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Nozzle Loads Part 1

By A JAD

Nozzle Loads
1.0 Introduction to Nozzle Loads
This post specifies the criteria to be adopted while defining the allowable loads acting on the Nozzles of the various Mechanical equipments, due to the loads imposed by the connected piping system. These loads shall be included in the Mechanical design of the equipments during procurement. As a minimum, the Piping Stress Engineer shall ensure that the loads on the Nozzle of the Mechanical Equipments are within these values. In the event the loads are exceeding the allowable loads values, prior approval from the supplier shall be taken. It is advisable that, the Fabrication / Procurement of these equipments shall be carried out after the confirmation of the loads on the Nozzle by both the party (Purchaser and Supplier).

2.0 Types of Mechanical Equipments


Mechanical Equipments are classified in two types viz. Fabricated Equipments& Proprietary Equipments. Criteria for defining the allowable loads on the Nozzles of these equipments are given below. 2.1 Fabricated Equipments Various Mechanical Equipments like Pressure Vessels, Columns, Heat Exchangers (Shell & Tube type and Plate type), cylindrical storage tanks, etc. are classified under this category.

Allowable Forces & Moments The allowable loads for the Fabricated Equipmentsshall be in accordance with Appendix-1. These values are applicable for equipments, withcarbon steel and stainless steel as material of construction. For equipments made of other material, the supplier shall provide an appropriate set of calculations for approval. The allowable loads for the Cylindrical Storage Tanks shall be in accordance with Appendix-2.

Statement of Compliance The Equipment Supplier shall check the stresses in the nozzle/equipment resulting from the allowable loads as specified above, in accordance with WRC bulletin WRC107/ WRC297 /ASME Section VIII Division 2. The Equipment supplier shall provide a statement of compliance with this specification.

Higher Allowable Loads This specification gives the maximum allowable loads which the nozzle can withstand without failure. However, depending on the configuration of the connected Piping system or due to the various design conditions analyzed, the loads imposed on the Nozzle may exceed these allowable values. In such cases, theactual loads shall be communicated to the Supplier. The Supplier shall check the integrity of the nozzle / equipment. If acceptable, the Supplier shall approve these loads and incorporate the same in the equipment design. However, if these loads are not acceptable, the supplier shall submit the calculations /technical explanation supporting the same.

Any calculations required to be done and any reinforcement required to be provided on the equipment shall be part of Suppliers scope of work.

Fig 1- Allowable nozzle loads

Legends: FL FC FA ML MC MT F M Longitudinal shear force Circumferential shear force Axial tension or compression force Longitudinal bending moment Circumferential bending moment Torsional moment Resultant Shear Force Resultant Bending Moment

Notes: 1. The above loads are applicable for following equipment:


Shell & tube and Plate type heat exchangers Pressure vessels

Columns under the design conditions and are considered to be acting simultaneously at the intersection of nozzle axis with outer surface of the shell or head plates, in corroded condition.

1. Each nozzle shall be capable of withstanding the above forces and moments

2. All forces and moments in the above tables are positive and sign rotation is as per WRC bulletin 107. The most stringent case caused by axial load FA acting inward or outward shall be considered. 3. For dished ends, the resultant shear force and bending moment are calculated as: F = SQRT {(FL) 2 + (FC)2} M = SQRT {(ML) 2 + (MC)2} 1. The loads stated above shall be used as the design basis for nozzles. When loadings in excess of above listed standard allowable nozzle loadings are required, the supplier will be informed. When the information becomes available the supplier shall check and incorporate these loads in the equipment design. Wherever necessary, the nozzle/ vessel shall be reinforced. In case the Supplier finds that the higher loads cannot be incorporated, he shall submit calculations/technical explanation to justify the same, indicating the maximum load that can be incorporated.

Notes: 1. Each nozzle shall be capable of withstanding the above forces and moments under the design conditions in the worst-case combination of direction of forces & moments and internal pressure, and are considered to be acting simultaneously at the intersection of nozzle axis with outer surface of the shell or roof plates, in corroded condition. Supplier to provide all the necessary calculation to demonstrate the compliance to above, in accordance with API 650 Appendix P / BS 2654 or required FE calculation if any standard method cant be applied. 2. Vendor to provide necessary reinforcement to comply with above standard allowable nozzle loadings requirement. 3. Tabulated loadings also apply to roof nozzles, except that the radial load becomes vertical load, and the allowable resultant shear force and bending

moment should be as follows, rather than individual allowable shear force and bending moment components: F = SQRT {(FV) 2 + (FH) 2} M = SQRT {(ML) 2 + (MC) 2} 1. The loads stated above shall be used as the design basis for nozzles. When loadings in excess of above listed standard allowable nozzle loadings are required, the supplier will be informed when the information becomes available. The supplier shall check and incorporate these loads in the equipment design. Wherever necessary, the nozzle/tank shall be reinforced. In case the Supplier finds that the higher loads cannot be incorporated, he shall submit calculations/technical explanation to justify the same, indicating the maximum load that can be incorporated.

Nozzle loads Part 2


By A JAD

1.1

Proprietary Equipment

Various Mechanical equipments like Pumps, Compressors, Expanders, Plate-fin heat exchanger, Air cooled Heat Exchanger etc. are classified under this category. Allowable loads for the nozzles of these equipments are generally available from equipment supplier. However, some of the proprietary equipment are designed and constructed as per International codes with standard set of allowable loads. In any case, loads imposed by the connected piping system shall be confirmed and approved the supplier.

Centrifugal Pumps API 610, Table 5 gives the allowable forces and moments on the Pump Nozzles (Suction and Discharge). However, if the loads acting on the Pump nozzles exceed these values, the allowable loads can be increased to 2 times, provided the criteria specified in Annex F are satisfied. This shall be approved and

confirmed by the Pump Vendor. As a general practice, approval shall be taken from the vendor for 2 times API 610 at the initial stage of the project. However,if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Pump Vendor.

Metering Pumps/Pumps as per NFPA code The minimum allowable nozzle loads shall be as provided by the Pump Supplier.

Pumps (API 676, Rotary Positive Displacement) The minimum allowable nozzle loads shall be as per API676, Table 2. However, if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Pump Vendor.

Centrifugal Compressors & Turbo Expanders The allowable forces and moments acting on the nozzles of centrifugal compressors shall be designed in accordance with API 617, the forces and moments shall be 1.85 times the values based on the load criteria of NEMA SM23. However, if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Vendor.

Reciprocating Compressors The minimum allowable nozzle loads shall be as per API 618 values. However, if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Vendor.

Rotary Positive Displacement Compressors (API619) The minimum allowable nozzle loads for Rotary Positive Displacement Compressors is generally taken as 1.85 times NEMA SM23 Values. However, if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Vendor.

Brazed Aluminium Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers The allowable nozzle loads for Brazed Aluminium Plate-Fin HeatExchanger shall be 3 times the value in ALPEMA (Standards of theBrazed Aluminium Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger Manufacturers Association) Table 5-1. However, it shall be approved and agreed by the Vendor.

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers The minimum allowable nozzle loads on Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers due topiping reactions shall be as listed below.

Nozzle Rating 150 & 300 # 600# 900#

Allowable Load 2 times API 661 Values 4 times API 661 Values 6 times API 661 Values

However, it shall be approved and agreed by the Vendor.

Gas Turbines The minimum allowable nozzle loads for Gas Turbines shall be as provided by Supplier.

Fired Heaters The minimum allowable nozzle loads for Fired Heaters shall be THREE times as specified in API-560. In case the same is procured as a package item, Nozzle loads shall be as per Cl. 5.2.14 below.

Steam Turbines-NEMA SM 23 The minimum allowable nozzle loads for Steam Turbine is generally taken as 1.85 times NEMA SM23 Values. However, if one or more components of the forces and moments are still exceeding, same shall be approved & agreed with the Vendor.

Reforming furnace-Vendor to give Large storage tanks-API 650 Any other proprietary equipment The minimum allowable nozzle loads for any other proprietary equipment shall be as provided by Supplier.