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LET REVIEW 2009 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION PROF. EDGARDO S.

VILLASEOR LECTURER

PERIODS AND INFLUENCES Education During the Ancient Period Education in Ancient Asia Education in Ancient Greece Education in Ancient Rome Medieval Education Renaissance Education Education in the 20th Century

The Present Time

Aims: 1. 2.

Education for Conformity

Security or survival Conformity

Methods or Means of Learning ( Practical / Informal Education ) 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Simple telling and instruction ( show me or tell me ) Imitation / trial and error Observation4. Indoctrination Content: Simple forms of domestic, vocational, physical, moral, and military training; Religious, musical or literary activities.

The culture was passed on and preserved for generation

Tribes were able to meet their economic needs and were able to survive People were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life

Education was basically a system of social stratification and division of classes. 1. 2. 1. Aims: To acquire group traditions To learn ordinary skills and trades of life Methods of teaching and learning: Imitation and apprenticeship2. Rote learning and memorization Content:

1. Memorizing the contents of the Confucian classics, the Vedas, the Tripitaka, the Mosaic Law of the Jews etc. 1. 2. 3. Contributions: From the Chinese - The civil service examination. From the Assyrians Cuneiform writing From the Egyptians Pictographic & Hieroglyphic writing

The Greeks were the first people in Europe to develop civilization; but it was from the Minoans, Egyptians and the Phoenician traders that the Greeks learned how to write, to use metals, to trade, and to build and sail ships. 1. 2. There are two contrasting types of education in Greece: Spartan Education Athenian Education

It is controlled by the state and exercised the right to expose sickly babies on the mountainside to die A seven boys and girls were gathered in the barracks for physical training

Memorizing the laws of Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver and the epics of Homer, Iliad and the Odyssey At 18, definite training in the use of arms and warfare began

At 20-30, service in the army and guarding the borders of the state were required Physical training for the girls were also rigorous to bear healthy children at 20 Agoge state training

Arete a virtue or excellence, moral goodness, one which makes a thing a hero, the best, the most effective of its kind. Paidonomus a barracks commander

The Spartan education system ensured that the citizens were reared in such a way that they neither would , nor could live by themselves one with the public good. This involved a long process of conditioning, beginning at birth where deemed much less the children of their parents than the wards of the state.

The first state in the worlds history where human capacities were allowed to develop freely They believed that the greatest work of art was the human form Man should be molded in the ideals of the arte or chivalrous honor School attendance was voluntary At seven, boys can be sent to the palaestra for physical training

Introduced Holistic education the development of perfect citizens, knowing both how to rule and to be ruled on the basis of justice (Plato & Aristotle) They approached their problem in a scientific way, by examining principles governing human life , asking what a man was, body, mind and spirit. Education is the making of man, not training men to make things (technicism). Teaching someone the skills of using a computer or a mobile phone is not education, it is not a true culture of the whole person. To Plato and Aristotle, useful, no doubt necessary, but not education. Palaestrae public gymnasiums Didaskaleon music school

Paidogogus once a slave but very learned and was in-charge with teaching the boys with the intricacies of manner and morals Heterae cultured women who participated in social life and intellectual discussions of the upper class males Kitharist music teacher Grammalist grammar teacher Paedotribe gymnastics teacher

Great Athenian philosophers: A. Socrates developed the question-and- answer method of inquiry known as the Socratic Method. B. Plato wrote the Republic, a treatise founded on the aristocratic ideals that education must be controlled by the state. C. Aristotle developed the first scientific argument based on human nature.

Sophists Gr. wise men , scholars who teach for fees Protagoras one of the leading Sophists who wrote extensive description of Greek education. Ephebus a young man at 18, enters military training and join the Ephebi. Two categories of curriculum: 1. 2. Mousike- includes music, language and literature gymnastike- physical training and athletics needed in war and competitions.

The aim of Roman education was utilitarian, not theory but application, not learning but practice. It emphasized a practical training for the military life and citizenship acquired through memorization of the Laws of the Twelve Tables and the historical traditions of Rome. It is concerned with the development of a vir bonus, a man endowed with the highest virtues, a good citizen. Ludus primary school Ludi magister- schoolmaster Grammaticus teacher of language and literature Rhetor teacher of rhetoric Schola secondary school Two most influential Roman teachers and thinkers: 1. Cicero- wrote De Oratore, providing the ideals of education in the Middle Ages

2. Quintillian-wrote Instituto de Oratore, emphasized that an orator must be a man of integrity and character.

EARLY CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Aim: Moral regeneration of man Types of education:

a. b. a.

Moral and, Religious trainingSchools: Catechumenal schools for those who desire to

become members of the church b. leaders c. Cathedral or Episcopal schools- theological Catechetical schools- for the training of church

training schools under the direct instruction of the bishops. Contribution: The spread of Christianity all over the world. MONASTICISM Aims: 1. Salvation of individual souls 2. Worldly renunciation for the sake of moral improvement ( thru vows of chastity, poverty and obedience) Type/Content: a. Literacy activities and manual training based on The Rule

of Benedict b. The Seven Liberal Arts ( Trivium and Quadrivium)Schools:

Monastic schools were established by Charlemagne and supervised by a missi dominici Alcuin- the greatest schoolmaster of this time Contribution: The principle of self-abnegation or organized asceticism as those in seminaries and monasteries. SCHOLASTICISM Aims: a. b. 1. 2. Support the church doctrines by rational arguments Intellectual disciplineTypes: Scholastic Realists (Anselm) Conceptualists (Abelard)

Summa Theologicae- official doctrine of the church by papal decree written by St. Thomas Aquinas Agencies: Monastic schools - Abbot Cathedral schools - Bishop Medieval universities Pope, emperor, king

Palace schools - King Organization: Chancellor-given authority to issue a teaching license. Universitas Magistrorum et Scholarium or universitas- a corporation of teachers and students Studium Generale- student body Nation group of students according to place of origin Councilor head of the nations Facultas group of teachers teaching the same subject Dean head of the facultas Rector chief executive officer of the university Methods: Lecture Repetition Disputation Examination Contribution: Knowledge on how to organize our own schools

Aim: Teach the best ideals for entrance into aristocracy Type/Content: Taught young nobles to manage their estate and acquire the class consciousness of superiority over the lower class. Consisted of physical, social, military and religious activities. Agency Home, then court schools, and the fields of battle Contribution: Training for effective warfare

Aim: Vocational training Types/Content: Reading and writing in the vernacular for commerce and industry. Agencies: 1.burgher schools 2.chantry schools 3.guild schools Organization:

Stages of development as craftsman: 1. 2. 3. apprentice journeymen master craftsmen Contribution:

Mercantilism and industrial knowledge. SARACENIC APPROACH TO EDUCATION Aim: Search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts to the affairs of daily life. Type/Content: Memorizing the Koran Elementary education was open to all. Financial aid was given to needy students Muslim curriculum was the most complete. Agencies: Early caliphs founded elementary schools including universities. Contribution: 1. Improved strategies in teaching subjects like science because of the inventions they made 2. Scholarship

A. INDIVIDUALISTIC HUMANISM Aim: To develop personality through music and the arts. Types/Content Literary Aesthetic Classical Art Physical Education Social training Literature Agencies:

Home and court schools Contribution: ( From Vittorino da Feltre) Developing the power to think Adapting the work of an individual to his needs and capacities

Aim: Eliminate the ignorance of the common people and the hypocrisy of the social leaders.

Types/Content 1. 2. 3. Moral education Social education 4. Classical literature 5. Biblical literature

Literary education Agencies: French lycees

Court schools

German gymnasium Universitas Methods: Erasmus: Individualized instruction Vives: Use of the vernacular; education of women Strum: Memorization and imitation Ascham: Double translation in teaching language. Contribution Leading figure was Guarino Veronese who designed a curriculum consisting of physical and intellectual education.

Leading Advocates: 1. 2. 3. Martin Luther John Calvin Philip Melancthon

Aim: Religious moralism Type/Content Character Education Bible study Vocational training Agencies: Home and church Methods: Religious indoctrination Memorization Contribution: 1. 2. 3. Made education available to masses Organization of school system ( Saxony Plan, later Wurtenberg Plan) Parents were obliged to send children to school

COUNTER-REFORMATION MOVEMENT

Aim: Religious moralism to develop an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church. Type/Content: Religious and moral education Agencies/Methods: a. Jesuits-Doing small amount of work at a time,

doing it well and making sure it is retained b. abilities c. Jansenists-Nothing is to be memorized unless Christian Brothers-Grade pupils according to

understood Contribution: Discipline among Catholic schools was firm but free from brutality.

Three Groups 1. 2. 3. Humanistic or literary realists Social realists Sense realistsAims:

1.Knowledge and understanding human society through the study of literature ( Vives, Rabelais and Milton) 2.To prepare aristocratic youth for the life of a gentleman in the world affairs( Michael de Montaigne) 3. To develop a harmonious society working in accordance with natural and universal law (Bacon, Comenius, Mulcaster and Ratke) DISCIPLINE Aim: Formation of character or habits through exercises of the mind, body and self-control Types/Content Physical, moral and intellectual development through mastery of linguistics and mathematics Agencies Grammar schools- England Gymnasium- Germany Lycees- France

Tutorial System Methods Lockes three steps of learning: Sensation, memory and reasoning The use of corporal punishment in case of obstinacy (stubbornness) Contribution: The value of drill subjects such as spelling, mathematics and grammar to enhance memorizing, reasoning, analyzing and problem solving skills.

Aim: To develop an individual capable of controlling all aspects of his life by reason, suppressing passions and feelings, to live in a highly artificial world. Content Results to the creation of a group of intellectual aristocrats called illuminati Old moral values were replaced by sexual laxity, immodesty, infidelity, and extravagance. Implication Upheld the right of an individual to his own opinion, liberty of conscience, and freedom of thought Rationalist Thinkers 1. Rene Descartes Cogito ergo sum I think, therefore I exist

2. Benedict Spinoza-Psycho-physical parallelismseries of phenomena pertaining to extension are parallel to those pertaining to thought.

Aim: Preservation of natural goodness and virtue of the individual Type/Content Democratic and universal type of education Informal exercises of the senses Textbook was dwelt on Robinson Crusoe (Dafoe) and Emile (Rousseau). Methods 1. 2. 3. Principle of growth Principle of pupil activity Principle of individualization

Contribution

Education should consider the nature of the child

Aims: Preservation of the state, economic protection, unity, and identity Types/Content 1. 2. 3. Religious and moral Physical education Vocational training

Methods 1. 2. Pestalozzian Herbartian

Agencies Public and private schools (Elementary, secondary and Colleges) Contributions: Ladder system of education Free and absolute education for all

A psychological movement advocating a child-centered point of view which aimed to unfold the natural capacities of the child which can be enhanced or retarded by the methods used in the school. Noted Developmentalists: 1. JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI He believed that

pedagogical reform would lead to social reform. Learning come through the senses. 2. FREIDRICK FROEBEL- known for his kindergarten.

Children should not be thought why they dont understand. 3. JONATHAN HERBART- known for his highly structured methodology of teaching (Herbartian Method) 4. MARIA MONTESSORI- known internationally because of her Casa de Bambini which offered early childhood education. Three major activities: practical, sensory and muscular, and formal. 5. JOHN DEWEY-known for his philosophy of pragmatism. He viewed education as a process of social activity and the school was related to the society which it served. 6. JEAN PIAGET-known for his contribution to early childhood education in the field of cognitive development.

7. EDWARD L. THORNDIKE- a scientific educator known for his laws of learning such as: the law of readiness, law of exercise and the law of effect.

This leading movement in education is attributed to John Dewey. The focus is on the contribution of education to the preservation and progress of the society; what he called as the social function of education. Two points of View: 1.Social Traditionalism Aim: To give pupils insight into their traditions to arouse sympathy toward social service 2. Social Experimentalism Aim: To foster social change specially in the field of science and technology to meet the needs of the changing society.

Ethical belief or scientific approach where in which people of different nations are held to be equal as opposed to national chauvinism and racism. It encourages an active partnership between teachers and students moving from awareness and analysis of issues to action. Styles of internationalism 1. 2. 3. Unilateral internationalism Bilateral internationalism Multilateral internationalism

A. NATURALISM Considered to be the oldest philosophy in the Western world. The early Greek thinkers were naturalists. Some of them were Thales, Democritus, Epicurus and Lucritus. The contemporary naturalists are: 1. THOMAS HOBBES

According to him, the native condition of man is a war of everyone against everyone. He is continually in competition with others, grasping for honor and dignity. Man should be kept busy from which he must struggle for something better, because he is troublesome if he is not at ease. His hunger for power is unquenchable and only ceases at death. 2. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU

He views that everything is good as it comes from the hands of nature but everything degenerates in the hands of man.

He established three (3) great principles of learning: 1) The principle of growth the order of nature is need, activity, experience and knowledge. The teachers role is not to impel learning but merely to guide it in such a way that it follows the natural order. 2) The principle of student activity- Nothing must be done for the student that he can do for himself. 3) The principle of individualization The needs and interests of the student must be placed above those of the society. 3. HERBERT SPENCER He believed in an Absolute Being, the foundation of all phenomena which man can observe. It is conceivable yet unknowable. It is the continuing force or power in the world of nature. Defined education as complete living. B. REALISM

The philosophical doctrine that universals have a real objective existence. It is based on what is real as they are; something that exists independently of all other things and from which all others are derived. Some realist thinkers: a. ST. THOMAS AQUINAS-According to him, matter

which is the material substance out of which the world was made, did not co-exist with God before the creation of the universe. b. JOHN AMOS COMENIUS The mind of man is like a spherical, mirror suspended in a room which reflects images of all things that are around it. Father of Modern Education. c. d. God. RENE DESCARTES- Believes that the physical world is real and his senses are not deceived. BARUCH SPINOZA- Believes that there is only one substance and this is his being identical with

e. JOHN LOCKE- Believes that there are no innate ideas in the mind. At birth, it is just similar to a blank sheet of paper (tabula rasa) upon which the world writes its impressions. f. IMMANUEL KANT-Our sensory experience and perceptions are representations of the external world and not direct representations of it. Our experience of the world is private. C. IDEALISM

Reality is composed of thought related to mind and idea, and that matter is just an appearance. Reality is spirit. Act of knowing takes place in the mind. Contemporary Idealist: GEORGE BERKELEY

Considered as the founder of modern idealism. Believes that the fundamental element of the world is not matter but spirit or mind. D. PRAGMATISM OR EXPERIMENTALISM

A philosophical movement stressing practical consequences as constituting the essential criterion in determining meaning, truth or values. This was primarily an American philosophical movement formulated by CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE. WILLIAM JAMES For him, the test of a theory, doctrine or belief must be its results. The only reason that we have for asserting that anything is true is whether it works. E. INSTRUMENTALISM According to JOHN DEWEY, what constitutes our brute or animalistic experience is the interaction between a biological organism and its environment. Experience is not an object known, but rather, an action performed. He proposed that the educational system should try to develop methods for problem solving. If the student learned how to solve problems, presumably he would be better fit for living in our ever-changing world with its manifold perplexities. For him knowledge is not an end but an instrument an individual can utilize to attain his desired goal. It emphasizes the importance of experience, experimentation, and learning by doing which brought tremendous influence on the learner. F. EXISTENTIALISM A modern movement encompassing the doctrine that individual existence determines essence, that man has no absolute freedom of choice but there are no rational criteria serving as a basis for choice. Two prominent exponents of existentialism: 1. SOREN KIERKEGAARD-For him, man is a subjective thinker and comprehends himself not as an abstraction but as an ethically engaged existing subject. An authentic choice is fundamentally a product of passion and zealous intention. 2. FRIEDRICH NIETZSHE-He sees that the nature of man makes him vulnerable to deficiencies which have to be corrected to produce a superior race. He said that traditional morality is the reason of an inferior race of man. Nature is beyond good and evil; all men are unequal; morality is an invention of the weak to limit and deter the strong; that power is the supreme virtue and the supreme desire of man; and that of all forms of government, the wisest and most natural is aristocracy.

1. JEAN PAUL SARTRE- According to him, in anxiety, man becomes aware of his freedom, knows himself and is responsible for his own actions and commitment. He believes that there is no creator of man. Man determines his essence. Man first is, then he defines himself. 2. KARL JASPERS- For him existence is always in a situation. It is mans reactions to inescapable situations (death, suffering, guilt, struggles) that our potential existence becomes actual.

3. MARTIN HEIDEGGER- Man is a being-in-a- world by participation and involvement. His world is a world which he shares with others. Human existence itself is essentially togetherness. There are three (3) fundamental features of man. They are factuality (He is already involved in the world); Existentiality (He is a project and a possibility); and fallenness or forfeiture ( He has the tendency to become a mere presence in the world; failing to make the most of his possibilities because of gossip, curiosity and ambiguity)

It views truth as constant or perennial. The aim of education according to perennialist thinking is to ensure that students acquire knowledge of these unchanging principles or great ideas. It also believes that the natural world and human nature have remained basically unchanged over the centuries, thus the great ideas continue to have the most potential for solving the problems of any era. 1. Education must promote humankinds continuing search for truth. Whatever is true will always and everywhere be true. Truth is universal and timeless. 2. Since the minds work is intellectual and focuses on ideas, education must also focus on ideas. The cultivation of human rationality is the essential function of education. 3. Education should stimulate students to think thoughtfully about significant ideas.

Two of the best known advocates of this philosophical orientation were: a. ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS.

Education must be based on the study of the Great Books which contain enduring classics from Plato to Einstein. b. MORTIMER ADLER.

In his Paidea Proposal, he stressed the significance of the study of humanities and literature. He also reiterate the idea The best education for the best is the best education for all.

It says that education begins with the child rather than with the subject-matter discipline. It contends that knowledge that is true in the present may not be true in the future and the best way to prepare students for an unknown future is to equip them with problem-solving strategies that will enable them to cope with new challenges in life and to discover what truths are relevant to the present. The Deweyian assumptions of progressivism : 1. The content of the curriculum ought to be derived from students interests rather than from the academic discipline. 2. Effective teaching takes into account the whole child, his or her interests and needs in regard to cognitive, affective and psychomotor areas.

3. Learning is essentially active rather than passive; effective teachers provide students with experiences that enable them to learn by doing. 4. The aim of education is to teach students to think rationally so that they may become intelligent, contributing members of society. 5. At school, students learn personal, as well as social values.

6. Humankind is in a constant state of change, and education makes possible a future that is better than the past.

It is a conservative philosophy of education that was originally formulated as a response to progressive trends in school. William C. Bagley was its recognized founder. This philosophy holds that our culture has a core of common knowledge that the schools are obligated to transmit to students in a systematic, disciplined way. It stresses not on truth but on which advocates believe to be the essential knowledge and skills that productive members of our society need to know. According to this philosophy, schooling should be practical and provide children with sound instruction that prepares them to live life; schools should not try to influence or set social policies. One of the trends in essentialism is the back-tobasics movement. Training the students to communicate clearly and logically and focus on the core skills of reading, writing and speaking is central to this orientation. There are certain essentials that all men need to know such as essential skills : the 3 Rs and essential subjects: English, History, Math, Science and Foreign Language. Individuals should be able to distinguish between the essentials and non-essentials in ones existence.

accident. According to behaviorists, it is an illusion to say that humans have a free will. While we may act as if we are free, our behavior is really determined by forces in the environment that shape our behavior. We are what we are and we do what we do, not because of any mysterious power of human volition, but because outside over which we look any semblance of control have us caught in an inflexible web. Whatever else we may be, we are not the captains of our fate or the masters of our souls.

John B. Watson was the foremost originator of this behavioristic psychology and Burrhus Frederic Skinner, its best known promoter. They maintain that, in the school, the teacher needs merely recognize that all learning is conditioning and must adhere to these steps: 1. Identify desired behaviors in concrete (observable and measurable) terms.

2. 3.

Establish a procedure for recording specific behaviors and counting their frequencies. For each behavior, identify an appropriate reinforce.

4. Ensure that students receive the reinforce as soon as possible after displaying a desired behavior.

It holds that schools should take the lead in reconstructing the current social order. Theodore Brameld, the acknowledged founder of reconstructionism bases his philosophy on two fundamental premises about the present: 1. We live in a period of great crisis, most evident in the fact that humans now have the capability of destroying civilization overnight, and 2. Humankind also has the intellectual, technological, and moral potential to create a world civilization of abundance, health, and humane capacity. In this time of great need, the schools should become the primary agent for planning and directing social change. The educative process should be based upon a continuous quest for a better society. The logical outcome of this quest would be the eventual realization of a worldwide democracy. Unless we actively seek to create this kind of world through the intelligent application of present knowledge, we run the risk that the destructive forces of the world will determine the conditions under which humans will live in the future.

METAPHYSICS- Studies the nature of reality and being EPISTEMOLOGY-Inquires about the nature, presuppositions, and scope of knowledge LOGIC- Studies correct thinking or rules of inference to arguments ETHICS- Inquires into morally right conduct and morally good life AESTHETICS- Analyzes standards and values in art and aesthetic experience AXIOLOGY- Studies the nature, status and types of values

It provides a means of systematic inquiry by which teachers can examine their values, knowledge, and actions and subsequently make decisions that lead to the accomplishment of classroom, school and societal goals.

Metaphysics-the branch of philosophy that seeks to explain the nature of being or reality (ontology) and the origin and structure of the world (cosmology). Epistemology-is the study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of knowledge. Axiology-From metaphysical and epistemological questions emanate knowledge of standards and moral conduct (ethics) and concern about issues related to beauty and art ( aesthetics).

a.

The Early Period (5th Century - 4th Century B.C.) Philosophers and their philosophy: Plato Ideas are perfect paradigms and

universal. b. Aristotle- Explained organisms in terms of their

contributions to society or to the ideal state. This is known as teleological explanation. c. Socrates- Knowledge is virtue and all virtuous actions are based on knowledge.

Key Concepts Perennialism - refers to the belief that truth is universal and unchanging and therefore education should have as its goal the preservation and transmission of lasting values and ideas. In practice, it is concerned with the development of the intellectual and spiritual potential of humankind. Essentialism- derives its name from the belief that the task of education is to instill students with the essentials of academic knowledge and character development.

1. Mortimer Adler-(1902-2001) Known for his proposal for an educational system that would fulfill the democratic promise of equal educational opportunities for all. (The Paideia Proposal) 2. Arthur Bestor-(1908-1994) For him, genuine education is intellectual education, and this is the only education that has worth. He stressed that the function of education is to provide sound training in the fundamental ways of thinking. 3. E.D. Hirsch, Jr.-(1928- ) He is best known for his bookCultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know and another one entitled, The Schools We Need. He advocated that being culturally literate means understanding the necessary information (shared symbols) to communicate in the national community.

4. Robert M. Hutchins- He averred that education should be based on the classical disciplines of grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, natural science, philosophy and ideas from the Modern World. He said that we should not allow students to think that the purpose of education is simply to get better jobs. 5. Theodore Sizer-He stressed the concept of less is more when applied to the curricular scope of schools. It means more is to be gained by committing the school and its resources to the task of cultivating the intellect through academic disciplines.

1. 2.

Belief in the need for a common course of study. A minimum of 12 years of study in the fundamental discipline

3. Development of the habit of self-discipline, thoughtfulness leading to ethical behavior, and the recognition of the need for lifelong learning. 4. Highly structured schools with universal standards for all, performance objectives and evaluation methods that are clear to all. 5. A recognition that a common course of studies for all students is necessary to fulfill the promise of citizenship in a democracy. 6. Toughening of standards for entrance to and completion of the teacher education program in order to prepare highly qualified teachers who possess the knowledge and skills to teach-and inspire students. Major Educational Educational Educational Practice Philosophies Theories Goals Idealism Essentialism Perennialism Development potential reasoning Socratic method and of intellectual and logical of the basic Teacher-

Realism Perennialism Transmission centered Essentialism elements of

Universal standards, and

classrooms, highly qualified teachers in

culture content-areas, age, appropriate materials, progressive curriculum, strict order and discipline

Developmentalism-refers to the belief that teaching based on the developmental stages of the child is the most effective teaching practice. It is also called developmentally appropriate practice and constructivism. The Advocates of this philosophy were:

1. Jean Jacques Rousseau 2.Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 3.Friedrich Froebel WHAT THIS MEANS FOR SCHOOLS? Children are diverse in their abilities, and new information should be introduced only when the child is ready for it. A prepared environment is conducive to learning. Play is an integral factor in learning and uninterrupted time should be allotted to it. Curriculum and instruction should match the childs needs and interests. Schools provide society with an opportunity to better the world and the human condition.

The Advent of Rationalism and Empiricism Empiricism- stresses the search for knowledge through use of the five senses and through observation and experimentation. (Bacon and Locke) Rationalism emphasizes the importance of reason as secondary to sensory experience, feelings, or authority. (Descartes) Other Contemporary Developmentalists are the ff: Lawrence Kohlberg- Theory of Moral Development Jean Piaget- Cognitive Development Theory Lev Vygotzky- Social Development Theory ZPD Albert Bandura-Social Development Theory-Internal Locus of Control

Major Educational Educational Educational Philosophies Theories Goals Practice Rationalism Developmental Education that will Attention to needs, and Empiricism Theory allow children to develop naturally in interests and readiness of (Developmenta accordance with lism) learner.

their own abilities and interests.Use of manipulatives,

hands-on and Acquisition of concrete materials knowledge through Emphasis on observation, discovery through experimentation and observation, reflection of and on experimentation, the natural world. and reflection. Emphasis on sensory experience Major Educational Educational Educational Philosophies Theories Goals Practice Pragmatism Progressivism Allow Engage students in

And

individuals to create or activities that facilitate the construction of

Constructivism construct their meaning. own Curriculum organized in understanding a spiral meaning so of knowledge build upon prior knowledge. through the Use of techniques like: interaction of cooperative learning, what they project method, problem already know solving etc. and believe. Give challenging student can

activities geared to students ZPD

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

Progressivism William Heard Kilpatrick Harold Rugg Jane Addams Ella Flagg Young Constructivism Paolo Freire Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky

Prepare individuals with capacity to learn and adapt to the changing world. Look at problems concerns from a cosmopolitan perspective. Developing capacities for curiosity, for flexibility in thinking in different ways Fostering of a moral character that is not fundamentalist Making education valuable through recognition of human potentialities: wide-awakeneness (Maxine Greene) WHAT THIS MEANS FOR SCHOOLS? Children are diverse in their abilities, and new information should be introduced only when the child is ready for it.

A prepared environment is conducive to learning. Play is an integral factor in learning and uninterrupted time should be allotted to it. Curriculum and instruction should match the childs needs and interests. Schools provide society with an opportunity to better the world and the human condition.

The ideal Filipino learner in our rapidly changing world is one who is empowered for lifelong learning, is an active maker of meaning, and can learn whatever s/he needs to know in any context. The empowered learner is a self-developed person who is Makabayan (patriotic Makatao (mindful of humanity Makakalikasan (respectful of nature) Maka-Diyos (godly)

SELF-AWARENESS EMPATHY EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION CREATIVE THINKING CRITICAL THINKING PROBLEM- SOLVING DECISION MAKING UNDERSTANDING ONES EMOTIONS COPING WITH STRESS INTERPERSONAL SKILLS PRODUCTIVE/ENTREPRENEURAL SKILLS

A trustworthy facilitator or manager of the learning process ( not the authoritarian instructor) One who enables learner to become active constructors of knowledge One who knows his/her particular discipline One who is ready for collaborative teaching

E exercises effective communication M manifests professional competence P possesses adequate knowledge of the discipline O observes professional ethics W welcomes progressive innovation and change E exhibits a deep sense of nationalism R radiates a caring attitude for others E engages in problem solving and decision making D demonstrates personal integrity

Teachers in all Philippine schools are committed and accountable for providing classroom instruction with results that are manifested in high performance levels in terms of student learning outcomes. Teachers are dedicated to the well-being of the students and the communities they serve, taking into account their cultural diversity, group aspirations and what is valued in education. Domain 1 Social Regard for Learning Domain 2- The Learning Environment Domain 3-Diversity of Learners Domain 4-Curriculum Domain 5- Planning, Assessing, and Reporting Domain 6- Community Linkages Domain 7-Personal Growth and Professional Development

Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution. It prescribes that the state shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education which is a clear indication that the State values education highly as an instrument for development. Education Act of 1982. The main purpose of this Act is to apply and govern both formal and nonformal systems in public and private schools all levels in the entire educational system. Republic Act 4670. The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers. Upon appointment, the teacher receives a written contract for signature. The contract is so binding that the teacher commits to the rules and regulation of the Department of Education. This law outlines provisions for rights and responsibilities of the teacher.

(Republic Act No. 6728. Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE).) Amended by Republic Act No. 8445. The program sets the criteria which include among others, tuition fees charged by the school, socio-economic needs of the region, overall performance of the school, academic qualifications and the financial needs of the students as well as the geographic spread and size of the student population Republic Act No. 6655. An Act establishing and providing Free Public Secondary Education. Republic Act No. 7722. An Act Creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

Republic Act No. 7784. An Act titled: Strengthening Teacher Education in the Philippines by Establishing Centers of Excellence, Creating a teacher Education Council for the Purpose. Republic Act No. 7796. An Act Creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority. Republic Act No. 7836. An Act to Strengthen the Regulation and Supervision of the Practice of Teaching in the Philippines and Prescribing a Licensure Examination for Teachers. This Act shall also be known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994. Republic Act No. 9155. An Act Instituting the Framework of Governance for Basic Education, Establishing Authority and Accountability, Renaming the Department of Education, Culture and Sports as the department of Education (DepEd). Republic Act No. 7610. An Act for the Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination. Republic Act No. 8190. An Act Granting Priority to residents of the barangay, municipality or city where the school is located in the assignment of classroom public school teachers as long as they possess all the minimum qualifications. Republic Act No. 8491. An Act prescribing the code of the national flag, anthem, motto, coat of arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines. (Also known as the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines)

Child Friendly School System (CFSS) The Child Friendly School System (CFSS) is a project of the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the DepEd. It underscores the need of a child-friendly school : a. b. to be healthy, well-nourished and free from exploitation to be aware of their rights and opportunities to realize them

c. d.

to be able to protect themselves and develop their full potential to be able to participate in decisions which affect their lives

e. to respect diversity, practice equality, and resolve differences without inclusive and gender sensitive, and protective of the rights. Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP) This was launched by DepEd to develop pupils reading and communication skills by Grade 3. It is designed to improve the delivery of instruction of reading teachers in Grades I-III. Brigada Eskwela. Capitalizing on the spirit of bayanihan, it encourages parents, barangay residents, local businessmen, youth and the community to volunteer resources (financial, material, labor) and work collectively for the maintenance and minor repair of schools during the month of May to prepare the schools for the opening of classes in June. Schools First Initiative This was launched in November 2004 on the following core principles: 1. Schools as community for learning

2. Schools deliver education whose quality is objectively describable, observable, and measurable even to those outside the school. 3. Schools education quality as observed/monitored is

improved continuously from whatever level it begins and regardless of prevailing conditions. 4. Schools education quality outcomes must benefit all students.

5. Schools education quality and benefits they provide to everyone are the center DepEds concerns, efforts and accountability. School-Based Management (SBM) It is defined as decentralization of decision-making authority from central, regional, and division levels to individual schools uniting school heads, teachers, students as well as parents, the local government units and the community in promoting effective schools. The main goal of SBM is to improve school performance and student achievement. Its objectives are to: a. b. empower the school head to provide leadership; mobilize the community as well as the local

government units to invest time, money, and effort in making the school a better place to learn.

1. Leaders dont wait. 2. Character counts. 3. Leaders have their head in the clouds and their feet on the Ground. 4. Shared values make a difference. 5. You cant do it Alone. 5. The Legacy you Leave is the Life you Lead. 6. Leadership is Everyones Business.

Positive attitude Concern for Accuracy Habit of Breaking the Problem Into Parts Avoidance of Guessing Active Problem Solving

FROM CONFUCIUS: What I hear, I forget, What I see, I remember, What I do, I understand.