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Explosion Protection Theory and Practice

Explosion protection worldwide with installation examples


This brochure on explosion protection is designed to help installation technicians, design engineers and operators of plants located in explosive atmospheres. Most often hazardous areas are equated to chemical and petrochemical industries. A potential hazardous atmosphere could exist with applications in food/beverage or automative industries (paint applications) which may usually seem harmless. Explosion protection is often seen in connection with gases. However, explosive atmospheres can also be generated by dusts.
Chemical and petrochemical industries

Off-shore plants

Coal-mining

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Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Physical Background Explosion Protection Standards, Regulations and Directives Installation and Protection Methods Zones and Divisions Types of Protection Identication and Marking Intrinsic Safety Surge Voltage Protection in the Hazardous Area (Ex Area) Ex-Approved Modular Terminal Blocks

Page 4 5 7 9 11 14 17 21 23 25 26 27 28 29 37 39

10. Cable/Conductor Routing and Conduit Systems 11. IP Protection Type, NEMA Classication 12. What is NAMUR? 13. Smart-Compatible Devices 14. Application/Installation Examples 15. Terms and Abbreviations 16. Principles of Signal Transmission

In the rst part of this brochure, the basics of explosion protection is explained with intention of making you aware of the particular risks involved. Explosion protection around the world is based mainly on European and American standards and directives. The second part provides support for the user of electrical equipment for the hazardous area. There is a comprehensive explanation of what explosion protection criteria must be observed.

In addition to information on MCR instrumentation devices for intrinsically safe circuits, you will also nd information on modular terminal blocks and surge voltage protection for the hazardous area. You will nd additional information about the products listed in this brochure in the Phoenix Contact catalogs. Use the fax order form on the back cover of this brochure to order these catalogs.

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1. Physical Background
Complete Combustion Complete combustion is a rapid oxidation process. It is also referred to as a "destructive re", a process in which a combustible material is decomposed exothermally where there is a sufcient supply of oxygen. As the speed with which the shock wave emanating increases, the process is referred to as deagration, explosion or detonation in this order. In the case of complete combustion, the damage caused increases signicantly in proportion to speed of the shock wave emanating. Oxygen If an explosive material is combined with oxygen, an explosive mixture is created. In the case of gases, the ratio of concentrations determines whether an explosion is possible. The mixture can only be ignited if the concentration of the material in air is within the lower (LEL) and upper (UEL) explosive limits. Some chemically unstable materials (e.g. acetylene, ethylene oxide) can also enter into exothermal reactions without oxygen as a result of spontaneous decomposition. The upper explosive limit (UEL) shifts to 100 volume percent. In the case of gases under pressure, the explosive ranges change. Dusts can also be grouped into a lower explosion or ammability limit (at approx. 2060 g/m3) and an upper explosion or ammability limit (at approx. 26 kg/m3).

Acetone Acetylene
Speed of the shock wave emanating Deagration Explosion Detonation cm/s m/s km/s

Ammonia Butane Diesel fuel Carbon monoxide Methane Gasoline Carbon disulde Hydrogen

Explosion An explosion can occur if there is a combination of a ammable material, oxygen and a source of ignition. If one component is missing no exothermal reaction will occur.

Lower explosion limit Upper explosive limit

Explosive material

Oxygen

Volume percent of combustible materials V

Examples for explosive areas of gases under normal pressure Source of ignition

Sources of ignition
Source of ignition Sparks Prerequisites for an explosion Arcs Hot surfaces Flames and hot gases Electrical systems Examples of reasons for explosions mechanically created sparks (e.g. caused by friction, impact or abrasion processes), electric sparks short circuit, switching operations power in electric systems, heaters, metal-cutting, heating up during operation due to combustion reactions, sparks during welding protective low voltages ( U < 50 V) can still generate enough energy to ignite an explosive atmosphere. opening/closing of contacts, loose contact separately arranged conductive parts, many plastic materials reverse currents from generators, body/earth contact in the case of faults, induction laser beam for distance measurement, especially: focusing radio signals, industrial high-frequency generators for heating, drying, cutting, etc. atmospheric weather disturbances X-ray apparatus, radioactive material, absorption of energy leads to heating up absorption of energy in solid/liquid materials leads to heating up sudden opening of valves chemical reaction

Explosive material A ammable material which is present as a gas, vapor or dust is called an explosive material. In the case of vapors or dusts, an explosive atmosphere is created if the drop or particle size is smaller than 1 mm. Vapors, aerosols and dusts occurring in practice have particle sizes between 0.001 and 0.1 mm. Dusts with larger particle sizes are not ammable.

Static electricity Electrical equalizing currents Electromagnetic waves in the range of 3 x 10113 x 1015 Hz High frequency 1043 x 1012 Hz Lightning strike Ionizing radiation Ultrasound Adiabatic compression and shock waves Exothermal reactions

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2. Explosion Protection Standards, Regulations and Directives


ATEX Free commodity trade in Europe A Two directives are relevant for explosion protection in the European Union's "new approach".

The manufacturer directive through the times


01.03.1996 10.10.1997 30.09.1998 30.06.2003 Council directive 94/26/EC, adapted to technical progress; Council directive 79/196/EEC (List of harmonized standards generation D) Council directive 97/53/EC, adapted to technical progress; Council directive 79/196/EEC (List of harmonized standards generation E)

Target et group Manufacturer Operator

Directive 94/9/EC 1999/92/EC

Common designation* A ATEX 100a ATEX 95 A ATEX 118a ATEX 137 A

Directive 82/130/EEC, adapted with directive 98/65/EC (List of harmonized standards generation D and E) Council directive 94/9/EC

* The directive is based on an article of the treaty establishing the European Community. The number of the article has changed. The term ATEX is derived from French, "ATmosphre EXplosive".

Certication

Putting on the market

North American Hazardous Location Systems Based on the North American Hazardous Location System (Hazloc), fundamental rules are laid down for explosion protection. In the US, these are stated in the National Electrical Code (NEC), and in Canada in the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) Among the main institutions of the system are: Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL), CSA International (CSA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society (ISA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), United States Coast Guard (USCG), Factory Mutual Research (FM).

ATEX Manufacturer directive 94/9/EC A Until now, certicates of conformity have been issued by the testing agencies. The directives for devices of generations A to E are the basis for this. These directives will, however, be replaced by the directive 94/9/EC as of July 1st, 2003. As early as 1997, Phoenix Contact supported the "new approach" of the European commission and approved all equipment in accordance with the directive 94/9/EC. From July 1st, 2003, electrical equipment may only be allowed on the market for the rst time if it complies with directive RL 94/9/EC.

Equipment group II " "Surface Surface s" installations" installation Hazardous areas

Equipment group and category In order to determine the appropriate procedure to be used for conformity assessment, the manufacturer must rst decide which equipment group and category the product belongs to, based on its intended use (see table below). Equipment group I: Equipment for use in mining industries (coal-mining) and the related surface installations which are at risk from mine gases and/or combustible dusts. Equipment group II: Equipment for use in all other areas that might be endangered by an explosive atmosphere. The equipment groups are assigned to categories in the directive 94/9/EC. Categories M1 and M2 are determined for equipment group I. Three categories - 1, 2 and 3 are dened in equipment group II. The correlation between category and zones is made in the operator directive 1999/92/ EC.

Equipment group I "Mining installations" Areas with a redamp hazard = coal-mining

Equipment group I

Category M1

Degree of protection very high safety degree

Protection guarantee In the case of failure of one installation protection measure, a second protection measure guarantees the necessary safety, or That the necessary degree of safety is guaranteed when two independent errors occur.

Operating conditions For reasons of safety, it must be possible to continue operating a product even if the atmosphere is potentially explosive.

M2

high safety degree

It must be possible to switch off these products if an explosive atmosphere occurs.

In normal operation, the protective measures must still guarantee the required safety even in difcult conditions, or if equipment is treated roughly or ambient inuences have changed.

II

very high

Two T independent protective measures. Safe if two faults occur independent from one another. Safe in normal operation and if common faults occur.

Equipment can still be used in zones 0, 1, 2 (G) and 20, 21, 22 (D) and continue to be operated. Equipment can still be used in zones 1, 2 (G) and 21, 22 (D) and continue to be operated. Equipment can still be used in zones 2 (G) and 22 (D) and continue to be operated.

II

high

II

normal

Safe in normal mode.

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Conformity assessment The classication of electrical equipment according to equipment group and category is the basis for conformity assessment. The illustration shows this relationship. Except for category 3 equipment, an EC type examination is required for the conformity assessment. The modules are tested by a notied body. An example illustrates this fact: CE 0344 CE: EC conformity, 0344: notied body, here: KEMA.

Conformity onformity assessment in acc. with 94 94/ /9/ /9 9/EC Group II Group I Group I

Category 1

M1

M2

Category 2

Category 3 *

EC type examination *

Module D QA Production
or product test

Module E QA Product
or conformity with design

c 0344

c 0344

Module A Internal production control c 0344

Individual test c 0344

* possible as an option, similar procedure

EC type examination The EC type-examination certicate certies that the test has been carried out by a notied body. Notied bodies are determined by the EU. The certicate constitutes the documentation for the operator.

Notied body in acc. with 94/4/EC (extract) Testing T esting body PTB DMT (BVS) TV Nord DQS IBExU BAM BASEEFA (2001 Ltd) SCS INERIS LCIE LOM KEMA CESI DEMKO NEMKO Country Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Great Britain Great Britain France France Spain Netherlands Italy Denmark Norway 0518 0080 0081 0163 0344 0722 0539 0470 Identication 0102 0158 0032 0297 0637 0589

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3. Installation and Protection Methods


ATEX operator directive 1999/92/EC A Extract from RL 1999/92/EC: (1) Article 137 of the treaty provides that the Council may adopt, by means of Directives, minimum requirements for encouraging improvements, especially in the working environment, to guarantee a better level of protection of the health and safety of workers. (7) Directive 94/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 March 1994 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (5) states that it is intended to prepare an additional Directive based on Article 137 of the Treaty covering, in particular, explosion hazards which derive from a given use and/ or types and methods of installation of equipment. Installation General If systems are installed in hazardous areas, a great number of measures must be taken. When selecting equipment, cables/ conductors and construction, particular requirements must be met. In any case of doubt, we recommend including additional experts in the planning stage. Risk assessment Prior to installation, the operator of a system must carry out a risk assessment. On the basis of the risk assessment, the zones must be laid down and the permitted equipment selected. Every plant must be examined for its specic characteristics. Assessing the explosion risk The operator of a plant must carry out a detailed assessment. The assessment is based on the standards EN 60 079-10, EN 60 079-14 and EN 1127-1. The zones are determined on the basis of the assessment. The assessments must be recorded in the documentation.

Documentation of explosion protection The documentation is crucial for the safe operation of the plant in the hazardous area. The documentation is created prior to installation and must be updated whenever there are alterations or additions. If changes are made to the plant, all inuencing variables described must be taken into account.

Check list: (possible procedure) Recognizing the risk Probability of an explosive atmosphere occurring Which materials are processed in the plant? What are the conditions necessary for the raw materials, semi-nished and nished products to be present in an explosive concentration? The physical correlations described on page 4 must be taken into account. Example for the structure of the documentation Person responsible for the object Description of the structural and geographic characteristics Description of procedures with name

Plan of site and building, ventilation and air supply Description of the plant from the point of view of explosion protection List of data with characteristics of relevance to an explosion see adjacent check list

Note: In many areas, national law requires that the plants be tested. This is carried out by independent experts.

Presence of ignition sources

Ignition sources that can cause materials in the process to ignite must be identied. Presence: permanent, frequent, seldom or very seldom. The interaction between individual parts of the system and the material being processed must be also be taken into account in the assessment.

Materials data

Risk assessment

Protection concepts

Areas with explosive atmospheres The employer/operator: divides areas in which explosive atmospheres may occur into zones. guarantees that the minimum requirements are applied. marks the entrances to areas with explosive atmospheres.

Division into zones, safety categories applied Training, written instructions, clearance for work

Effects of the explosion

Possible risks

Organizational measures

In directive 1999/92/EC, annex II, the correlation between the category in acc. with 94/9/EC and the zone is made.

Correlation in acc. with 1999/92/EC Zone 0, 20 1, 21 2, 22 Category 1 1, 2 1, 2, 3

If an explosion occurs despite these measures, the possible risks must be examined. Can chain reactions occur, what is the extent of damage to the buildings and what effect does the explosion have on other parts of the plant. It is possible for interactions that could never occur in the individual system to occur with neighboring systems. The risk assessment requires a high degree of experience and the correct evaluation. If there is any doubt, it is advisable to refer to other experts. Risk assessment is the basis for all other measures, including the operation of the system.

Identication of hazardous areas The hazardous area is identied by means of a danger sign.

Warning signs for the hazardous area

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Worldwide overview of standards W Overview of standard protection methods for electrical equipment
Protection methods USA basis Principle EN standard IEC standard FM (USA) (factually identical to EN) IEC 60 079-0 FM 3600 (ISA 12.00.01) FM 3610 IEC 60 079-11 NEC504 NEC505 Constructional measures through spacing and dimensioning EN 50 019 FM 3600 (ISA 12.16.01) IEC 60 079-7 NEC500 NEC500 Constructional measures through spacing Constructional measures through enclosure Constructional measures through enclosure EN 50 018 FM 3600 (ISA 12.22.01) IEC 60 079-1 NEC505 Exclusion of potentially explosive atmosphere EN 50 028 FM 3600 (ISA 12.23.01) IEC 60 079-18 NEC505 Exclusion of potentially explosive atmosphere EN 50 015 FM 3600 (ISA 12.16.01) IEC 60 079-6 NEC505 Exclusion of potentially explosive atmosphere EN 50 017 FM 3622 FM 3600 (ISA 12.25.01) IEC 60 079-5 NEC505 NEC500 NEC500 NEC500 Improved industrial quality NEC505 IEC 60 079-15 IEC 60 079-11 EN 50 021 FM 3600; (ISA 12.12.02) Power limitation in interconnected intrinsically safe circuits Dust; protection through housing design (DIP) NEC500 EN 50 039 UL2279 Pt.15 CSA-E79-15 GB3836.8 GB3836.4 Exclusion of potentially explosive atmosphere EN 50 016 --IEC 60 079-2 FM 3620 FM 3620 FM 3620 NFPA496 NFPA496 NFPA496 --CSA-E79-2 GB3836.5 UL2279 Pt.5 CSA-E79-5 GB3836.7 UL2279 Pt.6 CSA-E79-6 GB3836.6 UL2279 Pt.18 CSA-E79-18 GB3836.9 UL2279 Pt.1 CSA-E79-1 GB3836.2 FM 3611 FM 3615 UL 1604 e.g. Housing: UL 1203 CSA-213 UL2279 Pt.11 CSA-E79-7 GB3836.3 FM 3610 UL913 CSA-157 UL (USA) CSA (Canada) China

General requirements Intrinsic safety EEX i AEx i Ex i (IS) EEx e AEx e Ex e (NI) (XP) EEx d AEx d Ex d EEx m AEx m Ex m EEx o AEx o Ex o EEx q AEx q Ex q EEx p AEx p Ex p Type X T Type Y T Type Z T EEx n AEx n Ex n Intrinsically safe electrical systems "i-Sys" Dust explosion protection

Basis for safety categories EN 50 015, EN 50 021, EN 50 028, EN 50 039 Limiting energy NEC505

EN 50 014 EN 50 020

GB3836.1

UL2279 Pt.11

CSA-E79-11 GB3836.4

Increased safety

Non-incendive Explosion-proof Flameproof enclosure

NEC505

Encapsulation

Oil immersion

Powder lling

Pressurization (purged)

Protection Method "n"

EN 50 281-1-1 NFPA 70

Abbreviations based on the NEC 500 in North America


XP IS AIS ANI PX, PY, PZ APX, APY, APZ NI DIP Explosion-proof Intrinsically safe apparatus Associated apparatus with intrinsically safe connections Associated non-incendive eld wiring circuit Pressurized Associated pressurization systems/components Non-incendive apparatus and non-incendive eld wiring apparatus Dust ignition-proof

Installation, standards for operator


Designation EN standard IEC standard (factually identical to EN) China

Explosion protection part 1: basics and methods Electrical operating equipment for potentially gas-explosive areas introduction of the areas Electrical operating equipment for potentially gas-explosive areas Electrical equipment in potentially explosive areas Electrical operating equipment for use in areas with combustible dusts; part 1-2: selection, installation and maintenance

EN 1127-1 EN 60 079-10 EN 60 079-14 EN 50 281-1-2 IEC 60 079-10 IEC 60 079-14

--GB3836.14 GB3836.15

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4. Zones and Divisions


Europe Potentially explosive areas are allocated to standard zones that are distinguished according to two types: potentially gas-explosive areas and potentially dust-explosive areas. The zones are dened for gases in EN 60 079-14 and for dusts in EN 50 281-12. Furthermore, the standard EN 1127-1 was created on the basis of the mandate of the European Commission (KEU) and the European Free Trade Zone (EFTA) to the European Standardization Committee (CEN). This is to support the EC directives (ATEX) 94/9/EC and 1999/92/EC. The zones are divided based on the frequency of the occurrence of potentially explosive atmospheres. Gases and dust can also occur at the same time. The zones were assigned precise time specications for gases in the explosion protection rules of the Trade Association for Chemicals in Germany These values are not mentioned in the standards, because it appears that it is not possible to make a generally valid statement. For this reason, one must weigh up how to judge the frequency of occurrence in every individual risk assessment. North America
National Electrical Code (NEC) in the USA Article 500 501 502 503 504 505 Contents General requirements for divisions of class I, II and III Requirements for division of class I Requirements for division of class II Requirements for division of class III Requirements for division of class I, II and III in relation to intrinsic safety (IS) General and special requirements for the zone of class I

Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) in Canada Regulation 18-000 18-090 18-100 18-200 18-300 Appendix J Contents General requirements for class I / zone and class II and III / division Requirements for class I, zone 0 requirements Requirements for zone 1 and 2, class I Requirements for division of class II Requirements for division of class III General and special requirements for the division of class I

Potentially gas-explosive areas Zones Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Type of danger continuous, long periods, frequent occasional normally not, only for a short period

In the USA, zones or divisions are divided up according to the National Electrical Code (NEC). The comparison with the IEC/ CENELEC zone division can only be regarded as a general approximation. The conversion must be checked in individual cases. Electrical operating equipment can be used especially for division 2. The same operating equipment can only be used in zone 2 with additional testing and certication. The possibilities are shown in the simplied assignment diagram. The basis for explosion protection in North America is the National Electric Code (NEC) in the USA and the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) in Canada. The listed excerpts of the NEC and CEC refer to explosion protection.

CLASS I (gases and vapors) Group A (acetylene) Group B (hydrogen) Group C (ethylene) Group D (propane) CLASS II (dusts) Group E (metal dust) Group F (coal dust) Group G (grain dust) CLASS III (bers) No subgroups

Potentially dust-explosive areas* Old division in Germany Zone 10 New division in Germany Zone 20 Type of danger T

continuous, long periods, frequent occasional

Zone 21

IEC/CENELEC

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 11

Zone 22

normally not, only for a short period

USA: NEC 505

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

* General assignment, must be checked in individual cases.

USA: NEC 500

Division 1

Division 2

In Germany, dusts were previously divided into two zones. When standards were revised as a result of European directives, the zone division was also divided into three zones for dusts as well, throughout Europe. However, it must be taken into account that zones 10 and 11 cannot be transferred to the new zone division without checking.

Explosive material Gas / vapor or liquid

Class

Group

Explosive material Gas / vapor or liquid

Class

Group

A, B, C, D

A, B, C, D

Dust

II

E, F, G

Dust

II

F, G

Fibers

III

Fibers

III

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Understanding classes and divisions Division Class I, division 1 Explosive atmosphere Gas, liquid and vapor Can also occur under normal operating conditions, can occur frequently during repair, maintenance or due to lack of sealing, or can become a source of ignition in the case of an operation failure. Normally in closed systems in which ammable concentrations are prevented by ventilation ventilatio or connected to the area that is assigned to class I, division 1, for which the danger exists that ammable concentrations can occur. Continuous, long periods, frequently present.

Class I, division 2

Gas, liquid and vapor

Class I, zone 0

Gas, liquid and vapor

Class I, zone 1

Gas, liquid and vapor

Class I, zone 2

Gas, liquid and vapor

Occurs under normal conditions, can occur frequently during repair, maintenance or due to lack l of sealing, can become a source of ignition in the case of an operation failure or is connected to the area that is assigned to class, zone 0, for which the danger exists that ammable concentrations can occur. Normally not, only for short periods in connection with the area that is assigned to class 1, zone 1, for which the danger exists that ammable concentrations can occur. Can also occur under normal conditions, frequently during repair, maintenance or due to lack of sealing. sealing Can become a source of ignition in the case of an operation failure, or electrically conductive dust occurs in a dangerous amount. Normally not present in a ammable concentration in the air, does not endanger the normal operation of the electrical plant. Occurs during seldom operation failures of the plant, or dust hinders reliable heat discharge. Areas in which easily ammable bers are processed or transported.

Class II, division 1

Dust

Class II, division 2

Dust

Class III, division 1

Fibers

Class III, division 2

Fibers

Areas in which easily ammable bers are stored or transported.

Simplied assignment diagram for the USA Operating equipment marked with *: NEC class I, div. 1 NEC class I, div. 2 NEC class I, zone 1 NEC class I, zone 2 NEC AEx NEC AEx NEC AEx IEC zone 1 IEC zone 2 IEC EEx or Ex Permissible areas of application OK in NEC class I, zone 1 and 2 OK in NEC class I, zone 2 Not permissible in NEC class I, div. 1 OK in NEC class I, div. 2 OK in NEC zone 0, 1, 2, as marked Not permissible for NEC class I, div. 1 OK in NEC class I, div. 2 Not permissible for NEC purview Not permissible for NEC purview Not permissible for NEC purview

* When this mark is given, it can be used to derive the permissible area of application. Assignment is only possible in the indicated direction.

Example for zone division

V Valve

Zone 1 Zone 0 Zone 2

Sink Example: Tank for ammable liquids (acc. to EN 60 079-10)

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5. Types of Protection
The basis for the standardized protection methods are the requirements for the surface temperature, clearance and creepage distances, the identication of electrical operating equipment, the assignment of the electrical operating equipment to the area of application and the degrees of protection. Everything that goes beyond the basic requirements are specied in the respective protection method. Classication in groups Due to its characteristics, coal mining is assigned group I. This group was previously characterized by the term "susceptible to redamp". All other potentially explosive areas are assigned to group II. Examples include the petrochemical industry, the chemical industry and silo plants with ammable dusts. The term "potentially explosive" (old abbreviation "Ex") stands for the electrical operating equipment of the current group II. For intrinsic safety, ame-proof enclosures and type of protection "n" subgroups IIA, IIB, Temperature T emperature class group I The temperatures are designed for the requirements in coal mining. Methane is present as a gas and dust results from the coal. Clearance and creepage distances Clearance and creepage distances must be maintained for intrinsic safety, increased safety and type of protection "n".

Permissible surface temperature of group I [C] 150

Condition

with deposits of coal dust on the operating equipment without deposits of coal dust on the operating equipment

450

Clearance distance

Group II "Surface installations" Potentially explosive atmospheres

Temperature class of group II T The explosive atmosphere can be prevented from igniting when the surface temperature of the operating equipment is lower than the ignition temperature of the surrounding gas. The surface temperature is valid for all parts of an electrical apparatus that can come into contact with the explosive material. The majority of the gases can be assigned to the temperature classes T1 to T3. In the USA its referred as the T rating.

Creepage distance

Clearance and creepage distance

Group I "Underground installations" Areas with a redamp hazard = coal mining

The term clearance distance is dened as the shortest connection between two potentials through the air. The creepage distance is the shortest connection between two potentials over a surface. A minimum distance must be maintained, depending on the comparative tracking index of the material. The minimum distances for clearance and creepage distances are specied in the corresponding protection methods.

and IIC are distinguished in group II. Group IIC contains gases with the highest ammability. In the case of intrinsic safety and protection method "nL", the classication is determined by the minimum ignition current (MIC). The gap (MESG) determines the subgroups for "ame-proof enclosures" and for protection method "nC".
Note: The ATEX directive 94/9/EC refers to device groups. These are identical to the groups according to EN standard.

Example:

Permissible surface temperatures [C] for group II: temperature classes in Europe and the USA

Temperature limits with dust T In the case of potentially dust-explosive areas, the maximum surface temperature is given as a temperature value [C]. There is no classication into groups . The permissible temperatures for each type of dust normally have to be determined through experiments.

Modular terminal blocks are used in a housing in safety category EEx e IIC T6. In this case, the maximum permissible current strength must be calculated so that the temperature class T6 is also maintained at the modular terminal blocks. The housing is designed with the IP protection type IP 54, but the explosive gas can still intrude into the housing. For this reason, it is not sufcient only to regard the surface temperature of the housing.

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Intrinsic safety protection method Ex i The intrinsic safety category, as opposed to other categories (e.g. increased safety), refers not only to individual equipment, but to the entire circuit that is intrinsically safe. The protection is in the circuit and not in the housing. A circuit is described as intrinsically safe if no spark or thermal effect can cause an explosive atmosphere to ignite. Suitable measures must guarantee that the energy in intrinsically safe operating equipment is so low that an explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited even in the case of a defect. In the case of intrinsically safe electrical apparatus, all circuits are intrinsically safe and depending on their overall protection method, this equipment can be used directly in the designated zones or divisions. Associated apparatus has both intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits. They are generally implemented in the safe area but the connecting lines do extend into the hazardous area. Therefore, the associated apparatus must also comply with the above-mentioned categories, i.e. associated apparatus which is connected with a sensor or actuator in zone 0, Div. 1 must be equipment from category 1.

Increased safety Ex e In protection method "increased safety", voltages up to 11 kV can be brought into the potentially explosive area. Increased safety is especially suitable for supplying motors, lights and transformers. The protection principle is based on constructional measures. Clearance and creepage distances are determined for the live parts, divided into voltage levels. This prevents electrical sparks. In addition, at least the IP protection type (EN 60529) IP 54 must be fullled. Limiting the surface temperature ensures that explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited at any place, even inside the housing, during operation. The housing does not prevent gas from entering.

Encapsulation, powder lling or oil emersion Ex m, Ex q, Ex o The principle of the protection methods "molded encapsulation", "sand encapsulation" and "oil encapsulation" safety categories is to surround possible sources of ignition in an electrical apparatus with the potting compounds, sand or oil. This prevents the ignition of the explosive atmosphere. Voltages from 1011 kV can also be V reached with these protection methods. Details can be found in the standards (see page 8).

Flame-proof Enclosures Ex d In ame-proof enclosures an explosion is contained. An explosion that occurs inside is not able to ignite the explosive atmosphere surrounding the housing. This leads to very robust housings. The housings have covers and insertion points to accommodate cables and lines. The maximum permitted gap that is present is dimensioned in such a way that it prevents the explosion from being carried over from inside the housing to the surrounding explosive atmosphere. In the case of cable and conductor leads in the protection type Ex d, it is not permitted to grease the thread or remove rust with a wire brush. The gap could be changed as a result and the protection principle destroyed. The manufacturers specications must be observed. In the USA a similar method used is called explosion proof. (xp) (see page 8)

Possibilities of pressurization Pressurization Compressed air Operating states Static Without correction --With compensation of the leakage losses Compensation of the leakage losses With continuous circulation Continuous correction

Pre-purging phase: The housing is purged and any explosive atmosphere that is present is removed from the housing. Operating phase: The overpressure in the housing is monitored. If it decreases, the electrical operating equipment inside the housing is switched off.

Pressurization (purged) Ex p The positive pressure or inert gases describes methods that use overpressure to prevent an explosive atmosphere from entering the housings or the control room. The ambient pressure around the housing is always lower than inside. Three forms of pressurization are possible (see table at the bottom left). In the case of static pressurization, the housing must be hermetically sealed. No loss of pressure occurs. More common, however, are methods in which the pressurization is maintained by compensating the leakage losses or by constant circulation. The overpressure is usually created by simple compressed air. Pressurization (purged) methods Ex p requires a monitoring unit that reliably switches off the electrical operating equipment inside the housing as soon as sufcient pressurization is no longer present. The monitoring unit must be designed in a different protection method, so that it can also be operated without pressurization. Operating equipment can now be operated inside the enclosure. Nevertheless, a source of ignition must not develop if the pressurization decreases, as a result of the temperature of the operating equipment. In the USA this method used is referred to as purged with three forms X,Y,Z. (see page 8)

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Type of protection "n" T Protection method "n" can be described as an improved industrial quality that is designed for normal operation. A fault scenario examination as with the intrinsic safety category is not performed. This can only be applied for group II and the use of electrical operating equipment in zone 2. The manufacturer species the technical data for normal operation. In the method "n", ve different versions are distinguished, which can be derived in part from the well-known increased safety, intrinsic safety, ame-proof encapsulation, pressurization and encapsulation and molded encapsulation safety categories. This method was developed based on the US protection method "non-incendive" (NI) and was introduced in Europe as a standard in 1999.

Classication of protection method "n": EEx n in Europe Abbreviation Meaning Comparable to Method Divisions of group II None

Non-sparking

EEx e

Occurrence of arcs, sparks or hot surfaces is minimized Enclosed break device Non-incendive components Hermetically sealed, sealed or encapsulated installations Intrusion of explosive gases is limited

Sparking equipment

partly EEx d, EEX m

IIA, IIB, IIC

Restricted breathing housing Power-limited er-limited

---

None

EEX i

Power limitation so that neither sparks nor thermal effects cause an ignition Intrusion of explosive gases is prevented by overpressure, monitoring without disconnection

IIA, IIB, IIC

Simplied pressurized encapsulation * different in North America and Europe

EEx p

None

Subdivision of type of protection "n" in North America Designation acc. to NEC Energy limited, "nC" * Hermetically sealed, "nC" Non-incendive, "nC" Non-sparking, "nA" Restricted breathing, "nR" Sealed device, "nC" Simplied pressurization, "nP" ** * different in North America and Europe ** referred to as type X, Y and Z in the USA

Dust explosion protection in Europe The dust explosion protection for group II acc. to EN 50 281-1-1 limits the entrance of dust into housings by requiring an IP protection for housings acc. to the standard EN 60 529. In addition, the maximum surface temperature that can ignite the dust is specied. Higher temperatures can occur inside the housing, however. In these cases, special instructions are necessary for opening the housing. For group I, which is designed for coalmining, the dust explosion protection (coal dust) is already covered by the standards EN 50 014 ff.

Requirements for housings of group II, dust (D) Category IP protection (EN 60 529) 1 IP6X 2 IP6X 3 IP5X

Housing

Dust-proof

Dust-proof

Dust-protected

Ambient temperature

-20C to + 40C

-20C to + 40C

-20C to + 40C

Max. surface temperature* of the housing

Measurement based on ambient temperature 40C

Measurement based on ambient temperature 40C

Measurement based on ambient temperature 40C

* A temperature value is given in Celsius.

US type of protection acc. to NEC 500504 Explosion-proof For operating equipment of this protection type, additional requirements are made for explosion protection. The temperature is specied to a value that is considered safe in relation to the surroundings. This includes products such as: Motors and generators Monitoring devices for industrial and process control applications (industrial control equipment, process control equipment) Electrically operated valves The ignition of dust or dust accumulation by arcs, sparks or heat is prevented. A short circuit or thermal effect is not able to ignite a ammable gas-air or vapor-air mixture that is specied by the manufacturer under certain operating conditions. The electrical operating equipment does not have any parts that normally cause arcs, sparks, or thermal effects with which an explosive atmosphere can be ignited. The electrical operating equipment is completely sealed so that no explosive atmosphere can enter from outside. This is realized by welding or other melting methods. The operating equipment is designed in such a way that it cannot be opened, has no function parts on the outside and is totally sealed. Sparking parts or hot surfaces can be located inside the equipment.

Dust ignition-proof Non-incendive

Non-sparking

Hermetically sealed

Sealed device

Phoenix Contact

13

6. Identication and Marking


Identication in Europe acc. to ATEX and EN standards Electrical apparatus Identication acc. to EN 50 014 Identication acc. to ATEX
Current year of manufacture Type-examination in acc. T with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Electrical equipment

EC type-examination certicate

Electrical equipment

E Ex ia IIC T6
T Temperature class (for electrical equipment used directly in the Ex area) Group Protection method Explosion-protected Certied to CENELEC standard EN 50

c 02
0102

X II

1 GD
Atmosphere (G = Gas, D = Dust) Category Equipment group Notied body, production (e.g. PTB)

TV 01 ATEX 1750
Certicate no. T Type-examination in acc. with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Y Year of EC type-examination certicate Notied body

Associated apparatus Identication acc. to EN 50 014

Identication acc. to ATEX


Current year of manufacture Type-examination in acc. T with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Associated apparatus

EC type-examination certicate

Associated apparatus

[E Ex ia] IIC

c 02
0102

X II (1) GD
Atmosphere (G = Gas, D = Dust) Category Equipment group Notied body, production (e.g. PTB)

TV 01 ATEX 1750
Certicate no. T Type-examination in acc. with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Y Year of EC type-examination certicate Notied body

Group Protection method Explosion-protected Certied to CENELEC standard EN 50

Component Identication acc. to EN 50 014

Identication acc. to ATEX


Current year of manufacture Type-examination in acc. T with 94/9/EC (ATEX)

EC type-examination certicate

E Ex

II

T6
0102 T Temperature class (for electrical equipment used directly in the Ex area) Group Protection method Explosion-protected Certied to CENELEC standard EN 50

02

X II

2 GD
Atmosphere (G = Gas, D = Dust) Category Equipment group Notied body, production (e.g. PTB)

TV 01 ATEX A 1750 U
Certicate no. T Type-examination in acc. with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Y Year of EC typeexamination certicate Notied body

Components are excepted from the c marking.

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Phoenix Contact

Dust explosion protection for electrical equipment Identication acc. to EN 50 281-1-1 Identication acc. to ATEX
Current year of manufacture Type-examination in acc. T with 94/9/EC (ATEX)

EC type-examination certicate

IP 66

T = 180C
T Temperature IP protection in acc. with EN 60 529

c 02
0102

X II

D
Atmosphere (D = Dust) Category Equipment group Notied body, production (e.g. PTB)

TV 01 ATEX 1750
Certicate no. T Type-examination in acc. with 94/9/EC (ATEX) Y Year of EC type-examination certicate Notied body

Associated apparatus Identication

Component Identication

Phoenix Contact

15

Identication USA Identication US Standard in acc. with NEC 500


Deviation in ambient temperature

IS / II,I / 1 / CDEFG / T6, T5 Ta = 70C; 699008; Type 4X, 6P


Type of housing T Control document Temperature class T Group Division Class Safety category

Identication US Standard in acc. with NEC 505


Deviation in ambient temperature

I / 1 / AEx ia / IIB / T6, T5 Ta = 70C; 699008;

IP 54
Type of housing T Control document Temperature class T Group, Gas group Degree of protection American National Standard approved Zone Class

Associated apparatus

Classication of the electrical equipment Certifying body in the USA: here UL; c for Canada; us for the USA

1M68

U
Listed CD-No: 12345678 Control drawing no. (Control document) Can be used in Div 2* for Class I: Gases Gases Dusts Fibers * Acc. to NEC 500 A: Acetylene B: Hydrogen C: Ethylene D: Propane Suitable for Class I, Div. 2, Groups A, B, C and D installation; providing intrinsically safe circuits for use in Class I, Div. 1, Groups A, B, C and D; Class II, Groups E, F and G; and Class III, Hazardous Locations

suitable for circuits in Div 1*

16

Phoenix Contact

7. Intrinsic Safety
When limiting voltage and current, the following applies for the maximum power: Po = Uo2 4R "ia" in conjunction with galvanic isolation. Intrinsic safety is based on the consideration of faults in order to rule out the danger of explosion. This does not, however, provide any conclusions as to the operational safety. This means that a total functional failure of the equipment can be permissible as seen from the point of view of explosion protection. Electrical equipment can be used in zone 0, Div. 1 according to the category. Associated apparatus is usually installed in the safe area. Only the intrinsically safe circuits are routed into the hazardous area, according to the category.

Signal system around 1910

Principle Safety category "Intrinsic safety" Ex i is based on the principle of limiting the current, voltage and stored energy within an electric circuit.

The maximum permissible values are determined by the ignition limit curves according to in EN 50 020. There are a total of four ignition limit characteristic curves for the gas groups I, IIA, IIB and IIC. They are grouped according to the ignition energy. The ignition limit curves are determined by means of spark test apparatus as described in EN 50 020.

The principle of intrinsic safety > voltage limited > current limited > stored energy limited

Electrical equipment, intrinsic safety

Associated apparatus, intrinsic safety

Intrinsic safety does not reduce the ammable material and/or the oxidizer. The ignition of an explosive mixture is prevented if electrical sparks and thermal effects are ruled out. In order to keep the electrical spark below the ignition limit, the voltage is limited. The thermal effect, in other words, excessively hot surfaces, is ruled out by limiting the current. Limiting the energy prevents the electrical equipment and its surfaces from becoming too hot. This is also true of the sensors connected to the intrinsically safe circuits. Energy may be stored in capacitors (condensers) or inductors (coils) within the intrinsically safe circuit.

Hazardous area

Safe area

Block diagram for limiting voltage and current.

The Zener diode becomes conductive at a dened voltage level. The higher voltage is discharged over the Zener diode and the voltage in the electrical circuit is limited in the Ex area. A resistor connected in series limits the current in the hazardous area. Imax = Io = Uo R

Electrical equipment and associated apparatus An intrinsically safe circuit consists of at least one electrical equipment and one associated apparatus. The circuits of the electrical equipment fulll the requirements of intrinsic safety. Electrical equipment may only be connected to circuits without intrinsic safety via associated apparatus. Associated apparatus has both intrinsically safe circuits and circuits without intrinsic safety. The circuits are isolated using Zener barriers or galvanic isolators. In EN 50 020, the term "safety barrier" is used to refer to this technique. Intrinsically safe electrical equipment and intrinsically safe parts of associated apparatus are classied according to EN 50 020 in categories "ia" and "ib". Category "ia" is always safer than "ib". Category "ia" or "ib" denes whether protection is maintained with one or two faults in the protective circuit. For intrinsically safe circuits going into zone 0, standard (EN 60079-14 chap. 12.3) recommends the preferential use of category

Category*

Faults

ia

Under normal operating conditions, not able to cause ignition if one fault or a combination of two faults occurs.

Permissible zones 0, 1, 2

ib

Under normal operating conditions, not able to cause ignition if one fault occurs.

1, 2

* Category, in acc. with EN 50 020, is not identical with the term used in directive 94/9/EC

Phoenix Contact

17

Associated apparatus with/without galvanic isolation


Simple electrical equipment (EN 50 020) Type T ype passive components Condition No energy contribution Examples Resistor, switch, potentiometer, distributor box, simple semiconductor components, Pt 100 Coil, Capacitor

Intrinsic safety installations The central idea with regard to installation The entire intrinsically safe circuit must be protected against energy from other sources entering, and against electrical and magnetic elds. The installation technician or operator is responsible for the intrinsic safety installation, and not the manufacturer.

Ex side Without electrical isolation: Zener barrier

Safe area Energy storing devices Precisely dened characteristics, the values of which must be taken into account in the overall safety of the system. Maximum values: U 1.5 V, I 100 mA, P 25 mW

Ex side With electrical isolation: Galvanic isolator barriers

Safe area

Energy sources

Thermocouple, Photocell

Identication of hazardous areas The hazardous area is identied by means of a warning sign.

Associated apparatus can be designed in a further safety category in order for it to be installed in zone 2, Div. 2 or maybe even in zone 1, Div. 1.

Simple electrical equipment, intrinsic safety

Associated apparatus, intrinsic safety

Warning signs for the hazardous area

Intrinsically safe circuits with associated apparatus To aid planning and installation, it is advisable to keep the operating instructions and EC type-examination certicates of the associated apparatus used at hand. These must be referred to for the necessary parameters. The rst step is to verify the data according to the following table.

Hazardous area

Safe area

Simple electrical equipment Simple electrical equipment does not require certication. It must be assigned to a temperature class and conform with any other applicable requirements of EN 50 020. The maximum temperature can be calculated from power Po of the associated apparatus and the temperature class determined.

Dimensioning of intrinsically safe circuits Potentially explosive area Safe area PLC 420 mA


Common designations Europe USA


For electrical equipment: Max. permissible voltage Max. permissible current Internal capacitance Internal inductance For associated apparatus: Max. open-circuit voltage Max. short-circuit current Max. permissible capacitance Max. permissible inductance

Ui Ii Ci Li Uo Io Co Lo

Vmax Imax Ci Li Voc Isc Ca La

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Phoenix Contact

Checking the use in the hazardous area Criteria Electrical equipment II, G, D 1, 2, 3 IIA, IIB, IIC 0, 1, 2 EEX ia, EEx ib T1T6 Associated apparatus II, G, D (1), (2), (3) IIA, IIB, IIC 0, 1, 2 [EEX ia], [EEx ib] --

Galvanic isolator barriers versus Zener barriers


Comparison of galvanic isolator barriers and Zener barriers Condition Galvanic isolator barriers: can be connected to ground, but not in zone 0 not necessary not possible not possible none Zener barriers cannot be connected to ground necessary possible possible present

Permitted conductor cross sections for connection to earth Number of conductors At least two separate conductors One conductor Conductor cross section min. 1.5 mm2 Condition

Equipment group, Category Group Zone T Type of protection T Temperature class

Each individual conductor can carry the greatest possible current

Sensor, actuator

min. 4 mm2

Equipotential bonding Faults in measurement (ground loops) Leakage currents in Zener diodes T Temperature coefcients in limiting resistors Different potentials for intrinsically safe circuit and evaluation circuit Installation work

In the case of galvanic isolation of supply and signal circuits, the faults and/or transient currents in the equipotential leads must be taken into account.

The next step is to check the electrical data of the intrinsically safe circuit (voltage, current, power, capacitance and inductance). The system parameters are seen as complying if the system has certication. In the intrinsically safe circuit, all capacitances and inductances must be taken into account and compared with capacitance Co and inductance Lo of the associated apparatus. In practice, it is particularly important to observe the capacitance, since this can considerably restrict the length of cables or conductors. As a reference value, capacitance CC can be taken to be approx. 140200 nF/km and inductance LC approx. 0.81 mH/km. Where there is any doubt, always assume the worst case.

permitted

not permitted

less

higher due to reliable grounding

In order to prevent difculties during installation that can occur due to grounding, the IS products from Phoenix Contact always have electrical isolation.

with several pieces of associated apparatus The interconnection of several associated apparatus is not permitted for use in zone 0. If an intrinsically safe circuit for applications in zone 1 and zone 2 contains more than one associated apparatus, proof must be provided from theoretical calculations or test with the spark tester (in acc. with EN 50 020). It must be taken into account whether a current addition is present. It is therefore recommended to have the evaluation performed by an expert. Examples for the interconnection of several intrinsically safe circuits with a linear current-voltage characteristics are listed in appendix A and B of EN 60 079-14. When associated operating equipment with nonlinear characteristics are interconnected, the evaluation on the basis of the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current does not lead to the result. The calculations can be performed on the basis of the PTB report PTB-ThEx-10 "Interconnection of non-linear and linear intrinsically safe circuits". However, here graphic methods are used to evaluate the intrinsic safety up to zone 1.

Grounding in intrinsically safe circuits Potential differences can arise when intrinsically safe circuits are grounded. These must be taken into account when considering the circuits. Intrinsically safe circuits may be isolated to ground. The danger of electrostatic charging must be considered. The connection via a resistance R = 0.21 M to discharge electrostatic charges is not a ground connection. An intrinsically safe circuit may be connected to the equipotential bonding system if this is only done at one point within the electrically isolated, intrinsically safe circuit. This condition is fullled by an electrical isolator. X-Note If a grounding is necessary at the sensor/ actuator due to the function, this must be done immediately outside of zone 0. Systems with Zener barriers must be grounded to them. Mechanical protection against damage must also be provided if necessary. These circuits may not be grounded at another point. All electrical operating equipment that does not pass the voltage test with at least 500 V to ground must be grounded.

Service and maintenance No special authorization (e.g. re certicate) is required for servicing intrinsically safe circuits. The conductors of the intrinsically safe circuit can be shortcircuited or interrupted without causing an explosion. Electrical equipment can be replaced (or modules unplugged) without the system having to be switched off. Soldering is not permitted. No dangerous contact currents or voltages occur in intrinsically safe circuits, so they pose no danger to people. The measurement of intrinsically safe circuits requires approved, intrinsically safe measuring instruments. If the data from these measuring instruments is not taken into account, additional energy can enter into the intrinsically safe circuit. The permissible maximum values may be exceeded and the requirements for intrinsic safety will no longer be fullled. The same holds true for all testers that are to be used.

Distance between EEx i and Non-Ex

Intrinsically safe circuits

Circuits to the PLC in the safe area

Light blue cable in hazardous area Structure of a control cabinet with intrinsically safe circuits

Phoenix Contact

19

Cables/conductors for zone 0, 1 and 2 When cables/conductors are installed, they must be protected against mechanical damage, corrosion, chemical and thermal effects. This is a binding requirement in the intrinsic safety category. The accumulation of explosive atmosphere in shafts, channels, tubes and gaps must be prevented. Flammable gases, vapors, liquids and dusts must not be able to spread over them. Within the potentially explosive area, cables/conductors should be laid without interruption wherever possible. If this cannot be done, the cables/conductors may only be connected in a housing that is designed with a protection type that is approved for the zone. If this is also not possible due to installation reasons, the conditions from the standard EN 60 079-14 must be fullled. These conditions will not be discussed here.

Cables/conductors for zone 1 and 2 Cable/ conductor Fixed operating equipment Portable, transportable equipment Requirement

Sheath

External sheath

Flexible

Minimum crosssectional area Version

1.0 mm2

Light rubber tubing without/with polychloroprene sheathing Heavy rubber tubing without/with polychloroprene sheathing Plastic-insulated conductor, comparable heavy rubber tubing

Thermoplastic,thermosetting plastic, elastomer or metalinsulated with a metal sheath Heavy plolychloroprene, synthetic elastomer, heavy rubber tubing or comparable sturdy structure

The following also hold true for intrinsically safe circuits, outside of the potentially explosive area as well: Protection against the intrusion of external power. Protection against e external electrical or magnetic elds. Possible cause: Highvoltage overhead conductor or singlephase high-voltage conductors. Single-core non-sheathed conductor of intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits may not be routed in the same conductor. In the case of proven, metal-sheathed or shielded cables/conductors, intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits can be laid in one and the same cable duct. In the control cabinet, the intrinsically safe circuits should be as clearly marked as possible. The standard does not stipulate a uniform process, but only indicates that identication should preferably be in light blue. The neutral conductors of power cables are also usually identied with blue. In this case, intrinsically safe circuits should be identied in a different way, to prevent mix ups. A clear arrangement and spatial separation is advantageous in the control cabinet. Conductive shields may only be grounded at a place that is usually in the non-explosive area. See also the section "Grounding in intrinsically safe circuits" (see page 19). Three special cases are allowed in which the shield can be grounded several times.

Distances to connection terminal blocks Between different intrinsically safe circuits The clearance distances between terminal blocks of different intrinsically safe circuits must be at least 6 mm. The clearance distances between the conductive parts of the connection terminal blocks and conductive parts that can be grounded must be at least 3 mm. Intrinsically safe circuits must be clearly identied. Between intrinsically safe and other circuits At modular terminal blocks, the distance between the conductive parts of intrinsically safe circuits and the conductive parts of nonintrinsically safe circuits must be at least 50 mm. The spacing can also be created using a separating plate made of insulation material or a grounded metal plate. Cables/conductors of intrinsically safe circuits may not come into contact with a non-intrinsically safe circuit, even if they should become separated from the modular terminal block. The cables/conductors must be correspondingly shortened during installation.

Special cases for grounding conductive shields in intrinsically safe circuits Reason Conditions Spacing acc. to EN 50 020, ch. 6.3.1 or g. 1.

The cables and conductors must be selected accordingly for intrinsically safe circuits:
b

Shield has a high resistance, additional shielding against inductive interferences

Sturdy ground conductor (min. 4 mm2), insulated ground conductor and shield: insulation test 500 V, both grounded at one point, Ground conductor fullls the requirements for intrinsic safety and is taken into account in the proof High guarantee that the equipotential bonding is guaranteed Total capacitance not over 10 nF T

Selection criteria for cables/conductors for the intrinsic safety Criterion Condition Note

Equipotential bonding between both ends Multiple grounding via small capacitors

Special requirements in zone 0, Europe The standard EN 50 284 "Special requirements for the construction, testing and labeling of electrical equipment for equipment group II, category 1G" (corresponding to the ATEX directive 94/9/ EC) supplements EN 50 014 ff. This describes further requirements for using operating equipment with other protection method as intrinsic safety in zone 0.

Isolated cables/ conductors Diameter of individual conductors Fine-strand conductors Multi-strand cables/ conductors Parameters

T voltage Test 500 V AC 0.1 mm

Conductor-ground, conductor-shield and shield-ground For ne-strand conductors as well e.g. with ferrules

Several intrinsically safe circuits can be routed in multi-conductor cables.

Protect against unsplicing Permitted

(CC and LC) or (CC and LC/ R C)

Take into account the error monitoring from EN 60 07914 if in doubt: worst-case

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Phoenix Contact

8. Surge Voltage Protection in the Hazardous Area


Surge voltages Surge voltages are an important topic where functional endurance and the availability of electrical equipment are concerned. Increasing automation, in conjunction with more and more powerful electronic components, involves a higher susceptibility to transient surge voltages. These interferences are disturbing pulses that quickly change through time and can reach amplitudes of several kV in a few microseconds. The most frequent cause for the occurrence of surge voltages is not lightning, as generally assumed, but switching transients at the facility. Electrostatic is also a considerable cause in many areas. Once a surge voltage has occurred, then malfunctioning, short-term functional interruptions or in the worst case, complete failures due to destruction can often occur. Protection devices of the product series MCR-PLUGTRAB are especially userfriendly. The decoupling elements (resistors) are contained in the base element and remain in the circuit regardless of whether the protective plug is plugged into the base element or not. For use in potentially dust-explosive areas, the surge voltage protection devices must be installed in housings with a protetion level of at least IP 6X, directly before the volume to be protected. In the potentially gas-explosive area, an IP 4X housing is sufcient. If signal conductors of an intrinsically safe circuit lead into the inside of a container in which ammable liquids are stored, the surge voltage protection devices must be installed in a metal housing directly before the tank wall in accordance with TRbF 100 (Technical Regulations for Flammable Liquids). This must be connected with the tank in such a way that a secure equipotential bonding can be assumed. In order to prevent direct strikes in already protected conductors, the conductors must be routed between the housing and tank, for example in metal tubes.

Modular terminal block with integrated surge voltage protection TT-EX(I)- 24DC

IN

OUT

unprotected

protected

Protection circuit of the modular terminal block TT-EX(I)-24DC and the basic terminal blocks TT-PI-EX-TB

The function principle can be easily explained using the above protection circuit as an example. When a surge voltage occurs, the suppressor diode operates rst as the fastest component. The protection circuit is designed so that when the amplitude increases, the discharge current passes to the upstream discharge path, i.e. to the gas-lled surge arrester, before the suppressor diode can be destroyed. With this design, it is possible to attain a surge arresting capacity of 10 kA (8/20)s with a very low and precise voltage threshold. If the discharge current remains low, then the upstream gas-lled surge arrester does not operate. This circuit provides the advantages of fast operating surge arresters with a low voltage threshold as well as a high surge arresting capacity at the same time in the case of a powerful surge voltage coupling. Surge voltage protection devices help to control this threat and thereby increase the life span of the protected installation. In instrumentation and data processing, the protection devices are connected into the signal circuit directly before the device interface to be protected. The connections of the surge arresters are labeled with "IN" and "OUT". During installation, make sure that "IN" points in the direction from which the surge voltage is expected. This enables the accurate functionality of multi-stage protection circuits function correctly.

Basic terminal block with integrated surge voltage protection TT-PI-EX-TB

Phoenix Contact

21

Example: Holding tank In a tank farm for chemical products, disruptive errors can develop in the system software that cause the uncontrolled or simultaneous triggering of several valves and thus produce intense reactions. In order to prevent the inadmissibly high potential differences, an equipotential bonding is rst set up between the control board and the holding tanks. If a lightning bolt discharges with iB (t) = 30 kA(10/350 s), it is calculated according to IEC 61312-1 that only approx. 50% of the lightning current will be discharged into the ground if no risk analysis has been performed. If one assumes that the remaining 15 kA(10/350) s initially only ows over the equipotential lead, the following maximum ohmic potential difference between the control board and the holding tank with a copper cross section of 95 mm2 : R = = 17.3 R = B I RCU with RCU = 2 A m mm2 m and

100 m

IN
9,2

OUT

420 mA

420 mA

+ 24 VDC

Ci 30 V Ii 200 mA Pi 1 W Ci1 = 0 nF Li1 20 nH

Cconductor = 20 nF Lconductor = 2 x 100 F PT 2X EX (I)-24 DC Ci3 < 5 nF Li3 < 1 H Proof of intrinsic safety ! ! 1. Uo Ui Io Ii 2. Co1 + Ci2 3. Lo1 + Li2 + Cconductor + Lconductor

+-

-+

-+

- GND

TT-EX (I)-24 DC Ci2 < 2.5 nF Li2 < 1 H !

Po Pi ! + Ci3 Co ! + Li3 Lo

PI-EX-RPSS-I/I Uo = 28 V Io = 93 mA Po = 650 mW

Co = 83 nF Lo = 4.3 mH

RCU

Level measurement: Protection of the controller by TERMITRAB TT-EX(I)-24DC and basic terminal block PI-EX-TB

100 m

m mm2 100 m 30 kA 17.3 2 m 95 mm2

IN
9,2

OUT

420 mA 420 mA
+ 24 VDC

R = 273 V At rst glance, the combination of equipotential leads and the required insulation strength of 500 V seems to offer sufcient protection from partial lightning currents in intrinsically safe systems. However, in addition to the resistance per unit length, every conductor also has an inductance per unit length L. For a round copper conductor, a crosssection-independent inductance per unit length L 1 H/m is assumed in practice. Furthermore, a lightning current of the curve form (10/350) s reaches its amplitude (here: 15 kA) in approx. 10 s and is reduced to 50% after approx. 350 s. This yields a rate of front current rise of diB(part) dt iB(part) t iB(part) t iB(part) t B(part) T1 kA s = B 30 kA = 2 T1 2 10 s

Ci 30 V Ii 200 mA Pi 1 W Ci1 = 0 nF Li1 20 nH

Cconductor = 20 nF Lconductor = 2 x 100 F TT-EX (I)-24 DC Ci2 < 2.5 nF Li2 < 1 H Proof of intrinsic safety ! ! 1. Uo Ui Io Ii 2. Co1 + Ci2 3. Lo1 + Li2 + Cconductor + Lconductor

+-

-+

-+

- GND

! Po Pi ! + Ci3 Co ! + Li3 Lo

PI-EX-RPSS-I/I Uo = 28 V Io = 93 mA Po = 650 mW

Co = 83 nF Lo = 4.3 mH

RCU

Basic terminal block with integrated surge voltage protection TT-PI-EX-TB Ci3 = 3 nF Li3 = 1 F

Level measurement: Protection of the controller by the basic terminal block TT-PI-EX-TB with integrated surge voltage protection

according to Faradays law: uL (t) = - L L - L I L -1 diB(part) dt iB(part) t

kA H 100 m 1.5 m s

= 1.5

L -150 kV Intrinsically safe circuits that run between the holding tank and the control board are thereby destroyed. The potential difference at the protected volume can only be limited to harmless values by the consistent use of surge voltage protection devices.

The inductive voltage drop that occurs along the equipotential lead is calculated

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Phoenix Contact

9. Hazardous Approved Modular Terminal Blocks

Modular terminal blocks are used as approved components in the potentially explosive area. They are used in connection spaces of Ex equipment. The use in zone 1 and 2 for gases and in 21 and 22 for dusts is therefore allowed. The requirements for IP protection are fullled by the connection space in accordance with the respective safety category. The approval of components serves as the basis for certifying a device or protection system. The modular terminal block is identied as a component by the certicate number (sufx "U" according to European standard) or the approval mark (e.g. UL: recognition mark A). Modular terminal blocks with the "increased safety" category must have identication. Information on the details can be found on page 14 in the section "Components".

Increased safety Ex e Modular terminal blocks must also meet the requirements for the connection of external conductors. The standards for the increased safety form the basis for the test. The most important requirements for modular terminal blocks can be summarized as follows: Modular terminal blocks for external conductors must be generously dimensioned. Modular terminal blocks must be secured against loosening, fastened and designed so that the conductors cannot become undone. Modular terminal blocks must be designed to guarantee sufcient contact pressure without the conductors being damaged. This is particularly important in the case of multiple-wire (ne-strand) conductors that are used in terminal blocks for connecting conductors directly. Modular terminal blocks must be designed so that their contact pressure during normal operation is not altered by a change in temperature. Under no circumstances may insulating material parts be used to transmit the contact pressure.

Modular terminal blocks that are intended for the connection of multi-wire conductors must be tted with an intermediate elastic element. The technical data for modular terminal blocks in the hazardous area are specied by the type-examination and documented in the certicate. The basic data for the use of modular terminal blocks and accessories are: working voltage, nominal current, connectable conductor cross-sections, temperature range, temperature class. X--Note The standard modular terminal blocks with screw, spring-cage and fast connection technology from Phoenix Contact are approved worldwide for applications in the hazardous area. Further information can be found at: www.phoenixcontact.com

Phoenix Contact

23

Intrinsic safety Ex i With intrinsic safety, no special requirements are made for conductor connections concerning secured screws, solder connections, plug connections etc. This is due to the fact that the current, voltage and power values are so low in circuits proven to be intrinsically safe, that there is no danger of explosion. No special type tests or identications are planned for passive components such as e.g. modular terminal blocks and plug connectors. Blue is the usual color for terminal

Ex e and Ex i in the same housing In electrical equipment, such as e.g. terminal boxes, both intrinsically safe (Ex i) and (Ex e) circuits with increased safety can be combined. In this case, safe mechanical and, if necessary, also visual separation is stipulated. It must be taken into account that individual conductors do not come into contact with live parts of the other circuits when the wiring is disconnected from the modular terminal block. The distance between the modular terminal blocks must be at least 50 mm. Conventional wiring procedures must be

Clearance distance through separating plate between intrinsically safe circuits and other circuits

housings to clearly identify intrinsically safe electric circuits. This is why almost all modular terminal blocks from Phoenix Contact are also available in blue housings. Strict demands are placed on the clearance distances between adjacent terminal blocks and between terminal blocks and grounded metal parts. The clearance distance between the external connections of two neighboring intrinsically safe circuits must be at least 6 mm. The minimum clearance distance between non-insulated connections and grounded metal parts or other conductive parts, on the other hand, need only be 3 mm. Clearance and creepage distances as well as distances through rigid insulation are specied e.g. in EN 50 020, section 6.3 and table 4. X-Note In the data sheets, Phoenix Contact not only documents data for intrinsic safety, but also for the protection method "increased safety".

followed to make contact between the circuits improbable even if a conductor were to come loose. In control cabinets with a higher wiring density, this separation is achieved by either insulating or grounded metallic partition plates. The distance between intrinsically safe and nonintrinsically safe electric circuits must also be 50 mm. Measurements are made in all directions around the partition plates. The distance may be less if the partition plates come within at least 1.5 mm of the housing wall. Metallic partition plates must be grounded and must be sufciently strong and rigid. Metallic partition plates must be at least 0.45 mm thick; non-metallic insulating partition plates must be at least 0.9 mm thick. The Ex e circuits must be additionally protected in the housing by a cover (at least IP 30) if the end cover is allowed to be opened during operation. Otherwise, it is only permissible to open the end cover when the Ex e circuits are switched off. Corresponding warning signs must be provided.

Clearance distances to intrinsically safe circuits and other circuits must also be observed even when there are several mounting rails.

Separating plate between mounting rail to ensure clearance distance

24

Phoenix Contact

10. Cable/Conductor Leads and Conduit Systems


Two installation techniques are used worldwide. In Europe, cable/conductor leads protection method "ame-proof Ex d in encapsulation" or "increased safety" are most commonly used. In the USA and Canada, the conduit system is traditionally used.
Conductors (single wires) Sealing compound

Mineral ber wool (asbestos-free) Conductor protection tube (Ex d) Ignition lock (seal)

Cable/conductor leads The cable/conductor leads are designed in protection method "pressure-tight encapsulation". This is ame-proof and is used in conjunction with ame-proof encapsulated housings. Designs can also be available with protection method "increased safety". The cable/conductor leads fulll the requirements for IP protection here. They are used together with housings in protection method "increased safety".
Cable system with direct entry

Conduit system In the USA, value is especially placed on high mechanical protection of the cables/ conductors. For this reason, the conduit system has become very common in the USA.

Comparison of cable/conductor leads with conduit system In comparison with the cable/conductor leads, the disadvantages of the conduit system can be seen in the time-consuming assembly. If the ignition lock is not properly sealed, then protection cannot be guaranteed. The cable/conductor leads, on the other hand, is designed so that the assembly does not depend on the respective tting. During installation, the position of the opening is also decisive for the sealing compound. In addition, condensation can form very easily in conduit systems. This can lead to ground faults and short circuits as a result of corrosion.

Cable system with indirect entry

Conduit system

Phoenix Contact

25

11. IP Protection, NEMA Classication


IP protection

IP 5 4
Degrees of protection against access to dangerous parts and solid foreign bodies Short description Not protected Protected against touching dangerous parts with the back of ones hand. Protected against solid foreign bodies of 50 mm diameter and larger. Protected against touching dangerous parts with a nger. Protected against solid foreign bodies of 12.5 mm diameter and larger. Protected against touching dangerous parts with a tool. Protected against solid foreign bodies of 2.5 mm diameter and larger. Protected against touching dangerous parts with a wire. Protected against solid foreign bodies of 1.0 mm diameter and larger. Protected against touching dangerous parts with a wire. Dust-protected The access probe, a sphere 50 mm in diameter, must be at a sufcient distance from dangerous parts. The object probe, a sphere of 50 mm diameter, may not enter entirely 1). The segmented test nger, 12 mm in diameter, 80 mm long, must be at a sufcient distance from dangerous parts. The object probe, a sphere of 12.5 mm diameter, may not enter entirely 1). Denition Second characteristic numeral numeral 0 1 Degree of protection against water Short description Not protected Protected against dripping water. Protected against dripping water when the housing is inclined at an angle of up to Protected against spray water. Vertically falling drops must not have any detrimental effect. Vertically falling drops must not have any detrimental effect when the housing is inclined at an angle of up to 15 on both sides of the perpendicular. Water that is sprayed at an angle of up to 60 on both sides of the perpendicular must not have any detrimental effect. Water that is splashed against the housing from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. Water that is splashed against the housing with increased pressure from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. (acc. to DIN 40 050 part 9 only applies to road vehicles) Water that is splashed against the housing as a jet from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. Water that is splashed against the housing as a strong jet from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. Water that is directed against the housing as a jet with increased pressure from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. (acc. to DIN 400050 part 9, only applies to road vehicles) Denition

First characteristic numeral 0 1

Protected against splash water. Protected against splash water with increased pressure.

The access probe, 2.5 mm in diameter, must not enter. 4K

The object probe, 2.5 mm in diameter, may not enter at all 1). The access probe, 1.0 mm in diameter, must not enter. 5 Protected against jet water.

The object probe, 1.0 mm in diameter, must not enter at all 1).

Protected against strong jet water. Protected against strong splash water with increased pressure.

The access probe, 1.0 mm in diameter, must not enter. 6K

The entrance of dust is not completely prevented, but dust may not enter in such an amount that the satisfactory operation of the device or the safety is impaired. The access probe, 1.0 mm in diameter, must not enter. 7 Protected against the effects of temporary submersion in water.

Protected against touching dangerous parts with a wire. Dust-proof

No intrusion of dust.

Water must not enter in such an amount that it causes detrimental effects when the housing is temporarily submerged in water under standard pressure and time conditions.

1) The

complete diameter of the object probe must not pass through an opening of the housing.

Protected against the effects of continuous submersion in water.

Note If one characteristic numeral does not need to be specied, it must be replaced with the letter "X". Devices that are identied with the second characteristic numeral 7 or 8 do not have to fulll the requirements of the second characteristic numerals 5 or 6, unless they have a double identication (e.g. IP X6/IP X7). No conditions are specied for IP X8. The conditions can be specied by the manufacturer.

W Water must not enter in such an amount that it causes detrimental effects when the housing is continuously submerged under water under conditions that are to be agreed upon between the manufacturer and the user. The conditions must be more difcult than those for the characteristic numeral 7, though Water that is directed against the housing with greatly increased pressure from any direction must not have any detrimental effect. (acc. to DIN 40 050 part 9 only applies to road vehicles)

9K

Protected against water during high-pressure / jetstream cleaning.

NEMA classication NEMA 1 2 3 3R 3S 4 4x 6 6P 11 12, 12K 13 Application Indoors Indoors Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors Indoors or outdoors Indoors or outdoors Indoors or outdoors Indoors or outdoors Indoors Indoors Indoors Condition (based on NEMA standard 250) Protection against accidental contact, limited amount of dirt Intrusion of dripping water and dirt Protection against dust, rain, no damage when ice forms on the housing Protection against f falling rain, no damage when ice forms on the housing Protection against dust, rain and hail; external mechanisms remain operable when ice forms Protection against splash water, dust, rain, no damage when ice forms on the housing Protection against splash water, dust, rain; no damage when ice forms on the housing; protected against corrosion Protection against dust, water jet and water during temporary submersion; no damage when ice forms on the housing Protection against water during longer submersion; protected against corrosion Protection against dripping water; protected against corrosion Protection against dust, dripping water Protection against dust and splash water, oil and non-corrosive liquids IP 55 IP 65 IP 64 IP 22 IP 64 IP 66 IP 66 IP 67 IP protection type* IP 20

Important: The test conditions and requirements of the NEMA classication and IP protection (EN 60 529) are not the same. IP protection types cannot be converted into NEMA classications.

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Phoenix Contact

12. What is NAMUR?


The term NAMUR (Standardization Association for Measurement and Regulation Technology in the Chemical Industry) applies to proximity switches. This type of sensor is ideally suited for intrinsically safe circuits. NAMUR sensor The proximity switch is equipped with an internal resistance. These are operated with a two-wire connection cable that is connected to the control input of a switching amplier. The sensor is blocked when the value is below 1.2 mA and opened when the value is over 2.1 mA. Within these limits is an impermissible state. This ensures that unambiguous states are attained.
Division of proximity switches 1st position/ 1 character Classication type I = inductive C = capacitive U = ultrasound D = photoelectrically diffuse reecting light beam R = photoelectrically reecting light beam T = photoelectrically direct light beam 2nd position/ 1 character Mechanical installation conditions 1 = can be mounted ush 2 = cannot be mounted ush 3 = not determined 3rd position/ 3 character Design and size 4th position/ 1 character Switching element function A = N/O contact B = N/C contact P = can be programmed by user S = other 5th position/ 1 character Output type 6th position/ 1 character T Type of connection 1 = integrated connection cable 2 = plug-in connection 3 = screw connection 9 = other 8th position/ 1 character NAMUR function N = NAMUR function

FORM (1 capital letter) A = cylindrical threaded sleeve B = smooth cylindrical sleeve C = rectangular with square cross-section D = square with square crosssection SIZE (2 numerals) for diameter or side length

D = 2 DC connections S = other

Note: This table is an extension of the table from EN 60 947-5-2 (previously DIN 19 237).

NAMUR Sensor

Safe area

EX

+ 13 14

PLC

+-

-+

-+
UB+ UB-

NAMUR sensor in the eld

UB+ UB

24 V

Mains v voltage

3 mA 2

Switching points
Switching current difference
2,1

Trav Tr avel av el difference Circuit design with a NAMUR sensor in the Ex area.

PI-EX-NAM/RNO-NE

1,2

s 0

Spacing S

Example of a continuous characteristic curve of a proximity sensor

3 mA 2
2,1

NAMUR switching amplier NAMUR switching ampliers allow the following signals and characteristics of NAMUR sensors to be evaluated. a Operating range for changing the switching state I1: 1.2 mA to 2.1 mA, b Operating range for interrupting the control current circuit I1: 0.05 mA to 0.35 mA, c Monitoring range for interruptions I 0.05 mA, d Operating range for short circuits in the control circuit R: 100 to 360 , e Monitoring range for short circuits R 100 .

U V

I 1

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

c b a

R=
d

360

R = 100

e
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I1 I / mA

Control input of the NAMUR switching amplier

1,2

s 0 Spacing S

Example of a non-continuous characteristic curve of a proximity sensor Phoenix Contact

I 1

27

13. Smart-Compatible Devices


In the process industry, a conguration must be performed or diagnostic data determined for a large number of analog eld devices during commissioning and maintenance as well as during operation. To enable such communication to eld devices, digital information is superimposed on the analog signal. For this purpose, all the involved devices must be "Smart"compatible. In practice, the HART protocol has become established for this type of communication. Since this technology is currently the most widely used one and is the "de facto" standard, the "Smart" topic will be explained using this technology as a basis. With the HART protocol, the transmission of the digital information is modulated to the analog 4-20 mA signal with the help of frequency shift keying (FSK). In general, two possible operating modes are distinguished: "point-to-point" mode, in which communication is only possible to one eld device connected in the 4-20 mA circuit, and "multi-drop" mode, in which up to 15 eld devices in the circuit can be connected in parallel. These two operating modes basically differ in the fact that in "point-topoint" mode, the analog 4-20 mA signal can continue to be used in the usual way and transmits the desired process signal. In this case, additional data can also be transmitted in digital form. In "multi-drop" mode, a current signal of 4 mA is used in the eld device as a carrier medium to transfer the exclusively digital information to and from the connected eld devices. Analog signal superimposed with digital HART signal The devices can be connected in point-topoint mode as well as in multi-drop mode (with up to 15 stations). In the case of pointto-point mode, the 4...20 mA signal remains available as a process signal as usual. For multi-drop mode, a load-independent, minimum current of 4 mA is needed for the analog signal. Design with HART signal supply Depending on the physical structure, the control level can also use the HART communication to inuence the eld device (setpoint, measurement range change etc.)
Safe area
EX

Smart transmitter EEx ia

Transmitter/converter [EEx ia]


1.2 - 2.2 kHz i i

Digital signal
20 mA

4-20 mA

2200

Hz

1200

Hz

1200 H

2200 Hz

2200

Hz

"0"

"1"

"1"

"0"

"0"

HARTconguration device

Analog signal
4 mA t

Using the additional digital signals, it is possible to perform diagnostics and congurations of HART-capable eld devices in the system on this communication path. The aids that are used to implement this functionality depend on the technical infrastructure of the system installation. The diagnostics and congurations of the eld devices can be carried out directly in the eld as well as at the terminals of the interface devices with the help of a handheld device. If the HART data is transmitted to higher-level engineering tools with HART multiplexers or via I/O modules of the control level, then they can also be used e.g. by asset management systems. Asset management systems offer the possibility of performing conguration and diagnosis functions automatically and additionally provide the technical framework for archiving the eld device data (e.g. parameter settings etc.).

from the control unit or to request additional data (e.g. process signals). In recent time, the use of HART information has been implemented in more and more applications. As in standard installations (without HART communication) as well, interface devices are used to connect the eld devices (sensors and actuators) and the I/O level of the control unit. To transmit the data that has been modulated to the analog 4-20 mA signal reliably and without interference, the interface devices used for this must be "Smart"-compatible. That means that no inuences on the HART signal may occur during operation, e.g. from lters. In the case of interface devices for signal level matching with electrical isolation or Ex isolation etc., the HART signal is decoupled in the interface device and transmitted separately. Otherwise, it would not be possible to transmit the data from these devices. In addition, the connected load in the circuit must also be taken into account.

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Phoenix Contact

14. Application/Installation Examples

Analog IN / OUT

Digital IN / OUT

Temperature

Phoenix Contact

29

Analog IN Function The devices transmit analog signals from sensors in the eld to a control unit, using electrical isolation. Input isolator: The sensor in the eld is not supplied with power. T Transmitter/converter: Additionally supplies the sensor with the required power. Smart transmitter/converter: Additionally modulated digital data signal is transmitted. Note: The operator determines the zone, the group and the temperature class for the eld device, based on the performed risk analysis.

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

Associated apparatus

X II ( 1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX
Or SM d.Nr. -M : 27 E 44 -R 42 S 9 2

32
R S2

/R
D (A R (A ) D (B D ) GN )
32 85 ) R S4 R (B 6

48

5-P

PLC

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-EX-ME-RPSS-I/I X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Field device Ui Ii Pi Ci Li + + Cc Lc Cable/line Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example PI-Ex-ME-RPSS-I/I 28 V 93 mA 0.65 W IIB = 650 nF IIC = 83 nF IIB = 14 mH IIC = 2 mH

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Analog OUT Function The devices transmit analog signals from a control unit to an actuator in the eld, using electrical isolation. Output isolator The output isolator can also be smartcompatible. In this way, actuators in the eld can be congured using the HART protocol. Note: The operator determines the zone, the group and the temperature class for the eld device, based on the performed risk analysis.

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

Associated apparatus

X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX
Or SM d.Nr. -M : 27 E 44 -R 42 S 9 2

32
R S2

/R
D (A R (A ) D (B D ) GN )
32 85 ) R S4 R (B 6

48

5-P

PLC

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-EX-ME-ID-I/I X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Field device Ui Ii Pi Ci Li + + Cc Lc Cable/line Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example PI-Ex-ME-ID-I-I 12.6 V 87 mA 0.67 W IIB = 830 nF IIC = 250 nF IIB = 4.5 mH IIC = 1.2 mH

Phoenix Contact

31

Digital IN NAMUR switching amplier The devices transmit digital signals from sensors in the eld to the control unit, using electrical isolation. On the control side, the signal is transferred to the control unit as a digital signal either through a relay or through a transistor This signal is created on the one hand by a switch or by a NAMUR sensor. In the case of switches, it is possible to implement the line interrupt detection at the same time with an additional resistance circuit.

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

Associated apparatus

X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX

Or SM d.Nr. -M : 27 E 44 -R 42 S 9 2

32
R S2

/R
D (A R (A ) D (B D ) GN )
32 85 ) R S4 R (B 6

48

5-P

3
With line interrupt detection

3
Without line interrupt detection Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-Ex-ME-2NAM/COC-24VDC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

PLC

The resistance is used to ensure that a minimum current is always owing, even when the switch is open. In this way, a line interrupt can be identied. Note: The operator determines the zone, the group and the temperature class for the eld device, based on the performed risk analysis.

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Field device Ui Ii Pi Ci Li + + Cable/line Passive acc. to EN 50 020 Passive acc. to EN 50 020 Passive acc. to EN 50 020 Cc Lc Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example 10.5 V 26 mA 0.67 W IIB 16.8 F IIC 2.41 F IIB 160 mH IIC 45 mH

32

Phoenix Contact

Digital OUT Valve control block V The valve control blocks PI-Ex- link a switch or power supply installed in the safe area to a device located in the hazardous area. Intrinsically safe solenoid valves, alarm modules or other intrinsically safe devices can be connected, and simple electrical devices such as LEDs can be operated.

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

Associated apparatus

X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Dimensioning
Ri IV RC ISV

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX
Valve isolator UV U SV Solenoid valve R SV
UB UB + PW R

PLC

Ri = internal resistance of the valve isolator UV = guaranteed voltage of the valve isolator without load RC = maximum permissible line resistance when valve isolator and valve are interconnected RSV = effective coil resistance of the solenoid valve (the copper resistance of the coil depends on the ambient temperature) IV = maximum current that the valve isolator can supply ISV = current needed by the solenoid coil in order for the valve to pick up or be stopped USV = voltage that is present at the coil with ISP (copper resistance of the coil depends on the ambient temperature)

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-Ex-SD/22/45-C X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

Example for valve control blocks PI-Ex-SD/22/45-C Text of the Ex data Valve isolator V E[Ex ia] IIC, Uo = 25 V, Io = 147 mA, Po = 0.92 W V Valve EEx ia IIC, Ui = 25 V, Ii = 150 mA, Pi = 2.1 W This means that the Ex data match Ui Uo, Ii Io, Pi Po Test of the function data T V Valve isolator UV = 21.4 V, Ri = 190 , IV = 45 mA V Valve RSV 65C = 566 , ISV = 23 mA This means that the currents are suitable IV ISV

Determining RC
RC= UV ISV - Ri - RSV = 21.4 V 0.023 A - 566 - 190 = 174.4

The calculation yields the result that a resistance of 174 is available for the cable. If a negative resistance results from the calculation, the function is not guaranteed.

The dimensioning takes place in several steps. 1. Test of the safety data (Ex data) Ui Uo Ii Io Pi Po 2. Test of the function data Iv Isv 3. Determining the max. permissible line resistance
RC = UV ISV - Ri - RSV

Recommended value for cables / lines Conductor resistance (supply / return line) Cable capacity Cable inductance 0.5 mm2: 72 /km 48 /km 0.75 mm2: 1.5 mm2: 24 /km approx. 0.8 nF/km approx. 180 mH/km

Note: The operator determines the zone, the group and the temperature class for the eld device, based on the performed risk analysis.

RC > 0 , otherwise the function is not ensured.

Phoenix Contact

33

T Temperature Temperature transducer T Temperature transducers convert T measurement signals from changeable resistors (Pt100 etc.) or thermocouples (e.g. J, K) into standard signals 020 mA, 420 mA. 2, 3, or 4-conductor measurement technology can be used for Pt100 resistors.

Temperature measurement Case I

Safe area

EX

Pt100

Case II
PW R

2-conductor 3-conductor 4-conductor

short cables / lines long cables / lines long cables / lines Pt100
UB UB + -

Temperature measurement T The temperature inside a heating oil tank is to be monitored. The measurement is done using a Pt100 resistor. This is dened as a simple electrical equipment. The resistance is passive. There are two possibilities for converting the measurement signal into a standard signal for the control unit.

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 Case I The sensor signal is converted into a nonintrinsically safe standard signal in the temperature transducer. X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Case II

Note: The operator determines the zone, the group and the temperature class for the eld device, based on the performed risk analysis. Case I The measurement signal is carried from the Pt100 resistor via a signal line to the temperature transducer PI-Ex-RTD-I. In the measuring transducer, the temperature signal is converted to a standard signal, and the isolation between the intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits takes place at the same time. The measuring transducer is an associated electrical equipment of the Type of Protection "intrinsic safety EEx ia". It T is installed in a control cabinet in the safe area. In this case, the circuit does not require any further expense for electrical dimensioning.

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment Pt100 2-wire connection X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-Ex-RTD-I X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Pt100 resistor Passive acc. to EN 50 020 Cable/line + Cc Lc < Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example PI-Ex-RTD-I 2-conductor 3-conductor 1.1 V 6.6 V 4 mA 1 mW IIA = 1000 F IIB = 500 F IIC = 22 F IIA = 363.7 mH IIB = 178.4 mH IIC = 48.7 mH 27 mA 50 mW

<

34

Phoenix Contact

PW R

The sensor signal is converted to a standard signal in an intrinsically safe temperature transducer. The intrinsically safe and nonintrinsically safe circuits are isolated in a separate device.

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX

PW R

UB UB

+ -

PLC

PLC

Associated apparatus

X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

UB UB

+ -

PLC

Case II In the second case, the conversion of the temperature signal to a standard signal takes place near the measuring point, in other words in the hazardous area. The temperature sensor head MCR-FL-HT-TS-IEx is used for this purpose. The standard signal is then passed on to the transmitter/ converter PI-Ex-RPSS-I/I. This is installed in the safe area. The isolation of the intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits takes place in the transmitter/converter. As in the rst case, no special conditions have to be met for the Pt100 resistor and the sensor head. The safety-relevant data of the electrical equipment, the temperature sensor head and the transmitter/converter as related electrical equipment must be compared. The voltage, current and energy of the transmitter/converter that lead into the Ex area must be smaller than the permissible input values of the temperature sensor head. In addition, it is necessary to make sure that the sum of all capacitances and inductances in the intrinsically safe circuit do not exceed the data specied for the transmitter/ converter. These also include the technical data of the cables and lines of the intrinsically safe circuit.

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX

Note: Associated apparatus necessary.

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment Pt100 2-wire connection X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment MCR-FL-HT-TS-I-Ex X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Pt100 resistor Passive acc. to EN 50 020 Cable/line + + Cc Lc < < Electrical equipment Uo Io Po Co Lo Example MCR-FL-HT-TS-I-Ex Ui = 30 V Ii = 100 mA Pi = 750 mW Ci 0 Li 0

Field device X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Evaluation of the Ex code Category of the eld device corresponds to the assigned zone Type of protection is permitted in the assigned zone T The gas is permitted in the assigned group and for the temperature class Associated apparatus is identied as such Category of the associated apparatus fullls at least the category of the eld device Type of protection of the associated apparatus is suitable for the eld device Associated apparatus is suitable for the gas group of the eld device (same or better quality)

Associated apparatus

X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6 X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Example of a circuit

Safe area

EX
PW R

UB UB

+ -

PLC

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment MCR-FL-HT-TS-I-Ex X II 1 G EEx ia IIB T6

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-Ex-RPSS-I/I X II (1) GD [EEx ia] IIC

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) MCR-FL-HT-TS-I-Ex Ui = 30 V Ii = 100 mA Pi = 750 mW Ci 0 Li 0 + Cc Lc Cable/line > > > < Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example PI-Ex-RPSS-I/I 28 V 93 mA 650 mW IIA = 2.150 F IIB = 0.650 F IIC = 0.083 F IIA = 36.02 mH IIB = 17.72 mH IIC = 4.30 mH Phoenix Contact

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Application in the USA The differences between the North American system for hazardous locations and the European system acc. to ATEX are shown using associated electrical equipment as an example. Special attention must be paid to the different indices for intrinsically safe circuits.

Dimensioning of intrinsically safe circuits Hazardous area Safe area PLC 420 mA


Common designations Europe USA


For electrical equipment: Max. permissible voltage Max. permissible current Internal capacitance Internal inductance For associated apparatus: Max. open-circuit voltage Max. short-circuit current Max. permissible capacitance Max. permissible inductance

Ui Ii Ci Li Uo Io Co Lo

Vmax Imax Ci Li Voc Isc Ca La

Application in the USA In the USA, it is necessary to make sure that approvals are granted for hazardous areas in acc. with NEC 500 as well as acc. to NEC 505. Parameters for electrical equipment: Vmax: max. permissible voltage Imax: max. permissible current Ci: internal capacitance internal inductance Li: Parameters for associated apparatus: Voc: max. open-circuit voltage Isc: max. short-circuit current max. permissible capacitance Ca: La: max. permissible inductance

Field device

Associated apparatus, e.g. PI-EX-ME-RPSS-I/I Listed 1M68 Dark blue for class I, div. 2, groups A, B, C and D installation; providing intrinsically safe circuits for use in class I, div. 1, groups A, B, C and D; class II, groups E, F and G; and class III, hazardous locations

Comparison of the safety-relevant data from the Ex approval (ATEX) Field device Ui Ii Pi Ci Li + + Cc Lc Cable/line Associated apparatus Uo Io Po Co Lo Example PI-Ex-ME-RPSS-I/I 28 V 93 mA 0.65 W IIB = 650 nF IIC = 83 nF IIB = 14 mH IIC = 2 mH

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Phoenix Contact

15. Terms and Abbreviations


Hazardous area terms Potentially explosive or hazardous area An area in which a potentially explosive atmosphere is present or can be expected in such an amount that special measures are needed in the construction, set up and use of electrical equipment. Hazardous area component A part of any electrical equipment for potentially explosive areas or a module (except for Ex cable/line leads), identied by the symbol "U" that may not be used by itself in such areas and requires an additional certicate when installed in electrical equipment or systems for use in potentially explosive areas. "U" symbol "U" is the symbol that is used behind the certicate number of the part certicate to identify an Ex component. "X" symbol "X" is the symbol that is used as an addition after the certicate to identify special conditions for safe application.
Note: The symbols "X" and "U" are not used together.

Intrinsically safe circuit A circuit in which neither a spark nor a thermal effect can cause the ignition of a particular potentially explosive atmosphere. Electrical equipment All components, electric circuits or parts of electric circuits that are usually to be found within a single housing. Intrinsically safe equipment Apparatus in which all circuits are intrinsically safe. Associated apparatus Electrical equipment that contains both intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits and is designed in such a way that the non-intrinsically safe circuits cannot inuence the intrinsically safe ones.
Note: This can also be seen in the square parentheses and the round parentheses of the identication. Associated equipment also has to be installed outside of the potentially explosive area.

Abbreviations Ui = maximum input voltage The maximum voltage (peak value of the AC voltage or DC voltage) that can be applied to the connection elements of intrinsically safe circuits without affecting the intrinsic safety. That means no voltage higher than the value of the associated Ui may be fed to this intrinsically safe circuit. A possible addition of voltage must also be taken into account. See also EN 60 079-14 appendix B. Ii = maximum input current The highest current (peak value of the alternating current or direct current) that can be fed in through the connection elements of the intrinsically safe circuits without destroying the intrinsic safety. That means no current higher than the value of the associated Ui may be fed to this intrinsically safe circuit. A possible addition of current must be taken into account here as well. See EN 60 079-14 appendix B here too. Pi = maximum input power The maximum input power in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be implemented within an electrical equipment when it is connected to an external power supply. That means that no intrinsically safe circuit with a higher power than Pi may be connected here either. Here, a possible addition of power should be taken into account as well. Note on Ui, Ii and Pi: Often, only one or two of the terms Ui, Ii or Pi are given in the information in the certicates of conformity or EC typeexamination certicates. In this case, there are no restrictions for the terms that are not mentioned, since a further, internal limitation has already been integrated in this electrical equipment.

Simple electrical equipment Electrical equipment or a combination of components with a simple design, with precisely determined electrical parameters and that does not impair the intrinsic safety of the circuit in which it is to be used.

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Uo = maximum output voltage The highest output voltage (peak value of the AC voltage or DC voltage) in an intrinsically safe circuit that can occur under idling conditions at the connection elements of the electrical equipment with any applied voltage, up to the maximum voltage including Um and Ui. That means that Uo is the maximum noload voltage that can be present at the terminals at maximum auxiliary power in the case of a fault. Uo is also decisive for the maximum values of the maximum external capacitance Co of an ohmic limitation with a linear characteristic curve acc. to the gures A1, A2 and A3 as well as table A.2 in EN 50 020, appendix A. Io = maximum output current The maximum current (peak value of the alternating current or direct current) in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be taken from the connection terminals of the electrical equipment. That means that Io corresponds to the previous short-circuit current Ik. Io is also decisive for the maximum values of the maximum external inductance Lo in the gures A 1, A 4, A 5 and A 6 in EN 50 020, appendix A for application. Po = maximum output power The highest electrical power in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be taken from the electrical equipment. That means that when a sensor or actuator is connected to this intrinsically safe circuit, this power must be reckoned with, e.g. when heating up or with the load in relation to the associated temperature class.

Ci = Maximum internal capacitance Effective equivalent capacity at the connection elements for the internal capacitances of the electrical equipment. Li = maximum internal inductance Effective replacement inductance at the connection elements for the internal inductances of the electrical equipment. Co = maximum external capacitance The maximum value of the capacitance in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be applied to the connection elements of the electrical equipment without destroying the intrinsic safety. That means that this is the maximum value that all of the capacitances working outside of the electrical equipment may attain. This also includes the addition of all line capacitances and external capacitances of this circuit. In the case of a linear ohmic current limitation, the value of Co above all depends on Uo. See also gure A 2 or table A2 EN 50 020 appendix A2, A3. Lo = maximum external inductance The maximum value of the inductance in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be connected to the connection elements of the electrical equipment. That means that this is the value that all of the inductances working outside of the electrical equipment may attain. This includes the addition of all line inductances and external inductances of this circuit. In the case of a linear ohmic current limitation, Lo above all depends on Io. See also EN 50 020, appendix A, gure A 4.
Note: The index i stands for "in"; the index o stands for "out".

Cc = cable or line capacitance Intrinsic capacitance of a cable or a line. This depends on the cable or line. It is generally between 140 nF/km and 200 nF/ km. Lc = cable or line inductance Intrinsic inductance of a cable or a line. One reckons with approx. 0.8 mH/km. Um = maximum effective value of the AC voltage or maximum DC voltage The maximum voltage that may be connected to non-intrinsically safe connection elements of the associated apparatus without affecting its intrinsic safety. That means that e.g. a Um = 250 V can be specied for the supply voltage and a Um = 60 V for the output. See also EN 60 070-14, appendix 12.2.1 2. Electrical equipment that is connected to non-intrinsically safe connection terminal blocks of associated apparatus may not be supplied with a supply voltage that is larger than the Um that is listed on the nameplate of the associated equipment. For the above example, this means: Further electrical equipment with a supply voltage of up to 250 V can be connected to the power supply of the associated apparatus. Only one piece of electrical equipment with a supply voltage of up to 60 V can be connected to the output of the associated apparatus. In = rated fuse current The rated current of a fuse acc. to EN 60 127 or according to the manufacturers specication. This the rated current that is specied for a fuse in the end. Ta or Tamb = ambient temperature The ambient temperature Ta or Tamb must be listed on the nameplate and specied in the certicate when it is outside the range of -20C and + 40C. Otherwise, the certicate number is given the symbol "X".

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16. Principles of signal transmission


Active isolation 3-way isolation
IN OUT

Input isolation
IN OUT

Repeater power supply


Feeding the measuring transducer Input signal

Input signal

Output signal

Input signal

Output signal

IN

OUT

Output signal

POWER

POWER

POWER

In the case of modules with this isolation system, all components that are connected to the input, output, or supply are protected from each other against interferences. All three ways (input, output, and supply) are correspondingly electrically isolated from one another. The 3-way isolation provides an electrical isolation between the measurement sensor and the controller as well as between the controller and actuator. On the input side, the modules need active signals. On the output side, they provide a ltered and amplied signal.

In the case of modules with this isolation system, the electronics connected on the output side (e.g. the controller) are to be protected from interferences from the eld. For this reason, only the input is electrically isolated from the output and the supply, which lie on the same potential. On the input side, the modules need active signals (e.g. from measuring transducers). On the output side, they provide a ltered and amplied signal e.g. from the controller.

Transmitter/converters use the signalinput side not only for measured value acquisition, but also to provide the necessary power to the loop-powered measurement sensors connected on the input side. On the output side, they provide a ltered and amplied signal e.g. from the controller. The isolation technique of these modules corresponds to input isolation.

Loop-powered isolation Loop-powered isolation, supplied on the input side


Feed-in via signal Input signal

Loop-powered isolation, supplied on the output side


Feed-in via signal Output signal Input signal

Loop-powered repeater power supply


Feeding the measuring transducer Input signal Feed-in via signal

IN OUT

IN OUT
Output signal

IN OUT
Output signal

The modules receive the power needed for signal transmission and electrical isolation from the active input circuit. On the output side, a conditioned current signal is provided to the controller or to actuators. This loop-powered isolation allows signal conditioning (interrupting of earth loops) and ltering without an additional power supply.

The modules obtain the power needed for signal transmission and electrical isolation from the active output circuit, ideally from a PLC input card that supplies power. On the output side, the loop-powered modules work with a 4...20 mA standard signal. On the input side, the loop-powered isolator processes active signals. When this isolation technique is used, it is important to make sure that the active signal source connected on the output side (e.g. an active PLC input card) is able to supply the loop-powered isolator as well as to operate its load.

The modules receive the power needed for signal transmission and electrical isolation from the active output circuit. The loop-powered transmitter/converter also provides the power obtained from the output circuit to a loop-powered measurement sensor connected on the input side. The measurement sensor uses the provided power to supply an signal that the loop-powered transmitter/converter electrically isolates and makes available on the output side. For this reason, in a loop-powered transmitter/converter, the signal and energy ows generally run in opposite directions from each other.

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