Anda di halaman 1dari 54

Understanding

Science Process Skills

TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES

SPA JPN SARAWAK 2009

Ettin Lambat Guru Cemerlang Sains

Content

Page

1.

Introduction

2.

Chapter 1 Science Process Skills

2 - 22

4.

Chapter 2 Teaching and Learning Activities

23-35

Chapter 3 Self Assessment

36-51

Chapter 4 Question and Answering Technique

52-54

el sps

INTRODUCTION Science and teaching pupils about science means more than scientific knowledge. There are three dimensions of science that are equally important. The basic concept The processes of doing science The Scientific attitude and noble values

The processes of doing science are the science process skills that Scientist used in the process of doing science. Since science is about asking questions and finding answers to questions, these are actually the same skills that we all use in our daily lives as we try to figure out everyday questions. When we teach pupils to use these skills in science, we are also teaching them skills that they will use in future in every area of their lives.

Pupils and Science Process Skills. According to Piaget, pupils in the early stage of primary school are at the concrete operational stage while the Formal operational stage started to develop when the children are at the end of their primary education. The following basic Science Process Skills can be fostered relevant with their early stages of cognitive development. Observation Communication Classification Measuring using numbers Inference Prediction Using space and time relationship

However the integrated Science Process Skill can be introduced at in the higher stages of development. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. These include; Data interpretation Controlling variables Defining operationally Formulating hypothesis Experiment

el sps

The Science Process Skills in the teaching and learning Science In order to acquire the skill effectively, the method of teaching Science stress on more hands-on activities. The pupils are encouraged to carry out different types of activities. These help to enhance those skills. The Science process skills are not a collection of rules but it is considered as ways to find the solution to the problems. The method of teaching and learning should visualize this principle. Teachers Involvement Teachers responsibility is to decide relevant experiences to suit different stages of pupils cognitive development. Then teachers are to plan different activities to present their lesson effectively and encourage creative thinking among the pupils. This module provides teachers with ideas about Science Process Skills and different types of suggested teaching and learning activities to acquire the skills. We think that method-based, hands-on investigative activities should be a significant component of science teaching, at the same level as hands-on content-based activities. .

el sps

CHAPTER 1 A. BASIC SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS 1. Observation Observation is a process to collect information about object and phenomena using all our five senses. Instrument can also be used to help all our senses. Qualitative observation Only senses are to be used Quantitative observation More accurate information is obtained by differentiating, using measurement, estimating or using instruments. Observing changes The physical and chemical changes are observed in any phenomena.

Activity: 1.1 Teachers may ask the pupils to observe any object and teach them to list out their observation. eg leaf of a plant.

1.2 Quantitative observation

Qualitative Observation 1. 2. Observation 3. 4. Quantitative Observation 1. Observation 2 3. 4.

Shapes Colour structure

Length Size

el sps

1.3. Observing the physical and chemical changes of an object Put an ice cube in a glass of water. List out the changes (during and after)

Qualitative observation 1. During 2. 3 Quantitative observation 1. After 2. 3

el sps

2. Classification Sorting or grouping object or phenomena into groups based on our observation. Grouping objects or events is a way of imposing order based on similarities, differences and interrelationship. Activity: Classifying living things

Living Things

__________

__________

_____________ _____________ ____________

_____________

el sps

3. Measuring using numbers This skill is a quantitative observation using reference unit or standard unit. It is important to use numbers because it enabled us to: Activities: Measure the length of each object and record them in the table provided. Use measurement tool for accuracy. Estimate the distance, area, volume in a situation needed. Predict and making inference more accurate. Enhance accurate calculation.

Object

Estimate length (cm)

Actual length (cm)

el sps

4. Inference Inferences are explanation or interpretation that follows from observation about object, event or phenomena. Inference can be true or false. Inference is important because it enable us to; Make initial explanation for an observation. Form hypothesis to investigate. Using the evidence to make initial explanation. Activities: State one inference based on the observation. 4.1 Condition of a plant placed inside the room.

a. b.

Observation: Inference :

4.2 Condition of a fish after some cooking oil is put in the container.

a. Observation: b. Inference :

4.3

The table shows the water temperature after being heated for 15 minutes. Minute Water Temperature (oC) 0 30 5 50 10 70 15 90

a. Observation: b. Inference el sps : 10

5. Prediction Prediction is making educated guesses about the outcomes of future event based on observation and experiences or reliable data. Prediction is not just a guess! Predictions is based on our inference or a hypotheses about events that give us a way to test them. Activities: 5.1 Predict the number of paper clips that can be attracted by the bar magnets.

5.2 Fatimah investigated the swings of the pendulum. She found out that the time taken for 10 swings is changed as she changed the length of the pendulum. The result is shown in the table below

Length of pendulum (cm) 15 20 40 60

Time for 10 swings (sec) 8 10 13 17

Predict the time taken for 10 swings if the length of the pendulum are 10cm, 30cm and 70 cm. ..

el sps

11

5.3 Situational Prediction

P Q What will happen to the balsam plants in P and Q after 1 month? ..

6. Using space and time relationship This skill describes an object position, location, direction, size and shape of object and its changes according to time. Activities: 6.1 Light a candle. Measure the time and the length of the candle?

Time (min) 2 4 6 8 10

ruler

Length of the Candle (cm/ 10 8 6 5 3

What happen to the length of the candle when the time increase?

el sps

12

6.2 Prepared the apparatus as shown in the diagram to observe the changes on an ice cube. The water from the melting ice is measured with a measuring cylinder every 5 minutes. The result is shown in the table.

Ice cube

Measuring cylinder

Time (min) 0 5 10 15 20

Volume of water (ml) 0 18 20 25 35

What will happen to the size of the ice when the time increase?

el sps

13

7. Communicating Communicating is a process to transmit and sharing information or ideas with others. There are various form of communication in science. The information can be presented through diagram, reports, tables, graphs symbols or verbal communication. The diagram below shows different way to provide information Height Week Height of the plant(cm) 5 10 15

1 2 3

plants

Communication are ways to present ideas using; Drawing Witten oral Table Graph Charts Symbols Map Model

el sps

14

INTEGRATED SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS The integrated Science process skills are more complex .These skills must be acquired after the basic Science process skills so they can be used more effectively. A good observation enables the interpretation of collected data clearly.

DATA INTEPRETATION It is a process to give rational explanation on object, event or pattern from the data collected. Activities 1.1 Drop a ping pong ball at different height on the same surface. Measure the height of the bouncing when it is dropped at different level. The height where the ball is dropped (cm) 80 60 40 20 10 The height of the bouncing (cm) 50 40 30 20 10 It allows us to get many information from the table, graph and diagram. Examine relationship between the variables involved. Making conclusion.

What is the relationship between the height from where the ball is dropped and the height of the bouncing? What is the different between the highest bouncing and the lowest bouncing?

el sps

15

2 CONTROLLING VARIABLES Controlling variables is a key to any investigation. Observation can be made on what to change (Manipulative variables) that can give effect to the second variables what to observe /measure (Responding Variables).

Activity: Dissolving salt Put 1 spoon of salt into a beaker which contain 100ml of water. Stir the water until the salt is completely dissolved. Record the time taken for the sugar to dissolve. Repeat the procedure using 2 spoons of salt, 3 spoons of salt and 4 spoons of salt. Amount of salt beaker 1 spoon 100ml of water 2 spoons 3 spoons 4 spoons Time taken for the salt to dissolve

State what is changed (manipulative variable). . State what is observed (responding variable). State what is kept the same (controlled variable).

el sps

16

These are so call CONTROLLING VARIABLES It help us to identify the variables that can give effect to result of the experiment To fix the constant variables so that they did not effect the result of the experiment

Help us to identify the effect of what to change on what to observed At the same time any thing that can affect the investigation are to be Kept the same.

3 DEFINING OPERATIONALLY It is a process to give definition on any concept to state what can be done and observed. It helps us To elaborate the concept or variables that can be done. To observe or measure on what should be done by controlling variables in an investigation.

Defining operationally 3.1. Two pupils have stated their own definition about electric kettle. Electric kettle is an electrical device Electric kettle is a device to boil water

Siti

Ahmad

What is the different between the two definitions given? a. Sitis statement is a conceptual definition. b. Ahmads statement is an operational definition.

el sps

17

3.2. Prepare a circuit as shown in the diagram. Give an operational definition for a complete circuit.

3.3

Use litmus paper to test a chemical contain in orange juice (acid). The result shown that blue litmus paper change to red while red litmus paper has no change.

Define operationally what is acid. .

el sps

18

4 FOMULATING HYPOTHESES It involved stating a general statement which is said to be true to explain things or event Identify questions or statements which can and cannot be tested. Design statements, i.e question, inference, prediction , which can be tested by an experiment.

4.1. Ask pupils to observe two plants. Plant A is placed inside the . house while plant B is placed outside.

A Inside the house

B outside the house

Why is plant B healthier than plant A? Based on their observation, pupils might state their inferences. i. Plant A did not receive enough sunlight. ii. Plant A need sunlight to grow healthy. Pupils might elaborate more to their explanation; ( presence of light and the condition of plants). i. If the plants receive less sunlight, it will not grow healthy. ii. Plant need direct sunlight to grow healthy. iii. When plant receives more sunlight it will grow healthier. The explanations given are the hypotheses that can be tested.

el sps

19

4.2 Use a toy car to investigate the distance it travels on two different surfaces ( rough surface and smooth surface). Push a toy car on rough surface and then on the smooth surface Measure the distance.

Distance (cm) Smooth surface Rough surface

(i) How do you explain the distance of the toy car traveled on two different surfaces? .. (ii) Based on the activity state one hypotheses?

el sps

20

5 EXPERIMENT Experiment engaged all the Science Process Skills to solve problems. Experimenting involved the basic and the integrated Science Process Skills. Sequence to carry out experiment: Making observation. Making inference. Suggesting hypotheses. State ways to test the hypothesis. Identify variables. Carry out the experiment. Collecting data. Making conclusion whether the hypotheses can be accepted or not. Ask pupils to do some activities to solve the problems What is the fastest way to dissolve sugar in water? Suggested answers: Use less sugar Use hot water Ask them to explain their suggestion (Formulating hypotheses) i. ii. If less sugar is used the it dissolve will. The hotter the water the faster the sugar dissolved.

If hypotheses in (a) is to be tested; i. What must be changed? Amount of sugar How to change? Use 1 spoon 2 spoons, 3 spoons and 4 spoons What to observe? Time it takes to dissolve How to observe? Use stop watch to measure time. How to make it a fair test? Use the same amount of water. Type of sugar, same way to stir. Water (ml)

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Sugar

el sps

21

vi.

How to present your findings? e.g Using a table Amount of sugar 1 spoon 2 spoons 3 spoons 4 spoons Time taken for the sugar to dissolve

vii)

How to make sense of the result? What did you get from your findings?

el sps

22

Chapter 2 SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Year 6 Theme; Investigate Living Things Topic : Competition is a form of interaction 1. Ask pupil to observe, inference and predict the plants in the diagram provided.

Pot X i.

Pot Y

State one observation from this experiment.

ii. State one reason (inference) based in you observation in (i). iii. Write one observation to support your answer in (ii).

Pot X iv If some of the plants are remove from pot X. Predict the size of the plants after 2 weeks. .

el sps

23

Activity sheet 2. Year 4 Theme : Force and Energy Topic : Measurement

Pupils are asked to carry out an activity to investigate the swing of a pendulum. Complete the worksheet.

Steps: I Set up the apparatus as shown above. II Release the pendulum slowly. III Record the time taken for 20 complete swings. IV Repeat the activities with the different length of strings. Results: Length of strings (cm) Time taken for 20 complete swings (s)

10

20

30

40

50

el sps

24

Work Sheet

a)

What is the aim of this investigation?

b)

State i ii iii What is changed What is observed. What is kept the same.

c)

What is the trend in the time taken for 20 complete swings?

d)

What is the relationship between the length of the pendulum and time taken for 20 swings?

e)

What conclusion can be made based on the statement above?

el sps

25

Activity sheet 3. Year 4 Theme: Investigate Materials Topic : Properties of material Pupils are asked to carry out the activity to investigate the ability of certain materials to absorb water. Complete the worksheet to test their understanding on Science Process Skill involved. sponge

500 ml water

500 ml water

Container

Container

Container R

Put the sponges of different sizes into the container. After 15 minutes, the volume of water left in the container is measured using a measuring cylinder. The results are to be recorded in the table. Result Container P Q R Amount of water left (ml)

el sps

26

Worksheet

a)

What is the aim of the investigation? ...

b)

State i) What is change. ii) What is observed..

c)

What is the trend of change in the volume of water left? .

d)

State the relationship between the size of the sponge and the volume of water absorb. ..

e)

What conclusion can you make based on the table above? .

el sps

27

Activity sheet 4. Year 5 Theme: Investigate Force and Energy Topic : Light

Pupils are asked to investigate factors that affect the size of the shadow. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram below. Record your findings in the table.

Distance

Torch

Ball Shadow Distance

Screen

Torch

Ball

Result The distance of the ball from the torch (cm) 20 30 40 50 60

The size of the shadow (cm)

el sps

28

Work sheet

a)

What do they want to find out?

b)

State.. i) ii) what is changed what is observed.

c)

What is the trend in the size of shadow formed? ...

d)

What is the relationship between the two information recorded in the experiment? .

e)

What conclusion can you make based on the experiment above? ..

el sps

29

Activity Sheet 5. Year 5 Theme: Investigating Force and Energy Topic : Electricity Pupils are asked to investigate factors that affect the brightness of the bulbs. Build 3 circuits as shown in the diagram to carry out the investigation. Record the result in the table.

The table below shows the brightness of the bulb in each circuit. Number of batteries Brightness of bulbs 1 2 3

el sps

30

Worksheet

a) What is the purpose of this investigation? . b) State.. i) what is changed

ii) what is observed..

c) What is the trend in the brightness of bulbs? .. d) State the relationship between the number of batteries used and the brightness of the bulbs. .. e) What conclusion can you make from this investigation? ..

el sps

31

Activity sheet 7. Year 6 Theme : Investigate Force and Energy Topic : The effect of Force Prepare the apparatus as shown in the diagram below. Hang some marbles ( 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) on the spring. Measure the length of the spring each time the marbles are added Record your observation in the table.

Retort stand

Spring

Plastic bag marble

Result Number of marbles 2 4 6 8 Length of the spring (cm)

el sps

32

Worksheet

a)

What is the aim of the investigation? ..

b)

State i) ii) What is changed What is observed..

c)

What is the relationship between the number of marbles and the length of the spring? .

d)

What is the trend in the length of the spring?

e)

What conclusion can be made from this investigation? ..

el sps

33

Activity sheet 7. Year 6 Theme: Investigate force and energy Topic : Friction Pupils are asked to investigate the effect of friction on the movement of object. Prepare the apparatus as shown in the picture. Release the toy car from the same ram and measure the distance of a toy car travel each time the surface is changed. Record your observation in a table.

( sand paper/ carpet/ glass/plastic mat)

Result Type of surface Sand paper Carpet Glass Plastic mat Distance (cm)

el sps

34

Work sheet

a) What is the aim of the investigation . b) State i) ii) iii) What is changed What is measured. What is kept the same.

c) What is the relationship between the surface and the distance of the toy car traveled? .. d) What conclusion can be made from this investigation? ..

el sps

35

Chapter 4 SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL ASSESSMENT 1 A bryophyllum leaf and a rambutan leaf are grown in container P and Q as shown in the diagram below.

a) What is the purpose of this activity? [1 mark] b) Predict which leaf will grow after one week. [1 mark] c) Give a reason for your answer in (b). [1 mark] d) In this experiment, what is changed? [1 mark] e) State two other plants that reproduce in the same way as bryphyllum. i. ii [2 marks] el sps 36

A pupil carried out an investigation as shown in the figure below. The cardboards are placed one behind another with the holes lying in a straight line.

a) Based on diagram above, what is your observation? [1 mark] b) What will happen if cardboard P is moved slightly to the right? [1 mark] c) Explain your answer in (b). [1 mark] d) What conclusion can be made from the investigation? [1 mark]

el sps

37

The diagram below shows a parallel circuit.

a) Compare the brightness of the bulbs in the circuit. [1 mark] b) What happens when switch S2 is turned off? [1 mark] c) What should be done to light up bulb Z only? [1 mark] d) What will be observed if bulb X is removed? [1 mark] e) Give one advantage of a parallel circuit. [1 mark]

el sps

38

Aminah placed two similar bottles on the plywood in two different ways.

a) What will happen if Aminah pushes the plywood slowly? [1 mark] b) Give one reason for your answer in (a). [1 mark] c) In the investigation, i. what is changed ?.............................................................................. ii. what is observed?............................................................................... [2 marks] d) Based on the investigation, give one factor that effect the stability of a structure. [1 mark]

el sps

39

The bar chart below shows the number of living things in an area. quantity

Living things (a) Write one food chain based on the bar chart. [ 1 mark ] (b) Name the carnivorous animals in the food chain. [ 1 mark ] (c) State what will happen in each situation below. i. The grasshoppers suddenly die in the area. ii. The number of caterpillars suddenly increases in the area. .................................................................................................................... [ 1 mark ]

el sps

40

The picture below shows three similar handkerchiefs hung in different ways.

Q P

The result of the investigation is recorded in the table below Handkerchief Time taken for the handkerchief to dry (min) P 30 Q 60 R 90 (a) What is the aim of this investigation ? [ 1 mark ] (b) In this investigation, state i. what is changed [ 1 mark ] what is kept the same [ 1 mark ] what is observed [ 1 mark ]

ii.

iii.

( c)

What is the relationship between what is change and what is Observed ? ... [ 1 mark]

el sps

41

7. The table below shows the effects of substances on litmus paper.

Substance Toothpaste Change in the colour of litmus paper

Pineapple juice Blue to red

Shampoo

Yogurt

Red to blue

Red to Blue

Blue to red

a)

Based on the observations in the table, classify the above substances into two groups. [ 1 mark ]

b)

Predict the tastes of the substances based on your answer in (a). [ 1 mark ]

c)

Predict the changes in the colour of both red and blue litmus when salt is being tested. [ 1 mark ] Based on your answer in ( c ), state the chemical property of salt. [ 1 mark ]

d)

el sps

42

8 A group of pupils carry out an activity. Two rats are kept separately in two containers as shown in the diagram below. Both containers are left for four days.

(a) What do they want to find out? . [ 1 mark ] (b) State the following. i. What is changed?...................................................................................... [ 1 mark ] ii. What is kept the same?............................................................................. [ 1 mark ] iii. What is observed?.................................................................................... [ 1 mark ] (c) Predict what will happen to the rats in both containers after four days. ... [ 1 mark ] (d) Give one reason for your answer in (c). . [ 2 marks ]

el sps

43

9.

The table shows the distance traveled by four toy cars at different speeds in 30 seconds. Toy car A B C D Distance 83 m 75 m 92 m 67 m

a)

What is the aim of this investigation? [1 marks] What is kept the same (constant variable) in the investigation? [1 mark]

b)

c)

Based on the investigation, which toy car moves the fastest? .. [1mark]

d)

What conclusion can be drawn from the investigation? [1mark]

el sps

44

10 The diagram below shows an investigation carried out by a group of pupils.

nichrome wire

Circuit X Y Z

Time taken for nichrome wire to turn red (second) 30 20 10

(a) What is the aim of the investigation? [ 1 mark ] . [ 1 mark ] (b) i. What is to be changed (manipulative variable))in the experiment? ii. What is to be kept the same (constant variables) through out the experiment? iii. What is to be observed (responding variable) in the experiment? [3 marks ] (d) What conclusion can be made from the investigation? .. [ 1 mark ]

el sps

45

11 The table below shows the information collected in an investigation. The distance from the source of light Shadow on screen

5 cm

10 cm

15 cm

(a) State the aim of the investigation. [1 mark] (b) Based on the results of the investigation, state the following. i. What is changed in the experiment? [1 mark] ii. What is observed in the experiment? [1mark] (b) State the relationship between what is changed and what needs is observed. [1 mark ] (c) What conclusion can be drawn from the investigation? el sps 46

12

[1 mark ] A group of pupils built three models of structure as shown in the diagram below.

Model J K L (a)

The number of books that can be supported 3 8 6

What is the aim of this investigation? [1 mark]

(b)

State the following. i. What is changed:

ii.

What is observed: [2 marks]

(c)

What is the relationship between what is changed and what is observed? [1 mark]

el sps

47

13 An experiment shown in the diagram below is carried out to investigate plants basic need.

a) What can be observed from the investigation? .. [1 mark] b) What can you infer from your observation in (a) . [1 mark] c) State two information gathered in this investigation. i ii [2 marks] d) What conclusion can be made from this investigation? [1 mark]

el sps

48

14. An agriculture officer investigated the water melon from estate X and estate Y planted at the same time. One watermelon was taken as a sample from each estate. Water melon from estate X

Water melon from estate Y

a) State one inference about the different between the two water melons. [1 mark] b) State one observation to support your inference in (a) [1 mark] c) In this investigation state the following i) what is change:... ii) What is observe:. [2 marks] d) Predict what will happen to the watermelon in estate Y if more fertilizer is given? (1 mark)

el sps

49

15 Some water is heated in the beaker as shown in diagram below.

The information below is recorded by a pupil based on his investigation i. ii. iii. Time taken to boil 200ml of water was 15 minutes Time taken to boil 150ml of water was 10 minutes Time taken to boil 100ml of water was 5 minutes

a) Based on the information recorded state two variables involved. i ii.. [2 marks] b) What is the relationship between the two variables mention above [1 mark] c) Predict the time taken to boil 250 ml of water .. [1 mark] d) What conclusion can be made from this investigation? [1 mark]

el sps

50

16

Four spoons of sugar are dissolved in two beakers of water as shown in the diagram below.

Observation i.

Time taken for four spoons of sugar to dissolve in cold water was 6 minutes.

Observation ii. Time taken for four spoons of sugar to dissolve in hot water was 3 minutes.

a) Based on the information recorded state two variables involved. i.. ii [2 marks] b) What is the relationship between the two variables mention above [1mark] c) Predict the time taken to dissolve 8 spoons of sugar in hot water [1 mark] d) What conclusion can be made from this investigation? [1mark]

el sps

51

Chapter 5 QUESTION AND ANSWERING TECHNIQUE FOR SCIENCE (SECTION B) SPS QUESTION KEY
What is your observation from the picture/graph/table above? What can you see from the diagram? Plant B is bigger than plant A What can you say about the figure above? . State one observation...

STEPS
Look for the differences or Look for the changes occurs * Do not give reason

ANSWER KEY
eg The number of elephant decrease. The size of an ice cube becomes smaller after 5 minutes

OBSERVATION

B
Animals extinct because of . not enough food illegal hunting The plant getting withered because . a) didnt get enough.. b) didnt get any c) didnt get the right amount of d) there is no..

State one inference

INFERENCE

Give reason for your answer in . Explain your observation. What can you infer..?

Explanation from an observation why it happen - give reasons. a) observation + why

Think why it happens using our mind.

State two variables in the Investigation

Identify the variables. What to change (manipulated) Look for the things difference /changes in the diagram The weight of load hanged What to measure (responding) Look for the result The length of the spring What to keep the same (control) Look for the things that are the same in the diagram The size of the spring

1. Same type/size/ amount / volume of 2. The presence /absence of water / food Your variables must have. eg

CONTROLLING VARIABLES

In the investigation state i what to change ii what to measure iii what to keep the same State two information gathered ..

Parameter Size of Length of Amount of Number of Type of

Objects pot spring water animal food

100g

150g

200g

el sps

52

SPS

QUESTION KEY

STEPS

ANSWER KEY
The heavier the load the longer the spring. The bigger / the smaller The longer / the shorter The thicker / the thinner The more / the least If the {mass of the load } increase, the {length of the spring } also increase

State a hypothesis for Hypothesis can be made based on the this investigation. inference. Look for what to change and what to measure Relates between what to change and what to measure

HYPOTHESIS

The temperature of the classroom depend on the number of pupil

50g

100g

150g As the number of pupil increase the classroom temperature also increase

Using the information above, write a hypothesis

What can you conclude from this activity/fair test. State your conclusion based on the activity/fair test.

The results/findings from an activity/ fair test It relates between what is changed and what is measured.
Time (min) Water temperature

When / IAs {what to change] increase / decrease, the { what to measure} increase / decrease. eg As the time to heat the water increase, the water temperature also increase

2 40

4 50

6 60

8 70

CONCLUSION

What the result means? What have you learnt from this activity? Use Science Concept

cupboard

From the fair test, we found out that plant needs sunlight to stay alive animals need food to stay alive

el sps

53

SPS

QUESTION KEY
What happens if? Predict what will happen to.after.

STEPS
Make sure the answer ask to predict the previous or future results. Look at the pattern. If the data are in figures, the answer must be in figures form. From the pattern, predict your answer.
Time (min) Water temperature

ANSWER KEY
Predict the number 10 kg, o 60 C Predict the situation Will grow healthy / be extinct / stay alive

PREDICTING

2 40

4 50

8 70

{ 70-50=20
State the changes in trend/ pattern

202=10

50+10=60}

Observe the trend/ pattern arrangement Identify the differences


Time (min) Water temperature

2 40

4 50

6 60

8 70

TREND / PATTERN

From small getting bigger or larger


Time (min) Water temperature

Increasing 8 50 Decreasing

2 90

4 80

6 70

From bigger/larger getting smaller

Time (min) Water temperature

2 50

4 50

6 50

8 50

Did not change What to change: amount of water What to observe: size of black patches To find out the relationship between the amount of water on the bread and the size of black patches. Science Concept To find out that plant need water to stay alive. To find out that nail will rust if there are any presence of air and water.

AIM / PURPOSE

What is the purpose of carrying out this activity? What is the aim of this investigation? What do you want to find out from this fair test?

Look for what to change in the diagram Look for what to measure in the diagram Relate your answer
black patches

5 drips of water

15 drips of water

25 drips of water

el sps

54

Reference Funk, James, A et al. (1979).Learning Science Process Skill. Iowa; Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Bahagian Pendidikan Guru. Mempelajari Kemahiran Proses Sains (1996) Jld 2 Sains Sekolah Rendah.

el sps

55