of the balanced modulator is DSB. An SSB signal is produced
by passing the DSB signal through a highly selective band pass filter.

Generating SSB Signals: Phasing Method

The phasing method of SSB generation uses a phase-shift technique that causes one of
the sidebands to be canceled out. The phasing method uses two balanced modulators
which eliminate the carrier. The carrier oscillator is applied to the upper balanced

modulator along with the modulating signal. The carrier and modulating signals are
both shifted in phase by 90 degrees and applied to another balanced modulator. Phaseshifting causes one sideband to be canceled out when the two modulator outputs are
added together.


Whenever we try to make accurate measurements we discover that the quantities we
are observing appear to fluctuate randomly by a small amount. This limits our ability
to make quick, accurate measurements and ensures that the amount of information we
can collect or communicate is always finite. These random fluctuations are called
Noise. They arise because the real world behaves in a quantised or lumpy fashion.
(e.g. by photons in optonics systems).
Johnson noise
In 1927 J. B. Johnson observed random fluctuations in the voltages across electrical
resistors. A year later H. Nyquist published a theoretical analysis of this noise which
is thermal in origin. Hence this type of noise is variously called Johnson noise,
Nyquist noise, or Thermal noise.
A resistor consists of a piece of conductive material with two electrical contacts. In
order to conduct electricity the material must contain some charges which are free to
move. We can therefore treat it as box of material which contains some mobile
electrons (charges) which move around, interacting with each other and with the
atoms of the material. At any non-zero temperature we can think of the moving
charges as a sort of Electron Gas trapped inside the resistor box. The electrons move
about in a randomised way similar to Brownian motion bouncing and scattering
off one another and the atoms. At any particular instant there may be more electrons
near one end of the box than the other. This means there will be a difference in
electric potential between the ends of the box (i.e. the non-uniform charge distribution
produces a voltage across the resistor). As the distribution fluctuates from instant to
instant the resulting voltage will also vary unpredictably.

The histogram will approximately fit what's called a Normal (or Gaussian)
distribution of the form

(Note that you'll only get these results if you make lots of readings. One or two
measurements won't show a nice Gaussian plot with its centre at zero!) The value of
which fits the observed distribution indicates how wide the distribution is, hence it's
a useful measure of the amount of noise.
The value is useful for theoretical reasons since the probability distribution is
Gaussian. In practice, however, it is more common to specify a noise level in terms of
an rms or root-mean-square quantity. Here we can imagine making a series of m
voltage measurements,
, of the fluctuating voltage. We can then
calculate the rms voltage level which can be defined as

In general in these pages we can simplify things by using the angle brackets,
indicate an averaged quantity. Using this notation expression 3.2 becomes

, to

Since will be positive when

and when
we can expect
to always
be positive whenever the Gaussian noise distribution has a width greater than zero.
The wider the distribution, the larger the rms voltage level. Hence, unlike the mean
voltage, the rms voltage is a useful indicator of the noise level. The rms voltage is of
particular usefulness in practical situations because the amount of power associated
with a given voltage varies in proportion with the voltage squared. Hence the average
power level of some noise fluctuations can be expected to be proportional to

Since thermal noise comes from thermal motions of the electrons we can only get rid
of it by cooling the resistor down to absolute zero. More generally, we can expect the
thermal noise level to vary in proportion with the temperature.
Shot noise
Many forms of random process produce Gaussian/Normal noise. Johnson noise occurs
in all systems which aren't at absolute zero, hence it can't be avoided in normal
electronics. Another form of noise which is, in practice, unavoidable is Shot Noise. As
with thermal noise, this arises because of the quantisation of electrical charge.

Imagine a current flowing along a wire. In reality the current is actually composed of
a stream of carriers, the charge on each being q, the electronic charge (16 10
Coulombs). To define the current we can imagine a surface through which the wire
passes and count the number of charges, n, which cross the surface in a time, t. The
current, i, observed during each interval will then simply be given by

Now the moving charges will not be aligned in a precise pattern, crossing the surface
at regular intervals. Instead, each carrier will have its own random velocity and
separation from its neighbours. When we repeatedly count the number of carriers
passing in a series of m successive time intervals of equal duration, t, we find that the
counts will fluctuate randomly from one interval to the next. Using these counts we
can say that the typical (average) number of charges seen passing during each time t is

where is the number observed during the j th interval. The mean current flow
observed during the whole time,
, will therefore be

During any specific time interval the observed current will be

which will generally differ from I by an unpredictable amount. The effect of these
variations is therefore to make it appear that there is a randomly fluctuating noise
current superimposed on the nominally steady current, I. The size of the current
, during each time period can be defined in terms of the variation in
the numbers of charges passing in the period,
, i.e. we can say that

As with Johnson noise, we can make a large number of counts and determine the
magnitude of the noise by making a statistical analysis of the results. Once again we

find that the resulting values have a Normal distribution. By definition we can expect
is arranged to be the value which makes this true). Hence, as
with Johnson noise, we should use the mean-squared variation, not the mean
variation, as a measure of the amount of noise. In this case, taking many counts and
performing a statistical analysis, we find that

Note that as with the statement that thermal noise and shot noise exhibit Gaussian
probability density distributions this result is based on experiment. We will not
take any interest in why these results are correct. It is enough for our purposes to take
it as an experimentally verified fact that these statements are true. Combining the
above expressions we can link the magnitude of the current fluctuations to the mean
current level and say that

Hence we find that the rms size of the random current fluctuations is approximately
proportional to the average current. Since some current and voltage is always
necessary to carry a signal this noise is unavoidable (unless there's no signal) although
we can reduce its level by reducing the magnitude of the signal current.
Up to now we've looked at the statistical properties of noise in terms of its overall rms
level and probability density function.

The rms fluctuations imply that the (imaginary) noise generator produces an average

where: k is Boltzmann's Constant (=138 10 Ws/K); T is the resistor's

temperature in Kelvin; R is it's resistance in Ohms; and B is the bandwidth (in Hz)
over which the noise voltage is observed. (Note that, as with the earlier statements
about Normal Distribution, etc, this result is not being proved, but given as a matter of
experimental fact.) In practice, the amplifier and all the other items in the circuit will
also generate some noise. For now, however, we will assume that the amount of noise
produced by R is large enough to swamp any other sources of random fluctuations.

Applying Ohm's law to figure 3.3 we can say that the current entering the amplifier
(i.e. flowing through
) must be

The corresponding voltage seen at the amp's input (across

) will be

hence the mean noise power entering the amplifier will be

For a given resistor, R, we can maximise this by arranging that

obtain the Maximum Available Noise Power,

when we

This represents the highest thermal noise power we can get to enter the amplifier's
input terminals from the resistor. To achieve this we have to match (i.e. equalise) the
source and amplifier input resistances. From this result we can see that the maximum
available noise power does not depend upon the value of the resistor whose noise
output we are examining.
The Noise Power Spectral Density (NPSD) at any frequency is defined as the noise
power in a 1 Hz bandwidth at that frequency. Putting
into eqn 3.15 we can see
that Johnson noise has a maximum available NPSD of just
i.e. it only depends
upon the absolute temperature and the value of Boltzmann's constant. This means that
Johnson noise has an NPSD which doesn't depend upon the fluctuation frequency.
The same result is true of shot noise and many other forms of noise. Noise which has
this character is said to be White since we the see the same power level in a fixed
bandwidth at every frequency.
Strictly speaking, no power spectrum can be truly white over an infinite frequency
range. This is because the total power, integrated over the whole frequency range,
would be infinite! (Except, of course, for the trivial example of a NPSD of zero.) In

any real situation, the noise generating processes will be subject to some inherent
mechanism which produces a finite noise bandwidth. In practice, most systems we
devise to observe noise fluctuations will only be able to respond to a range of
frequencies which is much smaller than the actual bandwidth of the noise being
generated. This in itself will limit any measured value for the total noise power. Hence
for most purposes we can consider thermal and shot noise as white over any
frequency range of interest. However the NPSD does fall away at extremely high
frequencies, and this ensures that the total noise power is always finite.
It is also worth noting that electronic noise levels are often quoted in units of Volts
per root Hertz or Amps per root Hertz. In practice, because noise levels are or
should be! low, the actual units may be nV/
or pA/
. These figures are
sometimes referred to as the NPSD. This is because most measurement instruments
are normally calibrated in terms of a voltage or current. For white noise we can expect
the total noise level to be proportional to the measurement bandwidth. The odd units
of NPSD's quoted per root Hertz serve as a reminder that since power

volts (or

current ) a noise level specified as an rms voltage or current will increase with the
square root of the measurement bandwidth.
Other sorts of noise
A wide variety of physical processes produce noise. Some of these are similar to
Johnson and shot noise in producing a flat noise spectrum. In other cases the noise
level produced can be strongly frequency dependent. Here we will only briefly
consider the most common form of frequency-dependent noise:
noise. Unlike
Johnson or shot noise which depend upon simple physical parameters (the
temperature and current level respectively)

noise is strongly dependent upon the

details of the particular system. In fact the term '

noise' covers a number of noise
generating processes, some of which are poorly understood. For this form of noise the
, varies with frequency approximately as

where the value of the index, n, is typically around 1 but varies from case to case over
the range,

As well as being widespread in electronic devices, random variations with a

spectrum appear in processes as diverse as the traffic flow in and out of Tokyo and the
radio emissions from distant galaxies! In recent years the subject of
noise has
taken on a new interest as it appears that some Chaotic systems may produce this
form of unpredictable fluctuations.
White Noise
Just as white light includes power at all colors, noise that has its power evenly
distributed over all RF and microwave frequencies is called white. The power spectral
density of white noise is constant over frequency, which implies that noise power is
proportional to bandwidth. So if the measurement
bandwidth is doubled, the detected noise power will double (an increase of 3 dB).
Thermal white
noise power is defined by: N=kTB, where N is the noise power available at the output of
the thermal
noise source, k = 1.380 x 10 -23 J/K is Boltzmann's constant, T is the temperature, and B is
the noise

Gaussian Noise

Thermal noise is also characterized by having a Gaussian amplitude distribution and is

referred to as white Gaussian noise. Note that Gaussian noise does not have to be white
and white
noise does not have to be Gaussian. All of the products in this catalog produce white
Gaussian noise. Noise level can be expressed in units of dBm/Hz, V/Hz or Excess Noise
Ratio (ENR).
Table 1 contains formulas for conversion between these units.

Noise temperature, Noise Figure and Noise Factor

The basic formula are:

Noise temperature (T) = 290 * (10^(Noise Figure/10)-1)

Noise Figure (NF) = 10 * log (Noise factor)


Note that log must be to base 10. When using calculators and spreadsheets make sure that base 10 is
selected. As a test, 10 * log(2) should give an answer of +3 dB. Noise temperature is measured in units
called Kelvin (K) and these are like Celsius (C) temperature degrees but start at zero for absolute zero
temperature so

= -273 deg C

273 K = 0 deg C (ice melts)

290 K = 17 deg C (ambient temperature of a waveguide, for example)
Table to convert Noise Figure (NF) to Noise Temperature (T). This is useful for working out LNA or LNB
noise temperatures from advertised Noise Figures.


T (K)


T (K)


T (K)


T (K)
















































































Procedure for adding up noise temperatures for antenna, waveguide, LNA, cable and indoor receiver in
System noise temperature (T system) is referred to the input of the LNA.
Antenna noise temperature is referenced to the flange specified by the manufacturer.
The calculations below assume you add some length of waveguide between the above flange and the
The noise temperature of the LNA refers to the input of the LNA.
The noise temperature of the cable after the LNA refers to the input of the cable.
The noise temperature of the receiver refers to the input of the receiver.
You need to convert gains in dB to numbers.

Number = 10 ^(dB/10)

T system = Noise contribution from antenna = Antenna noise temp * waveguide gain
+ noise contribution of the waveguide = 290 * (1-waveguide gain)
+ noise contribution of the LNA = the LNA noise temp
+ noise contribution of the cable = cable noise temp / LNA gain
+ noise contribution of the indoor receiver = indoor receiver input noise temp / (LNA gain *
cable gain)
Example: Antenna noise temperature = 35 K (mainly ground pick up noise)
Waveguide feeder gain = -0.25 dB (0.944), temperature = 290K
LNA gain = 50 dB (100000), input noise temperature = 75 K
Cable loss or attenuation = 20 dB or cable gain = -20 dB (0.01)
Cable noise temp= 290 K
Indoor receiver noise figure = 9 dB
Indoor receiver input noise temperature = 290 * (10^(9/10)-1) = 2013.5519 K

Tsystem = 35 * 0.944 = 33
Noise contribution of the antenna
+ 290 ( 1 - 0.944) = 16
Noise contribution of the waveguide
+ 75
Noise contribution of the LNA
+ 290/100000 = 0.0029
Noise contribution of the cable *
+ 2013.5519/(100000 * 0.01) = 2.0135519
Noise contribution of the indoor receiver
= 126.0164519 K
* The spurious precision in the above lines is to help resolve discrepancies in the last two calculations.
Different calculation methods give slightly different results. 25 March 2007. More ideas welcome please
on the controversial cable noise contribution calculations.
Note that LNA noise temperature, the antenna noise temperature and waveguide loss are the main
To calculate the G/T of a receive system :
temperature T ).

G/T = Receive gain in dBi - 10 log ( system noise


Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR), caused by components in a radio frequency (RF) signal chain. It is a number by which
the performance of a radio receiver can be specified.
The noise factor is defined as the ratio of the output noise power of a device to the portion
thereof attributable to thermal noise in the input termination at standard noise temperature T0
(usually 290 K). The noise factor is thus the ratio of actual output noise to that which would
remain if the device itself did not introduce noise, or the ratio of input SNR to output SNR.
The noise figure is simply the noise factor expressed in decibels (dB).


The noise figure is the difference in decibels (dB) between the noise output of the actual receiver
to the noise output of an ideal receiver with the same overall gain and bandwidth when the
receivers are connected to matched sources at the standard noise temperature T0 (usually 290 K).
The noise power from a simple load is equal to k T B, where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is the
absolute temperature of the load (for example a resistor), and B is the measurement bandwidth.
This makes the noise figure a useful figure of merit for terrestrial systems where the antenna
effective temperature is usually near the standard 290 K. In this case, one receiver with a noise
figure say 2 dB better than another, will have an output signal to noise ratio that is about 2 dB
better than the other. However, in the case of satellite communications systems, where the
receiver antenna is pointed out into cold space, the antenna effective temperature is often colder
than 290 K.[2] In these cases a 2 dB improvement in receiver noise figure will result in more than
a 2 dB improvement in the output signal to noise ratio. For this reason, the related figure of

effective noise temperature is therefore often used instead of the noise figure for characterizing
satellite-communication receivers and low noise amplifiers.
In heterodyne systems, output noise power includes spurious contributions from imagefrequency transformation, but the portion attributable to thermal noise in the input termination at
standard noise temperature includes only that which appears in the output via the principal
frequency transformation of the system and excludes that which appears via the image frequency

The noise factor F of a system is defined as:

where SNRin and SNRout are the input and output signal-to-noise ratios, respectively. The SNR
quantities are power ratios. The noise figure NF is defined as:

where SNRin, dB and SNRout, dB are in decibels (dB). The noise figure is the noise factor, given in

These formulae are only valid when the input termination is at standard noise temperature T0,
although in practice small differences in temperature do not significantly affect the values.
The noise factor of a device is related to its noise temperature Te:[4]

Attenuators have a noise factor F equal to their attenuation ratio L when their physical
temperature equals T0. More generally, for an attenuator at a physical temperature T, the noise
temperature is

, giving a noise factor of:

If several devices are cascaded, the total noise factor can be found with Friis' Formula:[5]

where Fn is the noise factor for the n-th device and Gn is the power gain (linear, not in dB) of the
n-th device. In a well designed receive chain, only the noise factor of the first amplifier should be


To make a telephone call, one simply picks up the handset, enters a number, and waits for the system to
perform its magic:

Lifting the handset from its cradle releases a hook switch and causes a dc current to flow (20 120 ma). The central office monitors this loop current and interprets it as a request for service.

The office acknowledges the request for service by sending dial tone. This normally occurs in less
time than it takes to pickup the handset and place it to the ear. Once dial tone has been received,
the subscriber starts to dial.

In the past, when dialing, a rotary dial switch opened and closed the loop in a predetermined
manner. If one was very coordinated, it was possible to perform the same task by flashing the
hook switch. To assure the customer that the system is responding, dial tone is removed once
dialing starts. In most systems today DTMF (dual tone multi frequency) signaling is used How
Telephones Work

Depending upon the office type and digits received, a number of things might happen. In most
cases, end-users are attached to what is called a class 5 or end-office. These are the most
common types of telephone exchanges. Each class 5 office has one or more, three digit exchange
numbers. These are the first three digits in an ordinary 7-digit telephone number.

If the central office includes the customer dialed exchange number, it will know that the call is
local and the other party is connected to the same office. The office will therefor control the entire
call setup and takedown.

If the first three digits do not correspond to an exchange handled by the end-office, it will have to
find a trunk line to an office that can handle the call. This means that each office must know the
exchange numbers of all the offices within its calling area, and how to get to them. The call setup
and takedown will therefor be shared between the two exchanges. They must monitor the call in
progress and inform each other of any change in call status.

If the first digit dialed is a one, the office will recognize this as a long distance call, and will start
looking for a spare toll trunk. A toll office has a greater knowledge base as to where distant
exchanges are located and how to get to them.

The telephone system must be intelligent enough to recognize that in a local call, only seven digits
are usually required. Some very small exchanges however, allow local calls by omitting the
exchange number and using only the last 4 digits or extension number. In large urban areas, it
may be necessary to prefix local calls with a 3-digit area code. An international call may require up
to 16 digits.

Once the entire number has been received, the office at each end of the connection must alert
both parties as to what is happening. At the originating end, a ringing tone is sent to the speaker
in the handset. At the terminating end, the office is generating a much larger ringing voltage to
activate a bell.

The far-end-office monitors the line to determine if someone answers the ringing phone. This is
done by examining the DC current drawn when the far-end customer lifts the handset, inducing
loop current through the hook switch. The far-end-office must then disconnect the ringing before
the handset reaches the ear, and signals back to the originating office that someone has picked
up the phone. The origination office must then disconnect the ring back tone and complete the
voice connection.

Both end-offices monitor their respective loop currents during the entire call to determine if one
party hangs up. Once this happens, one end-office signals the other, and dial tone is placed on
the loop. This alerts the remaining party that the connection has been terminated.

If the line is in use, the central office will not set up the connection and return a busy tone to the
originator. By doing this switching, call processing, and transmission resources are not being tied
up unnecessarily. However, there are a number of options such as call forwarding and call waiting
which modify this process.

With call forwarding, a call to a busy number is routed to an answering service. With call waiting,
the calling party hears a ringing tone, and the called party hears a beep, which they can either
ignore or signal back to the office that the new call should be given priority over the existing call. If
however, the call cannot be completed because the system itself is too busy, it returns a fast busy
tone to the originator.

In a touch-tone environment, the same procedure is followed, except that tones are used to
convey numbers to the local office instead of interrupting loop current. Some calling features,
generally known as CLASS (Custom Local Area Signaling Services) , are available in areas with
touch-tone service.

The telephone line goes to a terminal block in a service area interface. These are often located on a pole
or small enclosure on the street. The service area interface bundles the subscriber drop cables into a
single larger cable. These are in turn gathered together to form larger feeder cables. The entire wiring
system somewhat resembles a huge tree.
Cables coming out of a central office may have hundreds or even thousands of pairs bundled together
however by the time the cable gets to the end user, it is generally down to about 50 pairs. An individual
subscriber consists of many cable sections spliced together. Bellcore claims that the average U.S.
subscriber line has twenty-two splices.
The horizontal side of the MDF, connects the incoming telephone lines to the peripheral equipment. All that
is required to connect a line appearance to a specific interface is to place a jumper between the vertical
and horizontal sides of the MDF.
Signals coming from an end-user are generally analog in nature. Consequently, the peripheral equipment
converts the signals to digital form before passing them on to the rest of the network. Incoming trunks from
other central offices are comprised of specialized carrier systems. They may be either analog or digital, but
all new systems are strictly digital.
Most end-user voice & data interfaces are multiplexed on to high-speed paths, which pass through the
internal switching, network before being routed to outgoing lines or trunks. Incoming digital carrier systems
may be accepted directly into the switching network through a cross-connect or may be demultiplexed prior
to switching.


Historically the telephone network was composed of a hierarchical structure consisting of 5 different office
types. The most common of these is the class 5 end-office. An end-office connects directly to subscriber
telephone sets and performs switching functions over a relatively small area. Telephone exchanges connect to

subscribers by means of local loops or lines, generally one per customer. Telephone offices connect to each
other by means of trunks.
A class 5 or end-office interconnects telephones throughout a small service area. Each end-office may contain
several three-digit exchange numbers and is aware of other local exchange numbers held by other offices.
Calls between offices are routed over interoffice or tandem trunks. Long distance calls are routed to toll offices
via toll trunks. The average class 5 office serves approximately 41,000 subscribers, and covers 30 square km
in an urban environment.
Some nodes may have no customers at all, and may be connected only to other nodes. These inter-node or
trunk connections are usually made by FDM or TDM transmission links.


An exchange network consists of local and tandem exchanges connected by trunks. A tandem office
interconnects class 5 offices by means of twisted pair, coax, microwave, or fiber optic carriers. Alternate routing
paths between local exchanges are provided if the direct trunks are occupied.

Long Haul Network

A long haul network consists of exchanges interconnected by toll offices. Toll offices keep track of long
distance charges and are typically confined to national boundaries. These trunks consist of high capacity coax,
microwave, or glass fiber.
Messages used to control the call setup and takedown can be sent by two basic methods. Traditionally, interoffice messages are sent over the same channel that will carry the voice path, but in newer systems, common
channel signaling is being employed. In this method, the offices have dedicated facilities, which are used to
send inter-office messages. There are some advantages to this, perhaps the notable being the added degree
of difficulty encountered if one wants to defraud the system. When in-band signaling was used, it was possible
for people to dial long distance calls without being charged, if they created the tones used to disable the toll

Trunks are used to interconnect the various levels of telephone exchanges. It is necessary for these links to
exchange on a wide range of information including:
Call related signaling messages
Billing information
Routing and flow control signals
Maintenance test signals
There are two ways for telephone offices to communicate with each other and pass on routing information.
Information can be conveyed in the same channel that will be used to convey the voice signal, or it may be
completely disassociated with it.

The CAS (Channel Associated Signaling) approach uses the voice channel to send information through a trunk.
For example, a 2600 Hz tone is used in interoffice trunks to signal on-hook. A major disadvantage of this
system is that subscribers can bypass toll centers by injecting the appropriate tones. One way to avoid this
problem is by using out-of- band signals on toll trunks. Since the customers signal must pass through an audio
anti-aliasing filter, it is not possible to inject the out-of-band signaling tone.

A principle advantage of in-channel signaling is that the integrity of the voice path is checked each time a
connection is established. Out-of-band signaling allows for continuous supervision of the connection throughout
the call.

The CCIS (Common Channel Interoffice Signaling) approach has the signaling information conveyed on a
facility completely separated from the customers voice path. This allows for a faster, more efficient control,
however the reliability of the CCS network must be considerably greater than that of the individual voice paths.
The signaling channel may follow the same route as the final connection path, or it may be completely
disassociated with it. STPs (Switch Transfer Point) are need in the network if the signaling path is
disassociated, thus effectively creating two networks: a speech network and a signaling network overlay.

Virtually all calls requiring tandem or toll office routing are established and controlled by the SS7 signaling
network.The SS7 signaling network is a packet switching facility comprised primarily of STPs (Signaling
Transfer Point) and SCPs (Service Control Point) connected to the PSTN SSP (Signal Switching Point). STPs
are deployed in pairs and are the brains of the system. They determ ine which trunks and offices should be
used in establishing inter-office connections.The SCP is a database that keeps track of such things as: credit
card authorization, virtual network subscriber listings, 800 number conversion tables, billing, and other special