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COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE O The bridge structure can be broadly divided into two parts: a.

) Superstructure : It is part of the bridge over which the traffic moves. It consists of railing or parapet, roadway and girder, trusses or arches over which the roadway is supported. b.) Substructure: The substructure of the bridge is the structure designed to support the superstructure of the bridge. The components of substructure are i. Foundation ii. Pier iii. Abutment iv. Wing-walls v. Approaches O PIER A pier is an intermediate supporting structure of a bridge. Piers are intended to transfer loads from the superstructure of the bridge to the foundation. These are generally constructed using concrete although steel is also used. Piers help in i.) sustaining dead load and live load ii.) facilitating a long bridge to be converted into segments. O O Types of Piers The following are the types of pier: 1. solid pier 2. abutment pier 3. column pier 4. cylindrical pier 5. pile pier 6. dumb-bell pier 7. trestle pier 8. cellular pier O O O O O O O O O O O

9. hammer pier Solid Pier A solid pier can be made of concrete or stone masonry. These provide excellent resistance against floating bodies and can be used for any type of superstructure of the bridge. A minimum top width of 1.2 m is required in these pier. The length of the pier depends on the width of the superstructure to be carried. Piers are provided with a batter of 1 in 12 to 1 in 24 for stability. Abutment Pier For long arch bridges, it is desirable to provide some intermediate piers with heavier sections to bear the horizontal thrust. These piers are very useful and save centering charges, because if no such pier is provided the centering for whole length of the bridge is to be done at one time. Column Pier This type of piers are used when the girders of the superstructure of a bridge are very closed together and is impossible to construct separate pier for each girder. In this type of arrangement columns are constructed and a beam is provided at the top of columns on which all girders rest. Cylindrical Pier These are open pier constructed of mild steel or cast iron cylinders which are filled with concrete. The cylinders are then braced together by horizontal and diagonal bracings. Pile Pier

This type of pier is used in shallow water to support the main girder of a bridge directly over the pile cap.

iii.) retaining the approach road embankment.

Types of Abutments O The following are the major types of abutments currently in use: 1. gravity abutment 2. stub abutment 3. U - abutment 4. counterfort abutment Gravity Abutment O A gravity abutment resists horizontal earth pressure from rear with its own weight. O Hence gravity abutment is a massive sized abutment, constructed by using mass concrete or stone masonry. Stub Abutment O A stub abutment is a relatively short abutment which is placed on top of the embankment or slope. U - Abutment O When the wing walls of a gravity abutment are placed at right angles to the back wall, the abutment is known as U-abutment. O The wing walls are cast monolithically with the abutment back wall and cantilevered both horizontally and vertically. Counterfort Abutment O It is very much similar to a counterfort retaining wall. O This type of abutments are used when high abutments are required. O This is called counterfort abutments because it connects it connects the breast wall to the footing. O These counterforts are spaced at regular intervals.

The piles are braced by using RCC or steel braces to give more lateral rigidity to them. Dumb-bell Pier

Dumb-bell pier is a type of solid RCC pier constructed by connecting two RCC columns by means of a thin reinforced concrete web, provided all along the height in a direction transverse to the direction of the bridge. Trestle Pier

This is an open pier constructed of framework of RCC steel or timber.

Each trestle consists of two or more vertical posts, braced horizontally and diagonally, to support the bridge superstructure.

These piers are suitable for bridges where river bed is sufficiently firm and water current is slow. Cellular Pier

Cellular piers are used to receive prestressed superstructure.

It consists of two concentric RCC cells connected by horizontal bands and radial ribs at suitable intervals.

The space between the cells is filled with sand. Abutments

The end supports of the superstructure of a bridge are called abutments.

The basic function of abutments are O i.) supporting the bridge deck at the ends, O ii.) connecting the approach road to the bridge deck,

Wing Walls O Wing walls are the walls constructed at both ends of the abutment to retain the earth banks of the river or of the bridge approaches. O The materials used in the construction of these walls are the same as that of abutments. O The design of these walls depends on the nature of banks. Types of Wing walls O The following are the types of wing walls: 1. straight wing walls 2. splayed wing walls 3. curved wing walls 4. return wing walls Straight Wing walls O Straight wing walls are constructed parallel to the abutment at both their ends. O These walls are used in small bridges and culverts, constructed across small streams with low banks. Splayed Wing walls O Splayed wing walls are constructed at an acute angle (generally at 45) with the abutment at both their ends. O These are straight or curved in plan and provide smooth entry of water under the bridge. O Splayed wing walls are provided when the road width is to be decreased on the bridge across a river or stream or when road approaches are curved in plan. O These are best suited for small as well as big bridges. Curved Wing walls O This type of wing walls is generally used in bridges of irrigation channels or canals, as they O O O O O O O O O O O

provide smooth entry of water under the bridge. These are either concave or convex in plan. Return Wing walls Return wing walls are constructed at right angles to the abutments at both of their ends. This type of wing walls are suitable when the embankments are very high and banks are firm. Approaches Approaches are the lengths of communication route affected by the layout and construction of the bridges, as it both ends. These are constructed in embankment for high level bridges and culverts. On either side of the approaches should be straight for a minimum length of 15m as recommended by I.R.C. The function of approaches should be to carry the communication route to the level of bridge floor. Bridge Foundations Bridge foundation is the structure which transfer the entire load coming to it to the hard soil below. The foundations used in the bridge structures may be broadly classified as: 1. shallow foundations 2. deep foundations Shallow Foundation Shallow foundations are used in places where stable stratum are available at lower depths. Shallow foundations used in bridges are: 1. spread foundations 2. raft foundations Spread Foundation

This type of foundation is suitable for bridges of moderate height.

The box is constructed on land and towed to the location where it is required. It is then suck at the site from where

It is suited in situations where hard soil is available within 2 to 3m below the bed level of the river. O O

it starts to function as a foundation. It is suitable for shallow deep and where loads are not very heavy. Open Cassion

This type of foundation is best suited at such places where scouring is minimum. Raft Foundation O

An open cassion is a box timber, metal, reinforced concrete or masonry which is open both at the top and at the bottom.

This type of foundation is suitable when the bed of river consists of weak soils like suit, soft clay and the hard soil is not available within reasonable depth. Deep Foundation O O

It is used for building and bridge foundations. Open cassions are called wells. Pneumatic Cassion

Deep foundation is provided at places where a good stratum is available only at greater depth.

When it is required to go to greater depths for want of suitable hard starts, pneumatic cassions are used.

Deep foundations used for bridges are of two types: 1. well foundations 2. pile foundations Well Foundations O O

These are wells with open bottom and closed tops. In between the closed top and open bottom, pressure is regulated so that laborers can work. Pile Foundations

Well foundations form the most common type of deep foundations for bridges. O

Piles are slender structural elements placed in the ground for O i. receiving load from the superstructure are transferring it to ground by friction or bearing, O ii. increasing the bearing capacity of the soil.

Well foundations are identified under three categories: 1. box cassion 2. open cassion 3. pneumatic cassion

note: Cassion is a box like structure, round or rectangular, which is sunk from the surface of either land or water to some desired depth. Box Cassion O A box cassion is open at top and closed at bottom and is made of timber, steel or reinforced concrete.