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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING LAB STRUCTURE

FULL REPORT
Subject Code Code & Experiment Title Course Code Date Section / Group Name Members Of Group BFC31901 PLASTIC ANALYSIS 3BFF 31ST OCTOBER 2013 SECTION 9 / GROUP 1 CHNG YEE SHZEN 1. ALIF SYAZANI BIN LEMAN 2. AMIR ASYRAF IN JAMALUDIN 3. AMIRA SYAFIQAH BINTI BAHAROM 4. FARHAN BINTI HUSSIN 5. ZULIKA BINTI MOHAMED ISMAYATIM MISS MARINA MAZLAN

Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor Received Date

Comment by examiner

Received

Faculty : Civil And Environment Engineering Department : Structure And Material Engineering Title : Plastic Analysis

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1.0 OBJECTIVE 1.1. To determine the form factor 1.2. To determine the relationship of load deflection between a beam and the point of plastic collapse 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. The structural knowledge is able to be apply in practical application The technical efficiency is improved through laboratory work Effectively communication is achieved in team work Ability to recognize the problem, solving and getting the solution through experimental work is achieved.

3.0 INTRODUCTION Beam is one of the important elements in building to support the load from the roof to the super structure. Hence, ability of the beam to support the load plays the main role in the process of design. This is important to ensure the safety of the building user. Usually beam is assumed that no part of the beam should experience a stress greater than allowable for the working material, but it can be found that a beam will withstand much larger forces before collapse than simple elastic theory predict. The plasticity spread inwards until an entire cross section of structure has yield point as the stress increased further during the analysis. At this point, the steel attain its maximum possible moment capacity which is called plastic moment, Mp. With the development of hinge, the structure is able to carry more loads after first hinge has formed due to redistribution. In beam, the second plastic hinge will forms at the next most critical stage. The bending moments at the section of two plastic hinges remain constant at their plastic moments with further increase in stress and it keep increasing until the third plastic hinge forms. The process of the formation of successive plastic hinges continues until collapse of structure. The result of plastic analysis is aimed to use to determine the collapse load or ultimate load of a structure. This analysis is considered the behavior of structure in plastic limit before the structure collapse.

Faculty : Civil And Environment Engineering Department : Structure And Material Engineering Title : Plastic Analysis 4.0 THEORY

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The stress through a beam section varies with the distance from the neutral axis when the beam is bent around the neutral axis and form the greatest at the extreme fibers (y = maximum) to zero at the neutral axis (y = 0).

The stress will build up through the section to a maximum at the extreme fibers if the beam is subjected to an increasing bending moment. It means that the inner parts may still be behaving elastically and resisting load although the outer parts of the beam may well have yielded and are behaving plastically. The plastic portion will move further into the beam leaving a smaller elastic core if the bending moment continues to increase. This condition is known as partially plastic condition. As the plastic portion moves further toward the neutral axis, the beam will continue to resist the bending moment although with an increasing rate of deflection as shown in diagram below.

Faculty : Civil And Page Environment Engineering Department : Structure Edition 2 And Material Checking No Engineering Title : Effective Date 11/07/2005 Plastic Analysis Amendment Date 05/07/2005 The elastic portion will eventually far enough into the beam and the beam will become fully plastic. A plastic hinge will be form and any further bending moment is unable to be resisting as shown below.

Form Factor is the ratio of the fully plastic bending to the just plastic moment. The shape of the beam is the main factor that affects the form factor while size, material or fixing condition is not effect on it. For a cantilever beam For simply supported beam

where the text book value is 1.5

Faculty : Civil And Environment Engineering Department : Structure And Material Engineering Title : Plastic Analysis 5.0 APPARATUS

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5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Digital Vernier calipers Plastic analysis testing frame Digital force display Specimen beam Digital reading display

6.0 PROCEDURE 6.1 The cross section of the specimen beam is taken and the second moment of area for the specimen is calculated. 6.2 The clamp plates are removed are removed and the specimen beam is placed across the chucks of the unit. 6.3 The roller mechanism is pushed outwards to its stop. 6.4 The pin is put through the load cell fork and the load cell is winded down until the pin just touch the specimen beam, both the load cell and the indicator is zeroed.

Faculty : Civil And Page Environment Engineering Department : Structure Edition 2 And Material Checking No Engineering Title : Effective Date 11/07/2005 Plastic Analysis Amendment Date 05/07/2005 6.5 The load cell is winded down to cause a measured deflection of 3mm and the reading of the forced required is taken.

6.6 The load cell is winded down continuous in 3mm step until there is no or very little increase in load for each increment of deflection.

6.7 The result is recorded in table.

Faculty : Civil And Environment Engineering Department : Structure And Material Engineering Title : Plastic Analysis 7.0 RESULT

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Deflection (mm) Force (N) 0 0 52 3 96 6 137 9 190 12 245 15 280 18 339 21 383 24 422 27 459 30 503 33 501 36 Dimension of specimen beam: 80mm 80mm 860mm ( b d l ) Length ( L ) : 750mm 8.0 DISCUSSION 1. Plot the graph Force vs Deflection and from your result comment on the shape of the resulting plot.

Graph of Force (N) Against Deflection (mm)


600 500 Force (N) 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 Deflection (mm) 30 40 Force (N)

From the graph of Force (N) against Deflection (mm) shown above, the graph show that the deflection increasing as the force is increasing. When the deflection reach 36 mm, the value for force is 501 N which is less compare to the deflection at

Faculty : Civil And Page Environment Engineering Department : Structure Edition 2 And Material Checking No Engineering Title : Effective Date 11/07/2005 Plastic Analysis Amendment Date 05/07/2005 33 mm with the value for force is 503 N. Based on the graph that plotted, the maximum load for the specimen beam used in this test is 501 N when the deflection reaches 36 mm. If the test is continue with higher load it will lead to the collapse of the beam. 2. From Table 1, note the collapse load, and using the bending moment diagram calculate the plastic moment ( )

the maximum deflection is 36 mm, when the force reaches to 501 N. ( )

3. Using yield stress of 325 MPa calculate the bending moment ( cause yielding of the extreme fibers.

) to just

Faculty : Civil And Environment Engineering Department : Structure And Material Engineering Title : Plastic Analysis ( )( )

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)(

4. Calculate the form factor(

). Compare to the text book value.

The form factor is 3.387>1.5 5. Discuss the advantages of considering the extra available strength due to the plastic beam theory when designing structures. The advantages of considering the extra strength when designing the structures are: i. Used to calculate and determine the ultimate load of the structure and provide safety to people in the building

ii. iii.

iv. v.

Faculty : Civil And Page Environment Engineering Department : Structure Edition 2 And Material Checking No Engineering Title : Effective Date 11/07/2005 Plastic Analysis Amendment Date 05/07/2005 It provide additional safety to the structure Reduce the risk and the possibility of the occurrences of the failure of structure due to the additional load or calculation error It can prevent the structure from being collapse It increase the stability of the structure

9.0 CONCLUSION After doing this experiment, the relationship of load deflection to the plastic to the plastic collect is able to be determine and the point of the beam of the beam may collapse can be investigated. In a plastic analysis the assumption that can be made is the resulting of the strain distribution is linear about the neutral axis and the resulting of stress distribution is nonlinear and is dependent on the beams material. The deflections is necessary to develop the stresses indicated in a plastic analysis are generally excessive, frequently to the point of incompatibility with the function of the structure. Large deflections and stiffness changes usually related with the plastic analysis, particularly in statically indeterminate beams it can significantly change the internal load distribution. Through the experiment, the advantages of considering the extra strength when designing the structures which are to determine the ultimate load or the collapse load can be known. In additional, it can be provide additional safety for the structure at the same times reduces the risk of failure due to the calculation error or additional load. It also increases the stability of the structure and prevents the structure from being collapse. From the result obtained, the conclusion that can be made is the experimental value is quite different compare to theoretical value. This may be caused by the error during the experiment is carried out. REFERENCES R.C Hibbeler, (2011), Structural Analysis, (Eighth Edition in SI Units), Pearson Education. http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plastic_bending