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AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100 Chicago, Illinois 60601-2000 Tel. 312.670.2400 Fax 312.670.5403

Copyright © 2002 by

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. ISBN 1-56424-052-5 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering prin- ciples and is for general information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer, or architect. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the American Institute of Steel Construction or of any other person named herein, that this information is suitable for any gen- eral or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this infor- mation assumes all liability arising from such use. Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes developed by other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or amended from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The Institute bears no responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate it by reference at the time of the initial publication of this edition. Printed in the United States of America


Structural Steel Today Structural Steel Framing Solutions for Multi-Story Residential Buildings Building Tomorrow's Parking Structures Today Project Profiles Cologne/Bonn Airport Fashion Square Retail Center Jefferson at Lenox Park John F. Kennedy International Airport Mystic Marriott Hotel & Spa Newark International Airport Nortel Networks Portland International Airport Winthrop University Hospital

PART I Basic Structural Engineering Understanding Load Flow Types of Basic Lateral Systems Beam Web Penetrations Thermal Movement of Structural Steel Floor Vibration PART II Protecting Structural Steel Guide to Coatings Technology Basics of Protective Coatings Composition of Coatings Types of Coatings Painting Guides Special Purpose Coating Systems Paint Systems Surface Preparation Other Substrates Use of Protective Coatings Evaluation of Existing Coating for Overcoating Coating Test Methods and Procedures Surface Preparation for Overcoating Systems Quality Assurance Evaluation of Performance Requirements for Coating Systems Protecting Substrates from Corrosion Economics Inspection Coating References Sample Painting Guide Specifications


Fire Protection

General Factors Fire Protection Materials Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Assemblies Restrained and Unrestrained Construction Architecturally Exposed Steel Rational Fire Design Based on Fire Engineering PART III Determining Member Sizes for Detailing Determining Girder and Beam Sizes for Floors & Roofs Determining Interior Column Sizes PART IV Miscellaneous Bending and Shaping of Structural Members Welding Symbols and Appearance of Exposed Welded Connections Latest Code Provisions for Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel

W-, S-, C-, MC-, HP-, M-Shapes and Angles Structural Tees (WT-, MT- and ST-Shapes) Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) and Pipe Plates and Bars

General Considerations Detailing Considerations for Masonry Detailing Considerations for Precast Concrete Panels Detailing Considerations for Limestone Panels Detailing Considerations for Thin Stone Veneer Panels Detailing Considerations for Window Wall Enclosure Systems Detailing Considerations for Floor/Ceiling Sandwich Design Considerations for Diagonal Bracing Details Additional References

Common Questions Answered Definitions Mill Production and Tolerances General Fabrication Fabrication and Erection Tolerances Painting and Surface Preparation Fire Protection References Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, March 7, 2000 Construction Industry Organizations


The purpose of this Guide is to provide architects with the tools needed to feel more comfortable and

confident working with structural steel in building projects. With a greater understanding of the characteristics and inher- ent benefits of structural steel, architects will be prepared to better utilize steel as a framing material. Some of the strengths structural steel offers in building design is high resiliency and performance under harsh and difficult conditions, i.e., earthquakes and hurricanes. Steel offers the ability to span great distances with slenderness and grace. Steel can be shaped to achieve curved forms and goes up quickly to meet tough construction schedules in almost any weather condition. Steel can be easily modified in the future to satisfy changing requirements. And with virtually all structural steel produced in the United States today made from recycled cars and other steel prod- ucts, steel offers environmental sustainability for the future. This Guide was created in response to research gathered by the American Institute of Steel Construction's (AISC) regional engineering staff through focus group meetings with owners, engineers, architects, construction man- agers and contractors throughout the United States. The purpose of this research was to determine how steel- framed building projects could be completed more economically and in less time, while still maintaining high lev- els of quality. To find the regional engineer in your area, visit the AISC website at One of the findings of these focus groups was that architects were eager for more knowledge of how to incor- porate structural steel into building design. In response to this need, AISC set out to create a guidebook for archi- tects that would provide an understanding of the structural systems, material properties and design details for structural steel. To that end industry experts from all fields —architects, engineers, fabricators and coating spe- cialists—were assembled to provide the most up-to-date and accurate information on designing in structural steel. Designing with Structural Steel: A Guide for Architects, is presented in five sections. The Ideas Section contains the booklet, Structural Steel Today, showcasing buildings that incorporate structural steel's unique features to cre- ate truly inspiring architectural designs. Also included in this section is a series of project profiles. The Systems Section explains basic concepts in structural steel design. It is intended to help the architect com- municate more easily with the structural engineer. This section also presents an in-depth discussion of the types of coating systems available for structural steel for instances where coating protection is needed. The section also provides information of welding and sizing of beams and columns for purposes of architectural detailing. The Details Section provides plan details and commentary on the use of structural steel in combination with other building materials like precast concrete panels, masonry, thin stone veneer panels and limestone. The Materials Section contains dimensional properties (in both English and metric units), of wide-flange shapes, hollow struc- tural sections and other sections. The Materials Section also provides architects with additional information need- ed for architectural detailing. The Appendix is divided into three parts. The AISC Code of Standard Practice covers standard communications through plans, specifications, shop drawings and erection drawings; material, fabrication, and erection toler- ances and quality requirements; contracts; and requirements for architecturally exposed steel. Also provided are answers to common questions about codes, specifications and other standards applicable to structural steel. The final part of this section is an information-source-list of names, addresses, phone numbers and website address- es for industry organizations that can be of service to the building team. This Guide is meant to be a teaching tool as well as a desk reference on structural steel. It is meant to be a "liv- ing document." To this end it has been published in a three-ring binder to accommodate additions and updat- ed information to be published in the future. The editors would like to thank all of those who contributed their time, effort and knowledge in producing a

pub- lication that can be used on a daily basis. We welcome your comments and suggestions for future additions to the guidebook. Alford Johnson Chicago 2002


Alford Johnson, Vice President Marketing, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.

Del Boring, P.E., Senior Director, American Iron & Steel Institute Mark Zahn, S.E., Structural Engineer Karl Angeloff, P.E., Manager Marketing Development, Bayer Corporation Alford Johnson, Vice President Marketing, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.

David E. Eckmann, AIA, S.E., Structural Department Head, OWP&P Architects, Inc. Geoffrey Walters, AIA, Architect, OWP&P Architects, Inc.

Charles J. Carter, S.E., P.E., Chief Structural Engineer, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.