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MOI UNIVERSITY

EXTRACTION OF A PHARMACEUTICAL JELLY FROM


AVOCADO PULP
A Design Project Presented to the
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PROCESS ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in
Chemical & Process Engineering
Moi University

DIAR ELIJAH GARANG CPE/1021/08
JOAKIM KISUA PIUS CPE/09/08
SUPERVISOR
Dr. Menzwa

i

DECLARATION
We declare that this project entitled Extraction of pharmaceutical jelly from avocado
pulp is the result of our own research except as cited in the references. The report has
not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of
any other degree.
Signature: .
Name of candidate: DIAR ELIJAH GARANG (CPE/1021/08)

Signature: .
Name of Candidate: JOAKIM KISUA PIUS (CPE/09/08)
DATE: 21
st
May, 2013


ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to thank the Almighty for the strength, inspiration and encouragement
given to us throughout the completion of this project without any obstacle. A lot of
experiences and knowledge has been gained along the way.
We wish to express our sincere appreciation to our supervisor, Dr. Menzwa, for his
critic, advice, motivation, friendship and input of ideas, relentless support, guidance and
endless encouragement throughout our entire project
We are also very thankful to our parents for their support and motivation. Without their
endless support and interest, this project would not have been same as presented here.
Unfortunately it is not possible for us to list all those involved in this limited space. We
are therefore grateful to everybody that was involved directly or indirectly in helping us
to complete this project.

iii

ABSTRACT

Avocado fruit is one valuable tropical produce which is highly utilized in Kenya and
even in most of African countries only on the nutritious aspect. This is due to the proven
presence high content of positive effects on lowering total blood cholesterol, controlling
weight and providing humans with essential nutrients and vitamins. Various studies
have also proven high content of tocopherols (vitamin E) and antioxidants in
unsaponifiable fraction in avocado oil which can help to hail skin ailments. Cosmetic
industries have taken up these studies positively and they have been producing
cosmetic products for years. However pharmaceutically, much attention has not been
paid to get high concentration of this unsaponifiable fraction so as it could be used to
treat skin ailments. However, this project will be targeting un-saponifiable fraction of
the oil obtained from molecular distillation which is in the light components of the
fractionated oil. During the molecular distillation, substantial amount of unsaponifiable
fraction is achieved in the light component. Process operating conditions (temperature
and pressure) are chosen so that much of this unsaponifiable fraction is obtained in the
light components without interfering with the desired pytochemicals.



iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii
ABSTRACT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ iii
LIST OF TABLES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
LIST OF FIGURES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
CHAPTER ONE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.0 Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1Objectives of the Design project ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
CHAPTER TWO ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
2.1: Literature review ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2.2: Historical Origin of the Plant--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2.3: Agronomy -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2.3.1: Growth Requirements ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2.3.2: Fertilization------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
2.3.3: Avocado Fruit & Human Health ----------------------------------------------------------------------------6
CHAPTER THREE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
3.0: JUSTICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
CHAPTER FOUR ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
4.0: PROCESS DESCRIPTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21
4.1 Pre-process treatment -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
4.2 Extraction process-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
4.3 Preheating ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
BLOCK DIAGRAMS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28
CHAPTER FIVE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31
5.0: MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
5.1.1: Mass balance ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
5.1.2: ENERGY BALANCE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
CHAPTER SIX -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
6.0 EQUIPMENT SELECTION, SIZING AND SPECIFICATION ---------------------------------- 40
6.1 CHOICE OF MATERIALS FOR EQUIPMENT FABRICATIONS ----------------------------- 40
CHAPTER 7 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44
7.0 Design of a centrifugal separator by DIAR ELIJAH GARANG CPE/1021/08 -------- 44
v

7.0.1 INTRODUCTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44
7.0.2 SEDIMENTATION CENTRIFUGES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 44
7.0.3 CENTRIFUGE DESIGN THEORY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47
7.0.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
7.0.4.1 Bowl diameter ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
7.0.4.2 Disk diameter ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
7.0.4.3 Terminal velocity ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
7.0.4.5 Sigma value -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
7.0.4.6 Number of discs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
7.0.4.7 Inner radius of the discs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
7.0.4.8 Radius of the interphase --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
7.4.0.9 Disc length --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52
7.4.0.9 Bowl axial height ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52
7.4.0.10 Disc spacing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 52
7.4.0.11Disc perforations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53
7.4.0.12 Centrifugal force ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53
7.4.0.13 Centrifugal settling velocity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
7.4.0.14 Retention time -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
7.4.0.15 The centrifugal pressure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
7.4.0.16 Power consumption ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
7.0.5 MECHANICAL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
7.0.5.1 Stresses involved ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
7.0.5.2 Material of construction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
7.0.5.3 Vibration problem ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
7.0.5.4 Thickness of the centrifuge shell ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
7.0.6 SUMMARY OF CENTRIFUGAL --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
7.1 Design of a wipe film evaporator by JOAKIM KISUA PIUS CPE/09/08 -------------- 60
7.1.1 Functions of an evaporator------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 60
7.1.2 DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF WIPED FILM EVAPORATOR ---------------------------------------------- 61
7.1.3 Wiped Film Evaporator Principle ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62
7.1.4 Thermal Design Calculations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64
7.1.5 Calculations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
7.1.5.1 Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method ----------------------------------------------- 67
7.1.6 MECHANICAL DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
vi

7.1.7 AGITATOR DESIGN ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
7.1.7.1 Number of blade calculations --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
7.1.7.2 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 70
7.1.7.3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 70
7.1.7.4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 70
7.1.7.5 Jacket thickness -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
7.1.7.6 Feed nozzle -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
7.1.7.7 Design temperature --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
7.1.7.8 Design pressure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
7.1.8 Design summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 73
CHAPTER 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
8.0 PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION -------------------------------------------- 74
8.1 Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
8.2 Objectives of process control and instrumentation ------------------------------------------------------- 75
8.3 Classification of process variables ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 75
8.4 Control principles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75
CHAPTER NINE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
9.0 ECONOMIC AND PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS ------------------------------------------------ 79
9.1 INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
9.2 Economic Evaluations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
9.2.1 Estimation of fixed capital investment ------------------------------------------------------------------ 83
9.2.2 Total capital investment estimates ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
9.2.3 Total product cost -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
9.2.4 Raw materials cost estimates ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
9.2.5 Annual utilities cost estimates ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
9.2.6 Depreciation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
9.2.7 Operating labor cost estimates --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87
9.2.8 Annual Cash Flow Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 89
9.2.9 Cumulative cash flow analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91
9.2.10 Profitability Analysis---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 92
9.2.11 Break-Even Point (BEP) Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 95
CHAPTER 10 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 97
10.0 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT ----------------------------------- 97
10.1 INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 97
vii

10.2 SAFETY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 98
10.3 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 99
10.4 ENGINEERING SAFETY CONTROL --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100
10.5 DEVELOPMENT OF A SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM ----------------------------------------------- 101
10.6 HAZARD COMMUNICATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 101
10.7 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) ---------------------------------------------------------- 102
10.8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES ------------------------------------------- 103
10.9 LEGISLATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 105
10.10 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY ANALYSIS (HAZOP) ------------------------------------------------------- 107
CHAPTER 11 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------114
11.0 PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT ------------------------------------------------------------114
11.1 INTRODUCTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 114
11.2 SITE LAYOUT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 115
11.3 PLANT LAYOU ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 117
CHAPTER 12 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------118
12.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS -------------------------------------------------118
APPENDICES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------120
Appendix A: Data --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------120
Table A-1: specific heat capacities of key components ------------------------------------------------------ 120
Appendix B: Detailed Sample Mass Balances --------------------------------------------------120
Table B-2: Summary of mass balance around peeler machine -------------------------------------------- 121
Appendix C: Sample energy balance calculation ---------------------------------------------121
Appendix D: Equipment Sizing Calculations ---------------------------------------------------123


viii

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Varieties of avocado --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
Table 2: Typical analysis results of Avocado oil Composition -------------------------------------------------9
Table 3: Vitamin content of avocado oil (seasonal range) per 100g -------------------------------------- 10
Table 4: A Typical analysis of the Fatty Acid composition of Avocado Oil ------------------------------- 11
Table 6: Laboratory analysis equipment used for avocado oil compositional analysis ------------- 18
Table 7: mass balance around the stone remover -------------------------------------------------------------- 32
: mass balance around the stone remover -------------------------------------------------------------- 32
Table 11: mass balance around the tricanter --------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
Table 14: mass balance around the wiped film molecular evaporator ----------------------------------- 36
Table 15: energy balance around the wiped film evaporator ----------------------------------------------- 39

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Tocopherols structure -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
Figure 2: Key elements of a wiped film evaporator ------------------------------------------------------------ 23
Figure 3: L-type and P-type rotors ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
Figure 4: R-type rotor and the inside of a glass lined evaporator ------------------------------------------ 24
Figure 5: wiped film evaporator rotor blade operation ------------------------------------------------------- 25
Figure 6: Wiped film evaporator rotor onsite installation --------------------------------------------------- 26
Figure 7: Virgin avocado oil processing line ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
Figure 8: Simplified diagram showing installation of a wiped film evaporator ------------------------ 27
Figure 9: Disk bowl centrifuge ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46

1

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction

The avocado is a tropical tree which grows well and abundantly in Kenya. It is one of the
many agricultural produce which is highly utilized in the country only on the nutritious
purposes. Various industries for example Olivado limited company, are utilizing this
market niche to produce avocado oil. Besides being nutritious, avocado fruit is also rich
in vitamins e.g. A, B, C and antioxidants lutein and at the same time components which
lower cholesterol (all this vital components are present in unsaponifiable fraction of
avocado oil). Despite avocado being rich in pytochemicals, cosmetic and pharmaceutical
industries in the country have not been keen enough to venture in richness of this fruit
to produce their respective product leaving the monopoly to the nutritious ventures.
This has resulted in viewing avocado as being a nutritious plant only and the farmers
are therefore not motivated to plant avocado plants in large quantity since the market is
not wide enough to give them a reason of widening their produce.

It has been noted the richness of avocado in nutrients, high in proteins, antioxidants and
dietary fiber. He observed that this high content of avocado in high fat and calorie
content has led nutritionists and dieticians either to advise against it or to use it . Many
studies and research however have proven avocado to be highly advantageous for
human health due to its healthy fat composition. All this goodness of avocado is well
preserved in avocado oil and thus presents an excellent alternative for utilization of the
fruit.

However, avocado oil has been produced and used by South Americans for centuries but
only as a skin ointment. On the other hand these alternative cosmetic and
pharmaceutical aspects of avocado oil are being utilized in American and French
industries among others to produce pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

2

1.1Objectives of the Design project
The objectives of the design project are listed below:
i. To provide an alternative method of producing pharmaceutical jelly from
avocado oil
ii. To design the selected process for the pharmaceutical avocado oil production
iii. To locate the best site for the plant
iv. To carry out an economic cost analysis of the design plant
v. To assess the impacts of the processes wastes to the environment

3

CHAPTER TWO
2.1: Literature review
2.2: Historical Origin of the Plant

The avocado (alligator pear or aguacate as commonly known) is scientifically known as
Persea americana of the family Lauraceae and is a native plant of Southern Mexico and
Central America . Historical records of the usage of the plant exist from 7000 B.C. of its
cultivation from 6000 B.C. and continuous use in all the well known archeological sites
of Mexico.
In Kenya, avocado (Persea americana) also called Mwembe mafuta in Kiswahili was
introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th and 18th centuries. By 1939, improved
cultivars such as Puebla, Nabal, Lyon, Lula, Linda and at least 2 strains of Fuerte - one
from California and one from South Africa - had been introduced .These varieties
especially Fuerte and Puebla were adapted to the highlands of Kenya. Statistics show
that during 1970 only 23 t of avocado were exported. In 1984, 1400 tonnes of avocado
were exported from Kenya. The cultivars introduction programme commenced in 1965
with a focus to evaluate cultivars suitable for highlands and also lower altitudes and/or
agro-ecological zones.

2.3: Agronomy
2.3.1: Growth Requirements

The avocado plant grows well in warm areas with tropical to subtropical climates. The
plant at various stages does not tolerate climate that is too cold, too wet, too hot or too
dry. Its flowers are very sensitive to very low temperatures and freezing temperatures
tend to kill the plants. Frost and very hot weather results in a substantial loss of fruits
and too much wind is also highly unfavorable. The plant is tolerant to a wide range of
soil types (acidic and alkaline) with the exception of saline conditions. It does require
well aerated soils and will not survive in areas with poor drainage due to excess water.
It tends to grow well on hillsides but should never be grown near stream beds. The use
of phosphorous (P) fertilizers after one year of growth for young plants and nitrogen
(N) and potassium (K) for the older trees is very favorable for growth and fruit yields.

The plant can be grown in the shade but is productive only in full sun. It has been
reported that fruits continuously exposed to the sun were more hardy and tolerant to
conditions like high and low temperatures, had a slower rate of ripening, and more
resistant to pathogen invasion than those growing in the shade. The sun exposed fruits
were also higher in oil, dry matter and minerals. This supports the importance of
sunlight and temperature on avocado fruit development and qualities.

4

2.3.2: Fertilization

The pollination of avocado with its flowers is a classic example of protogyny. This
means the females mature before the males, so the flower cannot self pollinate but
requires pollen from another flower or another plant and this type of pollination is
called cross pollination. Growing plants bearing the two different types of flowers
together will allow cross pollination to occur and increase the chances of production. A
typical tree produces around a million flowers a year but only produces a dozen to a few
hundreds of fruits

Varieties & Cultivars
There are three known varieties or horticultural races of avocado and these are the
Mexican, Guatemalan and the West Indian Types. The Mexican types thrive in
Mediterranean climate and are native to dry subtropical plateaus. The Guatemalan
types are native to cool, high altitude tropics while the West Indian variety thrive in
humid, tropical climates. There are now many hybrids resulting from cross-breeding of
these three varieties and also from the selection of certain favorable attributes. The
three varieties can be differentiated from each other using various attributes as
provided in Table 1.
Table 1: Varieties of avocado
PROPERTIES
Main Attribute Specific
Attribute
Mexican Guatemala Indian
Oil Scent Nice None None
Leaf Size Small Various Various
Size Thin Warty Leathery
Seed Skin Big Small Big
Cavity Loose Tight Loose
Tolerance Cold Yes No No
Salt No No No
Fruits Oil content High Medium Low
Maturity
(month)
6 9 6

5

Growers however tend to identify the fruits by cultivars rather than varieties. A list of
various existing cultivars is provided on and only a few of the most popular cultivars are
listed and noted below.

Haas Guatemalan race and regarded as the industry standard fruit. Tree and fruit are
medium sized, thick skin, roundish and purple at full maturity. Has a good shelf life,
wide consumer acceptance and oil content is around 19 30%. It produces from April
to
September and is the most popular cultivar used around the world. It bears well only in
alternate years and is an A cultivar.

Fuerte This tall tree is a hybrid and produces a shiny green, round pear shaped, large
to very large fruits. Oil content around 18-26%, good flesh but also tends to bear fruits
in alternate years. Season is December and is a B cultivar.

Gwen The most popular and productive dwarf tree. Fruits are small, elongated and
remain green when ripe. Season is February to October and is an A cultivar.

Pinkerton A dense productive tree and is an A cultivar. Fruits look like long pears
with pebbly green skin. The fruits darken when ripe, have small seeds and are in season
in November.

Reed Known as the summertime variety avocado. Is an A cultivar and produces a
large fruit with thick green skin which stays green when ripe. Its season is August and
its flesh becomes buttery yellow when ripe.

Zutano A hybrid and is a columnar tree bearing medium to large fruits. Fruit has a
shiny yellow skin and is pear shaped. It is similar to a Fuerte but is inferior and has
fibres. Is a B cultivar and its colour remains the same when ripe.

Propagation
Growing avocado directly from the seeds is not favorable because it bears fruits only
after 4-6 years of growth and it rarely resembles the parent cultivar. The avocado has
Hypo-geal germination meaning the shoot grows directly from the epicotyl in the soil.
Commercial orchards are thus usually propagated by either grafted trees or rootstocks.
Rootstocks are propagated by seeds (seedling rootstocks) and layering (clonal
rootstocks). One common method is the etiolation technique used for propagating the
desired clonal rootstocks specific for disease and soil conditions. Lateral and terminal
grafting is normally used and carried out for young plants after one year of growth in
greenhouses.

Pests & Diseases
6

A soil borne fungus known as Phytophthora cinnamomi is a very severe disease which
causes root rot of the trees. The disease is easily transported by equipment, tools and
shoes from infected soil and farmers are highly encouraged to use disease free and
certified plants or rootstocks. Once a tree is infected it is difficult to treat except to cut
back on water supply. Dothiorella (Botryosphaeria ribis) canker is another fungus which
infects the trunk and results in dead patches which spread to maturing fruits causing
rancid smelling, darkened spots on the flesh. This disease which starts upon harvest
cannot be detected on the outside and has no means of control. A viral disease known as
sun blotch causes crinkling of new leaves, yellowed streaking of young stems, cracking
of the trunk and occasional fruit deformation. It is spread by the use of contaminated
tools and scions and so using virus-free propagating wood is a must. Pests include rats,
leaf caterpillars, avocado brown mite, six spotted mite and also snails

Harvest and postharvest

Avocado fruits are strange in that they only start to ripen and turn soft when they are
picked. They remain hard and continue to grow when mature on the tree until they fall
off. The fruits can be left on the tree (4-6 months) after being fully developed and will
ripen very quickly once picked. The taste of the fruits at the time of harvest depends on
their oil content which in turn is dependant on their stage of maturity. Avocados can
ripen quickly when stored together with other fruits like bananas and apples due to the
production of ethylene gas. The fruits must be handled with care when harvested to
minimize physical damage and bruising which results in undesirable discoloration and
softening of the pulp. The fruit ripening process like many is slowed considerably by
low temperatures. Report show that it is high activities of wall hydrolytic enzymes
during ripening that result in ultrastructural changes in the cell walls of ripened
avocado fruits. Extended cold storage results in chilling injury, which is marked by
improper softening, off flavour development and discoloration of the mesocarp. The
major storage component of the avocado fruit is the oil contained in its mesocarp. It is
the breakdown of the structure of these specialized oil cells during prolonged cold
storage that results in chilling injury.

A study conducted and reported noted that differences in postharvest quality were
attributed to differences in cultivars, growing conditions, location and fruit maturity.

2.3.3: Avocado Fruit & Human Health
Avocado Benefits
Bergh described the avocado fruit to be nutrition-rich while others in the industry call it
a functional food due to its additional health benefits from certain phytochemicals. It
contains high amounts of vitamins A ,B, C, E, and other nutrients like folacin, niacin, iron
(Fe), magnesium (Mg),
7

folate, pantothenic acid and contains 60% more potassium than bananas.
Most of these nutrients are deficient in most typical diets and are all abundantly present
in avocado. In its unmodified natural state the avocado represents a more balanced and
wholesome diet than most food or even concentrated supplement pills. Vitamins E, C
and beta carotene (vitamin A precursor) are natural antioxidants which protect against
dangerous free radicals which are by-products of life processes due to oxygen . These
free radicals result in cataracts from eye tenses, cancer due to cell mutation, arthritis,
advanced aging process, and heart disease due to cholesterol buildup. These
antioxidants are specifically effective in reducing the oxidation of the low density
lipoprotein (LDL) which leads to plaque deposits in arteries. The role of Vitamin Es role
in slowing down the aging process makes avocado very important in the cosmetic
industry. Avocado protein has also been proven to contain all the essential amino acids
for human nutrition attributes not provided by any other plant source. Its fiber content
was also noted to be high in both the soluble and insoluble forms and this is considered
very advantageous due to fibers lowering effects on cardiovascular disease,
hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Pectin in particular a water-soluble fiber is known
to be most effective in maintaining heart health.

The avocado fruit contains more calories per gram than most other foods and thus
people tend to avoid it because of the well known adverse effects of cholesterol on
humans. The fat content of avocado which is the cause for many misconceptions
however is another valuable aspect of the fruit. More than 70% of its fat is
monounsaturated fat with low levels of polyunsaturated and saturated fat with slight
variations according to cultivars and fruit maturity stage. Monounsaturated fat in
particular has been noted to be highly beneficial in that it not only lowers the level of
the harmful cholesterol (LDL) but also maintains the level of the beneficial high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol which protects the heart. The desirable HDL is
lowered with diets low in fat, or high in complex carbohydrates which is usually used by
many people wanting to lose weight. A diet high in polyunsaturated fat on the other
hand not only reduces HDL but is highly prone to oxidation at the site of unsaturation in
its structure.
The use of avocado in human nutrition controlled experiments have either proven or
claimed the following findings:
- Subjects on avocado enriched diets had a decrease in total cholesterol level
- A reduction in body weights and;
- A reduction in stroke incidences due to high potassium content.
Avocados are also highly recommended food for infants. The smooth, delicate flavor,
creamy consistency makes it an excellent food choice. More importantly it provides
them with essential nutrients and monounsaturated fat which is beneficial for babys
development. The more traditional uses of the fruit in particular for the South American
people is its use as a sexual stimulant.
Avocado Disadvantage
8

There is documented evidence that feeding any part of the avocado tree including its
fruit to any non-human animal is life threatening and lethal for some animals. Thus total
avoidance of any part of the tree is recommended by most animal organizations

Avocado Oil
Avocado oil is the major avocado product which utilizes this otherwise not very popular
fruit in Kenya. Only a few countries are actually involved in the production of oil namely
Mexico (34%), USA (8%), Israel (4%), South Africa (<2%) and New Zealand
(<1%) and these are also the countries involved in growing and trading of the fruit.
Avocado oil was predominantly processed by the traditional producing countries and
sold to the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry to be used in cosmetic and
healthcare products and as a lubricant. The methods of extraction used resulted in oil
that was not suitable for consumption until now. A new method has recently been
developed in New Zealand which produces avocado oil that is comparable in quality to
olive oil the industrys finest or premium cooking oil.
The fatty acid makeup of avocado oil which is of great health importance, coupled with
the presence of many essential nutrients and phytochemicals make it a very valuable
product. The emerging market for it should be acknowledged and taken advantage of as
it presents many opportunities for using surplus fruits and producing a value added
product.


Factors Influencing the Oil Content of Avocado

Avocado fruits with high oil content must be used in the production of oil. Various
factors however are known to affect the oil content of fruits and they are:

Cultivar - Different cultivars vary in oil content upon maturity and only those with high
oil content should be considered. Because the oil is contained in the pulp or flesh,
cultivars with high proportion of flesh and minimum seed and peel should also be
selected. Many studies have confirmed the Hass cultivar to be superior in quality with
all the favorable attributes.
Maturity stage The time at which the fruits of any given cultivar are harvested was
noted by Arpaia to have the greatest impact on the oil content of the fruits.
Maturity is when the fruit is most suitable for human consumption and not for
processing.
Some cultivars mature early while others mature much later and understanding this
becomes very important for choosing when to harvest. However it is understood that
when avocado fruits mature their moisture content lower while their oil increases and
leaving the fruits on the trees much longer after maturity tend to increase oil content.

Location and growth conditions - The same study of avocado postharvest quality by
9

Arpaia also noted differences in oil content for the same cultivar due to different
locations and growth conditions such as soil fertility. Sun exposed fruits were also found
to yield higher levels of oil than those fruits in the shade.
Biochemical Composition & Physiochemical Properties of Oil
Understanding the biochemical composition and physiochemical properties of the oil
help explain its functional properties and uses. Most of the beneficial attributes
associated with eating avocados are mostly preserved in the oil and for this reason is
very valuable.
The composition and in particular properties of the oil varies according to how it is
produced whether it be crude, virgin or refined according to the method and number of
successive operations involved in its production.

Various analyses have been done on the composition of avocado oil and Table 2 lists
typical results.
Table 2: Typical analysis results of Avocado oil Composition
Parameter Avocado Oil
Acidity Value (as oleic) (%) 2.0-0.8
Peroxide value (meq/kg fat) 3.3-0.1
Iodine value (from GLC) 87-75
Color (chlorophyll) (ppm) 40-70 virgin, 1-10 RBD
Specific Gravity (25
o
C) 0.912-0.916
Beta-sistosterol (%) 0.45-1.0
Total Vitamin E (mg/kg) 112-200
Alpha-tocopherol (mg/kg) 130
Beta/gamma-tocopherol
(mg/kg)
15
Delta-tocopherol (mg/kg) 5
Flash point 150-255
0
C
Un-saponifiables 5.0-18%
Cholesterol 0
Sodium 0
Carbohydrate 0
10


The comparison of the compositional make up of avocado and olive oil shows very
similar results for most parameters. The Vitamin E, Beta-sistosterol and alpha
tocopherol levels however are much higher in avocado oil, the micronutrients with
significant proof of health benefits. The flash or smoke point of avocado oil is another
noticeable feature. This makes the oil highly applicable for high temperature cooking as
it will not burn until it reaches temperatures well above 150
0
C. The acidity value and
peroxide values indicate stability in terms of minimal hydrolysis and lipase activities.
The oil is also free of cholesterol and carbohydrate. Table 3 shows a Vitamin analysis of
avocado oil.

Table 3: Vitamin content of avocado oil (seasonal range) per 100g
Vitamins Result
Vitamin A (carotene) 370-870 IU
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.08-0.16
Pyrodixine 0.19-0.26 mg
Pantothenic acid 0.78-1.2 mg
Folic acid 0.022-0.105 mg
Thiamine Hcl 0.08-0.125 mg
Ascorbic acid 4.0-13.0 mg
Niacin 1.05-2.42 mg
Choline 12.0-22.2 mg
Biotin 2.3-4.2 mg
Vitamin E 0.8-4.2 IU

As seen in the above table, the vitamin content of oil varies within a range for the
various parameters and the usual influential factors of cultivar, maturity and processing
method is likely to impact on these values. The list is extensive and most of the vitamins
is lacking in most diets. The presence of most of these vitamins in avocado oil gives it
the properties which makes the oil highly valuable in the cosmetic industry.

Fatty Acid Composition
As seen in Table 2 the iodine value is high indicating a high degree of unsaturation.
11

Typical avocado oil is comprised mostly of monounsaturated fatty acids (74%), 11%
polyunsaturated fatty acids and about 13% saturated. These percentages vary slightly
with cultivars and other influential factors but the oil is very similar to olive oil. It is this
high level of monounsaturated fat which gives the desirable effect of being
anticholesterol as it prevents the formation of clots the major cause of coronary heart
disease.

Table 4: A Typical analysis of the Fatty Acid composition of Avocado Oil
Fatty Acids Saturation Africa oil
analysis (%)
New Zealand oil Analysis
(%)
Palmetic Acid C16:1 11.85 12.5-14.0
Palmitoleic Acid C16:1 3.98 4.0-5.0
Stearic Acid C18:0 0.87 0.2-0.4
Oleic Acid C18:1 70.54 70-74
Linoleic Acid C18:2 9.45 9.0-10.0
Linolenic acid C18:3 0.87 0.3-0.6
Arachidic Acid C20:0 0.50 0.1
Gadoleic Acid C20:1 - 0.1
Eliosenoic Acid C20:1 0.39 -

Table 4 lists results from two different countries and their analysis of avocado oil
confirms the healthy composition of the oil in terms of fatty acid composition.
The analysis reported in Table 4 was done using the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME)
analysis on a Gas Chromatograph.
Phytochemicals
The naturally occurring phenolic compounds found in vegetables and fruits have been
proven to have equal or greater cholesterol lowering properties than unsaturated fatty
acids. Beta-sitosterol (a phytosterol) is one of the healthy plant compounds found to be
most abundant in avocado. It is widely proven to be responsible for the non-absorption
of the bad cholesterol (LDL) and maintaining the good HDL cholesterol in the intestine
which then lowers total plasma cholesterol. This compound was also reported by the
British Medical Journal the Lancet to be very effective in offering relief to men above 50
years who suffered from benign prostatic hyperplasia resulting in significant
improvements in urinary difficulties. The phytosterol content has the same skin
penetrating abilities of lanolin and for this reason avocado oil is highly valuable in the
cosmetic industry. Lutein or carotenoid is also highly abundant in avocado oil. This
12

phytochemical is effective in providing protection against prostate cancer, eye diseases
and mascular degeneration. Lozano noted that the unsaponifiable fraction from
immature fruits contained a much higher level for both total sterol (1.1 6.2%) and
tocopherol compared to matured fruits (sterol 0.8-2.0% & tocopherols 5.7-10.3 mg/100
g oil). This is very significant for the extraction of enriched amounts of these
Compounds as they are of high health significance.

Antioxidants
Phytochemicals in plants is reported to have greater antioxidant effects than minerals
and vitamins. Lutein for example is one very effective antioxidant. Vitamin E represents
a mixture of chemicals known as tocopherols and
tocotrienols and is another well known vitamin with antioxidant effects. tocopherol
is one powerful antioxidant which neutralizes the free radicals produced under the
normal metabolism of lipid compounds. As noted in table 2 this is also abundant in
avocado oil. All these antioxidants found in high levels in avocado oil neutralize the free
radicals which would otherwise result in the following:
- eye deterioration;
- inflammation of the joints;
- damage to nerve cells in the brain;
- accelerating the ageing process and;
- Certain cancers.

Chlorophyll & Carotenoids
Crude and virgin oils have high chlorophyll and amounts of other soluble pigments
(carotenoids) which give it their distinctive brown green or emerald green colour. The
virgin oil with high chlorophyll content is highly desired by consumers due to the health
benefits associated with the presence of these micronutrients. The high chlorophyll
content makes the oil highly prone to oxidative effects upon exposure to light and for
this reason must be packed in dark bottles. Other carotenoids like lutein are also
present in high amounts while others like neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin are
present in very minute amounts. Further processing and refining removes the
chlorophyll and other pigments giving oil that is pale yellow in colour and also more
stable.

Unsaponifiable Fraction
The healthy plant micronutrients which have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and
cholesterol lowering properties are mostly contained in this portion of the oil. This part
of avocado oil is highly valued in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for the
high skin penetration coefficient and the specific biological actions of its sterols.
13

Human journal also reported this fraction to contain an unknown factor known as the H
factor which has healing properties. Eyres reported that the healing properties may be
linked with lysyl oxidase which initiates cross linking in collagen and inhibits enzyme
activity. This would be very important for the treatment of wounds and burns.
The unsaponifiable fraction is also high in nutrients which are another reason why it is
highly sought after by the cosmetic industry. The French pharmaceutical industry filed
two separate patents No 17/245 and No 102888 for the extraction of this fraction
indicating its high value. Lozano reported that the unsaponifiable matter in oil from
immature fruits (15-40%) was always higher than the matured fruits (4-9%). This
fraction of the oil is where most of the healthy plant sterols are concentrated. This is
interesting as it presents another valuable option for farmers in using immature fruits
for extracting this highly valuable unsaponifiable matter from oil.

Oil Utilization
Cosmetic Industry
Avocado oil is well known for its anti-bacterial, anti-wrinkle and healing properties. The
multiple properties of avocado oil namely stability, emolliency, skin penetration,
softening and moisturizing results in its wide applicability for cosmetic products. The
high penetration ability of the oil in particular makes it very successful in its use as a
natural and effective beauty aid. It is used in a wide variety of creams and oils for skin
application as it acts as an effective carrier of other supplements incapable of
permeating the skin. The high content of lecithin and phytosterols facilitates its
spreadability. It is easy to emulsify as its low surface tension makes smoother creams
and soaps. Vitamin A helps prevent dry skin while Vitamins E and D are effective against
skin wrinkling and slow the process of ageing. A few New Zealand and US companies
now manufacture various skin care products using avocado oil, like body moisturizer,
replenishing facial crme, skin repair crme and natural oil for everyday use.
The oil is an ingredient for up-market skin care cosmetics, shampoos and baby
products.
The oil is highly priced to those with skin problems and is used as a base for ointments
used for treating dermatitis, acne, lacerations and other skin conditions. It is also used
as a post-operative dressing to prevent adhesions to wounds and skin burns while
accelerating the healing process. It also has strong UV absorption properties making it a
very good effective sunscreen.

Avocado oil for skin
As mentioned previously, avocado oil has been many a times as used on skin purposely
to provide protection of skin. The underlying reasons of its protective aspect are largely
due to the presence of antioxidant components (in Vitamin E) which are of course
tocopherols and tocotrienol. Tocopherols are best known and most widely used
antioxidants.
14



Figure 1: Tocopherols structure

Tocopherols function as antioxidants by donating the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group to
the lipids peroxyl radical. The hydrogen donating power of tocopherols is in fats and
oils is in the order >>. Tocopherol can also function as inhibitors of lipid
oxidation by scavenging singlet oxygen molecules and free radicals.

Food The oil is highly applicable for food preparation and because of its high quality
(Similar to olive oil) it provides another healthy alternative for consumers. It is
marketed as healthy oil due to its high content of monounsaturated fat, presence of
essential amino acids and high vitamin content. The high sterol content in particular
and its cholesterol lowering effect is what makes this oil a must for modern society. It
has a high smoke point making it suitable for high temperature cooking. It also has a
bland flavor which does not disguise the natural flavor of food. It is also used as a
dressing which does not disguise the natural flavour of food. It is also used as a dressing
for salads and vegetables and also as a dip for hot food like bread. There are naturally
infused oil available with different flavours like garlic, chilli, lemon and orange which
provide consumers more choices to choose from

Dietary supplement One of the most exciting products produced by New Zealand
based Olivado and Elysian Isle companies is the avocado oil capsule. It simply takes all
the beneficial attributes found in avocado oil and seal it in a health capsule which can be
taken daily. It contains all the healthy micronutrients and vitamins available in the oil
which can help fight bad cholesterol, inflammatory, osteoarthritis and prostate
problems.
Extraction of Avocado Oil
15

To produce a quality product requires high quality raw materials. For this reason it is
imperative that the fruits used are of high grade in particular must contain high
proportion of pulp, have high oil content, free of diseases and must not be physically
damaged as evident in pulp discoloration and/or off-flavors. The fruits have to be
carefully matured and ripened to allow for maximum oil development before they are
used. Various methods have been used in the extraction of oil from avocado fruits. The
methods vary in their degree of effectiveness for oil extraction and also subsequent
effect on the resultant oil quality. Heating and chemical extraction have been the
traditional methods used and now a new method has been developed in New Zealand
which allows oil to be expressed from the fruits with very minimal processing. Human
journal lists various methods used in the past for the extraction of avocado oil involving
steam pressure, hydraulic pressing, solvent extraction, centrifugation, freeze-drying,
rendering process and the use of a tube press plant. However the specific application of
the oil should determine the process and method chosen. Only the most practical and
suitable methods are discussed below.
Pre-Process Treatment
Avocado fruits destined for oil production must be firstly inspected for physical damage
and other abnormalities. They are then washed before being processed to remove the
skin and seed. The means used for washing, de-stoning and de-skinning of the fruits
vary but all processes involve this first critical step.

Rendering process
This method involves heating of the avocado pulp in avocado oil.
The moisture evaporates off leaving the oil and the dry matter behind. The oil can then
be decanted off while the remaining slurry is subjected to hydraulic pressure to press
out more or the remaining oil. It is reported that laboratory experiments resulted in
94% recovery of the oil using this method.

Tube Press Plant
This consists of either one or two tubes. The tubes are filled with avocado pulp and
then subjected to hydraulic pressure to press out the oil through perforations within the
inner tubes. This method was developed my Mess Alfa Laval and aims at extracting out
most of the oil with minimal damage to the oil quality.

Solvent Extraction
This is one of the traditional methods commonly used. Various solvents could be used
and organic solvents have mostly been utilized. Botha reported experimental solvent
extractions using hexane and a Soxhlet extractor on a 10g dried sample for 8 hours.
Subsequent removal of the solvent is followed by vacuum evaporation and drying until
constant mass. The resultant oil has a high chlorophyll content meaning the chlorophyll
is co-extracted along with the oil. Chlorophyll levels as high as 192.9 ppm was reported
by Werman & Neeman to have been extracted in the laboratory by ethanolic extraction.
16


Human journal reported this method to have the highest yield but industrial equipment
is very expensive to install plus the highly flammable solvents used are very dangerous.
The recovery and total removal of the solvent is also an issue which requires a highly
sophisticated plant. Thus because the raw material is an expensive fruit and the oil yield
is at maximum around 22% of the whole fruit it is not economical to extract avocado oil
in this way. Xiao reported the method does have other disadvantages like loss of volatile
compounds, long extraction times, toxic solvent residues and degradation of valuable oil
compounds.

Centrifugation
After the pre-processing treatment, the fruits are fed into a mill where it takes the form
of a guacamole. The malaxing (mixing) takes up to several hours until the release of the
fine emulsion of oil. The paste is then fed to a centrifugal decanter where the oil is
separated from the guacamole. Reported that extraction of oil was most efficient using
centrifugal force 12,300 kg, a 5:1 water to avocado ratio, temperature 75
O
C, with a pH
5.5 and a 5% concentration of either NaCl, CaCO3 or CaSO4.

Cold Press
This relatively new method of extracting oil makes use of the modern Alfa
Laval centrifugal extraction method so is a variation of the above method. The fruit flesh
is firstly macerated by high speed grinders before the mixture is mixed in malaxers.
When this process is complete, a three phase decanter then separates the mixture into
oil, water and solids before polishing takes place with a multi-cone centrifuge. Extra
virgin oil is produced after the first press. The extraction efficiency is dependent on such
things like pH, centrifugation rate, salt, mixing temperature (<500C) and duration of
pressing. At no time along the whole process is the oil subjected to light or oxygen as
this has a deteriorating effect on the quality of the oil. The extraction rates vary from 10-
22% of the whole fruit and also tend to vary during the season.

The above method involves low temperatures and minimal processing and as a result
the oil retains all its natural flavor, nutrients and healthy properties. Thus the resultant
oil is of high quality and is considered a virgin oil because of very minimal processes
involved
- This virgin oil however, has high chlorophyll content and is thus more unstable.
This makes packaging in dark bottles or tins and total avoidance of oxygen a
must for a longer shelf life for the product. This oil must be stored in a dark, cool
cupboard where the temperature never rises above 30
0
C, but should never be
refrigerated or it will solidify. Virgin oil only has a shelf life of two years if stored
correctly. More stable refined cold processed oil can also be produced after it has
undergone further processes of refining, bleaching and deodorized (RBD). The
virgin oil is excellent for salad dressing, a marinade on fish and chicken and also
17

for baked goods. It can also be used as a simple drizzle on vegetables and
potatoes and also for shallow pan-frying of poultry and fish
- The production of cold pressed oil requires little investment and the process
itself is simple. However the process has inefficiencies in that around 6-15% of
the oil remains in the pressed residue

Supercritical CO2
Botha reported extraction results for avocado oil extracted using supercritical carbon di
oxide under four different extraction conditions.

Spectroscopic quantification of the color of avocado oil extracted with
supercritical carbon dioxide at four different conditions:
Extraction Condition Absorption Value Visual Quantification
37
0
C/350 atm 0.325 Straw-yellow
37
0
C/532 atm 0.410 Straw-yellow greenish tint
81
0
C/350 atm 0.526 Straw-yellow with strong
greenish tint
81
0
C/532 atm 0.765 Green with yellow tint

The above Table 5 indicates that at higher temperatures and pressures, chlorophyll can
be co-extracted along with the oil. Xiao reported that the power of solubilization for
supercritical CO2 can be achieved with higher densities which are achieved at higher
pressures. This allows large amounts of organic compounds to be dissolved which can
later be separated from the fluid by means of reducing the temperatures or pressures.
Thus the extraction of the phytochemicals was only possible at higher pressures and
temperatures only due to the solubilisation of the organic compounds. Lower
temperatures and pressures will extract only the oil without chlorophyll. This method is
very important as it basically proves that more stable oil without chlorophyll can be
extracted this way which eliminates the need to refine the oil of its color pigments. The
oil however does not contain the healthy plant compounds which are highly attributed
for its health benefits.

Before analyzing the free fatty acid of the oil the CO2 must be totally removed as it
increases the acidity level. This can be done by subjecting the oil to vacuum evaporation.
The degree of oxidation of the oil in the dried material used for extraction is also
important as volatile acids are also co-extracted by this method. The free fatty acid
content however of the oil extracted by this method was not different to the FFA of the
oil extracted by hexane indicating no effect on pressure, temperature or supercritical
CO2 on the hydrolysis of the parent glycerides.
18


An important outcome of extracting with supercritical fluid as reported by Botha was
that the unsaponifiable fraction of the oil was found to be higher for the first fractional
extraction (20 minute intervals) and tend to decrease with subsequent extractions.
Thus the unsaponifiable fraction of the oil can be enriched by extracting at time
intervals.

The use of supercritical fluid is proven to be a cost-effective technique for laboratory
scale while large scale units still require experimentation for accurate economic
valuations. This method has advantages such as low operating temperatures, shorter
extraction periods, high selectivity in the extraction of compounds and no undesirable
solvent residue. It also uses a safe, readily available gas.

Effect of processing on the quality of the oil
The phenolic compounds which are well publicized for their health benefits are lost or
destroyed by most processing methods. Extra virgin oil loses its highly beneficial
micronutrients during the refining process and the cholesterol lowering and anti-
oxidant properties are significantly reduced as a result. The color or chlorophyll content
of the oil is noticeably lower than that of virgin oil due to the removal of these plant
compounds.
Xiao noted that the usual methods of hydrodistillation and organic solvent extractions
present problems like toxic solvent residues, degradation of the unsaturated
compounds and vitamins, and giving objectionable off-flavours due to heat. The change
from NaOH to Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 when refining is reported to achieve the same results
when refining with the extra benefit of retaining the phenolic compounds. Thus a more
stable and healthy oil can still be achieved after refining if Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 is used.

The cold pressing and supercritical fluid methods appear to be the most suitable and
beneficial methods to extract the avocado oil. Both utilise low temperatures which help
retain the healthful composition of the oil, involves minimal processing and requires
less capital investment.
Analysis Methods for Oil Components
The analysis of the various biochemical and physiochemical composition of the oil can
be analyzed using the following equipment given in Table 6.


Table 5: Laboratory analysis equipment used for avocado oil compositional
analysis
Equipment Components Extraction
Method
19

Gas Chromatography
FAME analysis
For fatty acid
composition
Cold press
centrifuge
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometric
Major compounds Supercritical CO2
High Performance
Liquid
Chromatography
Triacylglycerols,
sitosterol &
tocopherol, lutein and
total chlorophyll


Other detailed analysis as given in tables 2 & 3 do not specify the methods of analysis
used. However the analysis equipment used for analysing other vegetable oils will
undoubtedly be suitable for the analysis of avocado oil.

20

CHAPTER THREE
3.0: JUSTICATION

The high content of pharmaceutical components like the unsaponifiables( which is rich
in tocopherols and lutein-are very effective in healing skin ailments and preventing skin
aging ) in avocado fruit and the abundance of the raw materials and specifically the
furte avocado variety in central and eastern provinces of Kenya presents a perfect
viability of the project since there will be continuous supply of the raw material.

Secondly, the extraction processes for both the virgin oil and the unsaponifiable fraction
of the avocado oil are comparatively cheap. Cold Press method of extraction of avocado
oil involves low temperature and minimal processing and as a result the oil retains all
its natural flavor, nutrients and healthy properties.
On the other hand, unsaponfiable fraction of avocado oil is extracted in a substantial
quantity without affecting the chemical properties of the fraction.
The oil which becomes the co-product is can be availed for further refining.


21

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0: PROCESS DESCRIPTION
4.1 Pre-process treatment
Do fruits destined for oil production must be firstly inspected for physical damage and
other abnormalities. They are then washed before being processed to remove the skin
and seed. The seed removal and skin removal are done by the de-stoning machine and
de-skinning machine respectively.
4.2 Extraction process
The fruit flesh is firstly macerated by high speed disintegrator before it is then is mixed
in mixer (malaxor). When this process is complete, the three phase decanter then
separates the mixture into oil, water and cake. Extract virgin oil is produced after the
first press. The process is carried out at normal temperature. At no time along the whole
process is the oil subjected to light or oxygen as this has a deteriorating effect on the
quality of the oil. The resultant oil is of high quality and is considered virgin oil because
of the minimal processes involved. The virgin oil is then pumped to a centrifuge for
polishing. Here the suspended solids and water traces are removed.
4.3 Preheating
The degassed oil is passed through heat exchangers for the purpose of temperature
elevation before the oil finally enters the wipe film molecular distiller where it
undergoes fractionation into a light phase that is rich in unsaponifiable fraction i.e.
sterol esters and a heavy phase that is rich in triglycerides and a small fraction of
esterified sterols that do not vaporize under the temperature conditions in the
evaporator.
Molecular evaporation
The wipe film molecular mollecular evaporator is widely applied in industry,in
which,the wiper renews the evaporating liquid film continously,and so the local
overheating of the materials is avoided and the internal mass and heat transfer
processes are enforced.this evaporater has the following advantages that make it
suitable for our process;
- Low residence time
- No liquid hold up
- Very low pressure drop
- Suitable for extremely heat sensitive products because of the short path
involved.
The traditional theory of molecular evaporation is based on mean free path theory of
gas molecule, and an equation given by Langmuir is as follows;
m=(k/2)(T/d
2
P)
this equation shows that mean free path m is related to temperature T(K),pressure
P(Pa) and size of the molecule d(m).k is the Boltzman constant 1.38010
-23
J.K
-1


22

How a molecular evaporator works
The process fluid enters the unit tangentially above the heated zone, and is distributed
evenly over the inner surface of the body wall by a distribution ring mounted on the
rotor. The rotor blades spread over the entire heated wall, and generate highly
turbulent flow conditions in the thin layer of liquid.
The product spirals down the wall, while the turbulent conditions developed by the
rotor blades generate optimal heat flux, rapidly evaporating volatile components. The
resulting vapors flow upwards through the unit into a centrifugal separator, which
returns entrained droplets or froth directly back to the heating zone. Clean vapors pass
through the vapor outlet ready for condensing or further processing. Meanwhile, the
concentrated liquid stream leaves the evaporator through its bottom conical outlet.
Continuous washing by the bow waves generated by the rotor minimizes surface fouling
of the thermal wall, where the concentrated liquid or residue is most prevalent.


23


Figure 2: Key elements of a wiped film evaporator

The wipe film evaporator is merely a single evaporation tube fitted with a mechanical
rotating device called a rotor. The distributer is welded to the rotor according to the
propriety design. This ensures that the liquid feed is evenly distributed on to the heated
surface of the evaporater.it then flows downwards in a spiral motion which is created
by the blades of the rotor. Turbulent eddies are formed at the rotor tips, which
continuously agitate and remix the liquid film. The resulting vapor normally rises
upwards, counter-currently to the liquid flow.it passes through a gas-liquid separator
mounted at the top of the evaporator and is then normally directed to the downstream
condenser the concentrate leaves the unit via the bottom of the evaporator.
The upper part of the rotor incorporates a liquid distributor and a centrifugal separator
to effectively dis-entrain liquid droplets from the vapor flows, rotating baffles mounted
24

on the rotor are complemented by static ones. The figures below show the different
rotor types used in this evaporator.

Figure 3: L-type and P-type rotors


Figure 4: R-type rotor and the inside of a glass lined evaporator















25



The figure below shows a cross-section of a wipe film evaporator showing the blade and
bow wave formed in front of it.


Figure 5: wiped film evaporator rotor blade operation
26


Figure 6: Wiped film evaporator rotor onsite installation


Figure 7: Virgin avocado oil processing line
27

Fig: Virgin avocado oil processing line.


Figure 8: Simplified diagram showing installation of a wiped film evaporator

Evaporation of virgin avocado oil is a fractionation step which at the end gives:
- The distilled fraction that is rich in unsaponifiables generally representing 5% to
15% by weight of the starting virgin oil. This fraction is composed mainly of non-
esterified sterols.
- The fraction that is rich in triglycerides representing 80% to 85% by weight of
the starting virgin oil. In this fraction there is a 0.5% to 1.5% unsaponifiables
(esterified sterols) in the form of fatty acid esters.
- The high triglyceride content of virgin avocado oil and its low partial (mono and
di) glycerides content demonstrates that the oil is very pure and guarantees a
low degree of hydrolysis and good stability. This gives an assurance of no
chances of hydrolysis.









28

BLOCK DIAGRAMS






























S5

MIXER (Malaxor)
Water (S4)
C3
(S3)
Skins
(S2)

DISINTEGRATOR

Pulp C2
(C2)

Seeds (S1)
Avocado fruits (C1)

SKIN REMOVER

STONE REMOVER
29















Oil (S11)

Cake S7
S5


STORAGE TANK 1

THREE PHASE
DECANTER


CENTRIFUGAL
SEDIMENTATION TANK

STORAGE TANK 2
S6

Virgin oil (S9)

Water (S8)

Water (S10)

Solids

(S12
)

30


S14

HEAT EXCHANGER
S12
S17
S15

WIPED FILM MOLECULAR
EVAPORATOR
S13

CONDENSER

STORAGE TANK 5

STORAGE TANK 4
S16
31

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0: MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES
5.1.1: Mass balance
Introduction
Material balances are the basis of process design. A material balance taken over the
complete process will determine the quantities of raw materials required and products
produced. Balances over individual process units set the process stream flows and
compositions.
Material balances are also useful tools for the study of plant operation and trouble
shooting. They can be used to check performance against design; to extend the often
limited data available from the plant instrumentation; to check instrument calibrations;
and to locate sources of material loss.
All mass/material balances are based on the principle of conservation of mass that is
mass can neither be created nor destroyed with an exception of nuclear processes
according to Einsteins equation; E=mc
2
.
The general conservation equation for any process system can be written as:

For a steady state process the accumulation term is zero and thus for a continuous
steady state process, the general balance equation for any substance involved in the
process can be written as:

In a case of a physical process as most of our operations are the general balance
equation reduces to:
Material In = Material Out
If no chemical reaction takes place, material balance is computed on the basis of
chemical compounds mass basis that are used whereas if a chemical reaction occurs
molar units are used.
Also it is worthwhile to note that when a reaction occurs an overall balance is not
appropriate but a reactant balance (a compound balance) is.

Choosing the basis
The correct choice of the basis for a calculation will often determine whether the
calculation proves to be simple or complex.
32

A time basis was chosen in which results will be presented.
Our basis of calculation shall be one hour and hence results will be presented in kg/hrs.

Basis
One hour
Avocado feed = 4999kg
STONE REMOVER
Table 6: mass balance around the stone remover








SKIN REMOVER

: Mass balance around the stone remover








INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams components Mass
(kgs)
streams components Mass (kgs)
C1 Pulps 4999 C2 Pulps 4999
Seeds 1365 Skins 580
Skins 580 S1 Seeds 1365
TOTAL 6944 TOTAL 6944
INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams Components Mass
(kgs)
Streams Components Mass (kgs)
C2 Pulps 4999 C3 Pulps 4999
Skins 580 S2 Skins 580
TOTAL 5579 TOTAL 5579



SKIN REMOVER

C2
C3 S2
C1
C2

DE-STONING
MACHINE
S1
33

THE MIXER (Malaxor)


INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams Components Mass
(Kgs)
Streams Components Mass (Kgs)
S3 Pulps 4999 S5 Slurry 7251
S4 Water 2252
TOTAL 7251 TOTAL 7251

MIXER
S3
a
S5
S4
34

THE THREE PHASE DECANTER


Table 8: mass balance around the tricanter























INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams components Mass
(kgs)
Streams Components Mass (kgs)
S6 Virgin oil 868 S7 Water 5031
Cake 1041 S8 Sludge 1437
Water 5342 S9 Virgin oil 783
TOTAL 7251 TOTAL 7251
S7



S9
S6
S8


THREE PHASE
DECANTER
35

CENTRIFUGE





















N/B: mass of cake coming out from centrifuge (S 16) is assumed to be negligible.




INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams components Mass
(kgs)
Streams Components Mass (kgs)
S9 Virgin oil 781 S10 Water 2
Water 2 S11 Virgin oil 781
TOTAL 783 TOTAL 783


CENTRIFUGE
S10
S9
S11
36

WIPED FILM MOLECULAR EVAPORATOR













INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams Components Mass
(kgs)
streams components Mass (kgs)
S13 Preheated
oil
781 S14 Light phase 117.15
Steam S15 Heavy phase 663.85
Condensate
TOTAL 781 TOTAL 781
Table 9: mass balance around the wiped film molecular evaporator
S14 S15
S13

WIPE FILM MOLECULAR
EVAPORATOR
37

5.1.2: ENERGY BALANCE
The law of conservation of Enthalpy states that Enthalpy can neither be created nor
destroyed, but can only be transformed from one form to another. The general equation
of Enthalpy balance is given by;

For these calculations, Kinetic Enthalpy and Potential Enthalpy are assumed negligible.
In any unit operation that does not involve a chemical reaction, the Enthalpy balance
equation will take the form;

For these calculations, Kinetic Enthalpy and Potential Enthalpy are assumed negligible.
In any unit operation that does not involve a chemical reaction, the Enthalpy balance
equation will take the form;


Q = cpdt ; dt = T (change in temperature)
Cp (light phase) = 2.33 kj/kg
O
C
Cp (heavy phase) = 3.20 kJ/kg
O
C
CP (virgin oil) = 3.01 kJ/kg
O
C
Datum temperature = 25
O
C
Assumptions
There are negligible energy losses in all the unit operations

Energy in Energy out + Energy generated + energy consumed Work done = Accumulation
Energy In Energy Out = Accumulation
Q = QFeed- QProduct
38

HEAT EXCHANGER









WIPE FILM MOLE CULAR EVAPORATOR








INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
streams Component Mass
(kgs)
Enthalpy
(kJ/hr)
streams components Mass
(kgs)
Enthalpy
(kJ/hr)
S17 Virgin Oil 781 0 S18 Virgin Oil 781 293851.25
S20 Heavy
phase oil
663.85 362411.26 S21 Heavy
phase oil
663.85 68564.29
TOTAL 1484 362411.26 TOTAL 1484 362411.26

HEAT EXCHANGER
S17
S21
S18 S20
S20
S18
S19

WIPE FILM MOLECULAR
EVAPORATOR
39



INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
streams Component Mass
(kgs)
Enthalpy
(kJ/hr)
streams components Mass
(kgs)
Enthalpy
(kJ/hr)
S13 Degassed
Oil
781 293851.25 S13 Light phase 117.15 35439.99
QGEN 104,000 S15 Heavy phase 663.85 362411.2
6
TOTAL 781 397851.25 TOTAL 781 397851.
25
Table 10: energy balance around the wiped film evaporator
40

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 EQUIPMENT SELECTION, SIZING AND SPECIFICATION
INTRODUCTION
The basis of material selection and specification is largely derived or brought about by
the specific operation of equipment. During the operation, the equipment are dutied to
withstand high pressures, high temperature conditions, equipment capacity among
other operating conditions which are likely to impact wears to the equipment. It is in
this light that the equipments materials are chosen so that they are not frequently
replaced. However, the cost of purchasing the equipment with these specifications is
high and therefore the factor of functionality is paramount when choosing the
equipment for various operations.
The equipment for extracting pharmaceutical avocado jelly from avocado pear fruit are
chosen in consistence with the type of operations they are expected to carry out.
6.1 CHOICE OF MATERIALS FOR EQUIPMENT FABRICATIONS
The main factors governing the choice of materials of construction for a specific
equipment unit include:
- the corrosiveness of the content that it handles
- the cost of material fabrication
- the temperature of operation
- the pressure of operation
- the end use of the material
- the ease of fabricating the equipment










41

The following are the equipment with their specifications used during the project
Units Specifications
De-stoning machine Code: DM
Service: removes avocado pear seeds
Type:
Material: stainless steel
Peeling machine: Code: PM
Service: removes avocado pear peels
Type: counter rotary drum
Material: 15 gauge stainless steel
Diameter: 0.41m
width: 0.10m
perforated drum: round holes diameter 0.64cm
Disintegrator: Code: SR
Service: reduces avocado pear pulps sizes
Type: high speed grinder
Material: stainless steel
Capacity: 5m
3
/hr
Mixer (malaxor): Code: MIX
Service: reduces avocado pear pulps into slurry
Type: flat topped
Material: stainless steel
Capacity: 1.578m
Diameter: 1.262m
Height: 2.524m
Surge tank 1 Code: ST 1
42

Service: temporal storage of water/avocado pulp mixture
Type: flat topped
Material: stainless steel
Capacity:1.6m
3
/hr
Three phase decanter: Code: DC 001
Service: separates oil, water and cake
Type: solid-liquid-liquid decanter
Material: stainless steel

Bowl:
Inner diameter: 500mm
L/D: 4.0
Speed maximum: 3450rpm
G force: 3333g
Centrifuge: Code: CF
Service: Separates solid particles from oil
Type: disc bowl
Material: Stainless steel
Capacity: 3.44m
Length: 2.59m
Height: 0.65m
Surge tank 2: Code: FT 001
Service: for temporal storage of crude oil
Type: dome topped
Material: stainless steel
Capacity: 3.44m
43

Length: 2.59m
Diameter: 0.65m

Heat exchanger Code: HE 001
Service: for preheating crude oil and cooling oil product
Type: shell and tube
Material: carbon steel
Length: 3m
Cross-sectional are: 0.2m
2
Number of tube: 87
Length of tube: 2.8m
Area of a tube: 0.01m
2
Wiped film molecular
distiller
Code: C 001
Service: separating unsaponifable fraction of oil from the
saponifiable fraction of avocado pear oil
Type: Vacuum column
Material: stainless steel
Condenser: Code: CD 001
Service: Cooling the light phase oil
Type: Water cooler
Material: Stainless steel
Capacity: 0.2 m
3

44

CHAPTER 7
7.0 Design of a centrifugal separator by DIAR ELIJAH GARANG CPE/1021/08
7.0.1 INTRODUCTION
Centrifuges are extensively used for separating fine solids from suspension in a liquid.
They are classified according to the mechanism used for solids separation:
- Sedimentation centrifuges: in which the separation is dependent on a difference
in density between the solid and liquid phases (solid heavier).
- Filtration centrifuges: in which separation of the phases is by filtration. The walls
of the centrifuge basket are porous, and the liquid filters through the deposited
cake of solids and is removed.
The choice between a sedimentation or filtration centrifuge for a particular application
will depend on:
- Nature of the feed
- Product requirements.
A variety of centrifugal filter or sedimentation designs are classified according to:
- Mode of operation - batch or continuous.
- Orientation of the bowl/basket - horizontal or vertical.
- Position of the suspension and drive - overhung or under-hung.
- Type of bowl - solid, perforated basket, disc bowl.
- Method of solids cake removal.
- Method of liquid removal.
7.0.2 SEDIMENTATION CENTRIFUGES
In solid liquid separations, the weaker force of gravity can be replaced by more
powerful centrifugal force to ensure more rapid settling.
Mode of operation
If a solid suspension in a liquid is rapidly whirled in a cylindrical container about the
cylinders axis, the vessel imparts to the solid liquid system centripetal force acting in
the direction towards the center of rotation. The content in return, exerts an equal and
opposite force, called the centrifugal force, outward on the walls of the container. It is
the centrifugal force that brings about the sedimentation of heavy i.e. coarse solid
particles through a layer of liquid.
A sedimentation centrifuge consists of the following parts:
- A bowl or rotor where the centrifugal is employed to effect phase separation
- A drive shaft to transmit power from the prime mover to the rotor
45

- Drive shaft bearings
- A drive mechanism (usually an electric motor or turbine)
- Seal system
- A supporting framework
- A casing to segregate the separated products
Types of sedimentation centrifuges
There are four main types of sedimentation centrifuges:
1. Tubular Bowl Centrifuge
It is a widely used machine. It comes in the popular ranges of 102-127 mm bowl
diameter and 760 mm length. The bowl is suspended from an upper bearing and drive
assembly is rotated at speed of about 15000 rpm. The feed suspension enters the bowl
under pressure through a statutory feed nozzle at the bottom of the bowl, gets
accelerated to rotor speed, moves upward and discharges out from the top.
Under the impressed centrifugal-force field both the solid particles and liquid receive
radial velocity. The particles whose trajectories intercept the wall deposited and the
rest escape with the effluent. Manual removal of the solids deposited against the bowl
wall is done when the mass of sediment solid is sufficient to degrade the quality. Solid
removal is facilitated by lining the bowl wall with parchment paper so that the
deposited solids can be taken out as a cylindrical package.
2. Multi-chamber Centrifuge.
This is a modified design of tubular-bowl centrifuge driven from below. It has a multi-
chamber bowl consisted of a series of tubular sections of increasing diameter arranged
to form a continuous tubular passage of stepwise increasing diameter.
The feed is charged to the smallest-diameter tube and as it passes through the
increasingly larger diameter tubes, it experiences increasingly higher magnitude of
centrifugal force. The heaviest particles settle in the smallest diameter tube while the
smaller and lighter particles migrate to the larger diameter zone where higher
centrifugal force comes into play. Such types of centrifuges may contain up to 6 annular
chambers in the bowl and the outer tubes may be spaced closer together to improve the
performance of the unit. Bowl holding capacity may range up to 75 liters of solids.
3. Disk Centrifuge
It consists of a stack of sheet metal disks 50-100 in number spaced at 0.4 to 3 mm and
set obliquely to form a half vertical angle of 35-50. These closely spaced disks are
actually cones of sheet metal set one above the other. Each disk is perforated (hole size
of 6mm to 12.75mm) and when the disks are assembled in the bowl, the perforations
give rise to several channels through which the liquid rises.
46

Feed is admitted to the center of the bowl and it rises through the stack of disks whose
primary objective is to reduce the sedimentation distance. Once a solid particle reaches
the underside of one of the disks, it is virtually removed from the liquid as its chances of
re-entrainment in the effluent are very little. However due to the centrifugal force, it
continues to move outward until it is deposited on the bowl wall.
In hermetic disk centrifuge, characterized by closed feed and discharge, the feed
suspension enters the bowl through a hollow spindle at the bottom. The deposited solid
is removed manually, for which the machine is periodically stopped, the bowl is
disassembled and the disk stack is removed. The clarified liquid leaves through the
central port at the top.
Disk centrifuges range in diameters from 100mm to 500mm and develop settling forces
as high as 4000 to 14000 times the force of gravity. They are nearly as effective as
tubular centrifuges.

Figure 9: Disk bowl centrifuge
4. Continuous Horizontal Helical-Conveyor Centrifuge
It consists of a solid-wall bowl with a horizontal axis of rotation. The bowl may be
conical or cylindrical or very often a cylindrical bowl with conical end section. Feed
suspension enters the centrifuge through a stationary axial pipe to an appropriate point
in the bowl and it is sprayed radially outward onto an annular layer of liquid inside the
bowl. The clarified liquid flows through the overflow ports at the larger radius and
discharge out continuously.
The heavy solid sediment through the liquid phase, and are deposited on the inner
surface of the bowl. A helical screw conveyor extending the full length of the bowl
continuously transports the deposited solid to the other end of the bowl. Wash liquid
may be sprayed on the sedimented mass during its transport to dissolve out soluble
impurities. However washing becomes fairly effective on solid particles no smaller than
47

80m.provided the deposited solid phase is reasonably porous. Drained sludge and
clarified liquor are drawn out through the different ports.
A differential speed is maintained between the bowl and the conveyor. The latter is
turned at a speed lower by 20 to 80 rpm than that of the bowl. Bowl diameter ranges
from 150mm to 1370mm; speed is 16 to 135 Hz (I Hz = 1 revolution per second);
throughput 75 2800 litres per minute of liquid. Rate of solid deposition ranges from as
small as 0.03 ton/hr to as high as 60ton/hr.
Advantages of the disk bowl centrifuge
- It can operate continuously in liquid- liquid separation.
- It has a high centrifugal force.
- Its small height to diameter ratio permits modifications, without greatly reducing
the rotational velocity, that will concentrate the sediment in a narrow band
around the inside periphery of the bowl.
- It possesses a far greater separating power as compared with that available
using gravity.
- It can separate colloids of very small size ranges.
- It has a high efficiency of separation when the percentage by volume of one
component is relatively small.

7.0.3 CENTRIFUGE DESIGN THEORY
Acceleration due to centrifugal force G is given by


Where
= angular velocity
R = radius of rotation
Acceleration due to gravity is g
G-level is centrifugal acceleration G, measured in multiples of earth gravity, g


Taking speed of rotation of the centrifuge to be N rev/min and D to be the diameter of
the centrifuge, the above equation can be written as


Stokes law is used to determine the settling velocity. It is given by
48


Where
vtg= settling velocity under gravitational conditions
d = particle size (diameter)
s = density of the particle
= density of the fluid
= viscosity of the surrounding fluid
Under centrifugal conditions, the equation becomes


Where
= angular velocity
r = radius of rotation
In a disk centrifuge (illustrated in figure 1.6), the continuous phase containing the solid
or liquid particles to be separated flows from the outside of the disc stack, with radius r1
to the inside discharge opening with radius r2.
Assuming that the lighter liquid is evenly divided between the spaces formed by the
discs, the flow in each disc space is

where Qo is the total flow through the entire disc


stack and n is the number of spaces.
The flow of the continuous liquid phase is also assumed to be in a radial plane and
parallel to the surfaces of the discs or has having the same angular velocity as the stack.
The sigma value of a centrifuge, , normally expressed as m
2
is equal to the cross
sectional area of a gravity settling tank having the same clarifying capacity. It is given as


Where
n = number of disks
= angular velocity
g = gravitational acceleration
49

r1 = outer radius of disk stack
r2 = inner radius of disk stack
= conical half angle
The sigma value is related to the volumetric flow rate as shown below


The radius of the interphase between the heavy phase and the light phase is given by
the following equation


Where
rs= radius of the interphase of the 2 phases
ri = radius of the outlet of the light phase
R = radius of the bowl
Q1 = volumetric rate of feed for the light phase
Q2 = volumetric rate of feed for the heavy phase
From the equation (8), the retention time
R
t necessary to give adequate separation of
the liquids with the assumption that it solely depends on densities and interfacial
tension is expressed as:


Where
V = the volumetric hold-up of liquid in the bowl
Q = the total volumetric flow rate
DATA
Basis 1 hour
Total feed rate = 783 kg/hr. = 0.2175 kg/s
Mass flow rate of light phase = 781 kg/hr. = 0.2169 kg/s
Mass flow rate of heavy phase = 2 kg/hr. =5.5*10
-4
kg/s
50

Density of light phase (virgin oil) = 914 kg/m
3

Density of heavy phase (water) = 1000 kg /m
3

Volumetric flow rate of light phase (Q1)= 2.373 x 10
-4
m
3
/s
Volumetric flow rate of heavy phase (Q2) = 5.5 x 10
-7
m
3
/s
Volumetric flow rate of feed = 2.378 x 10
-4
m
3
/s
Viscosity of water (at 30
o
C) = 7.974 x 10
-4
Ns/m
2
Viscosity of oil (light phase) = 0.0643 Ns/m
2
Particle size is assumed to be 1m
7.0.4 CHEMICAL DESIGN
The speed of a centrifuge ranges between 4500 and 8000 revolutions per minute
(Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design Vol. 7, Mc Ketta). A value of 7000
revolutions per minute was chosen, high enough to reduce retention time and low
enough to reduce energy consumption.
7.0.4.1 Bowl diameter
Using equation 3 with G/g = 15000 (Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook 8
th
ed) and N
= 7000 rpm


Centrifuges come in standard sizes with the largest size being of diameter 0.6m (Kirk
Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3
rd
Edition, Vol. 5). Therefore D =
0.548m and R = 0.274m
7.0.4.2 Disk diameter
Disk diameter is the diameter of the bowl


Therefore, the outer radius of the disk is


7.0.4.3 Terminal velocity
Substituting our values into equation 4, we get


51

7.0.4.5 Sigma value
It is obtained from equation 7. A factor has to be included for practical values of the flow
rate, Q. For most disk centrifuges, the factor is 0.45(Perrys Chemical Engineering
Handbook 7
th
ed).


7.0.4.6 Number of discs
The number of discs is obtained empirically from tabulated values (Perrys Chemical
Engineers Handbook).
(x10
4
ft
2
) Number of discs
1.1 33
10.84 N
21.5 107






Taking the lowest value in the range then
7.0.4.7 Inner radius of the discs
The conical half angle of a disk centrifuge ranges between 35 and 50 therefore we
chose a value of 35.
The angular velocity is given by


The inner disc radius is obtained from substituting values into equation 6


7.0.4.8 Radius of the interphase
This is calculated using equation (8)
52


For efficient separation rs > r2 as is our case.
7.4.0.9 Disc length







7.4.0.9 Bowl axial height
The aspect ratio (height to diameter) of a centrifuge should be low enough in order to
achieve the required separation. A value that is less than 0.4 is preferred. We selected
0.25.



7.4.0.10 Disc spacing
Disc spacing is calculated using the following equation.



l
b
0.206m
0.15m
35
o

53

7.4.0.11Disc perforations
Disc perforations are placed in order to create channels through which the liquid will
pass through. The diameter of the perforations vary from 6mm to 12.75mm.We
therefore choose a diameter, 0.010m (10mm) and the number of perforations per disc,
8.
Location of the perforations is half the disc length


The area of the perforation is given by


7.4.0.12 Centrifugal force
This is calculated by using the following equation


G/g is in the required range for disc centrifuges (300-16000).
7.4.0.13 Centrifugal settling velocity
The settling velocity under centrifugal forces is given by


7.4.0.14 Retention time
This is calculated using equation 9


Where


Therefore


7.4.0.15 The centrifugal pressure
This is the pressure exerted by the fluids on the walls of the centrifuge machine. It is
calculated as
54


Where
Pc = pressure inside the centrifuge
f = density of the fluid
7.4.0.16 Power consumption
The total power P, used to drive a given centrifuge may be considered to be made up of:
- The power needed to overcome the weight of the bowl, P1
- The power required to overcome the weight of the liquid mixture in the bowl
and friction in the bearings, P2
- The power needed to accelerate a liquid stream of Q and discharge at r, P3
The correlations used are as follows:
i. Power needed to overcome the weight of the bowl is given by:


Where mb is the mass of the bowl given by:


W is the linear or peripheral velocity and is given as




Therefore




ii. Power required to overcome the weight if the liquid mixture in the bowl and
friction in the bearings is obtained using the following equation


55


Where
G is the total weight of the liquid and the bowl
is the co-efficient of friction bearings equal to 0.2
WW is the velocity of the shaft





Therefore



iii. Power needed to accelerate a liquid stream of Q and discharge at r, is given
by:


Taking r = r2 is 0.13m


The total power required to operate the centrifuge is given


The power supplied from the motor is 1.1 times this value


56


7.0.5 MECHANICAL DESIGN
It shall involve:
- The stresses involved
- The vibration problem
- The material of construction
- The thickness of the centrifuge shell
7.0.5.1 Stresses involved
Rotation of a cylindrical object such as an empty centrifuge bowl creates a stress in the
bowl shell wall called self stress.
Assuming that the thickness of the wall is small with respect to its radius from the axis
of rotation, the self-stress is given by the following equation


Where
s = Self stress (N/m
2
)
= Angular velocity (rad/s)
R = Radius of the bowl (m)
m = density of the material of construction of the shell (kg/m
3
)
The material in the centrifuge also causes a pressure on the walls of the bowl and
therefore exerts an additional pressure. This stress is given by


Where

= Stress due to the contents (N/m


2
)
= Angular velocity (rad/s)
r2 = Radius of the bowl (m)
r1 = Radius of exit pipe (m)

= Average density of the solids and liquids inside the bowl (kg/m
3
)
= Thickness of the bowl wall (m)
The total stress is therefore given as
57


According to Mcketta, Encyclopedia of Chemical and Processing Design, commercial
centrifuges are designed so that self-stress is in the range of 45-65% of the total stress.
We chose self-stress to be about 55%, therefore total stress will be obtained as


7.0.5.2 Material of construction
Centrifuge bowls are made of almost every machine-able alloy of reasonably high
strength. Preference is given to those alloys having 1% elongation to minimize the risk
of cracking at stress concentration points. Hence, the shell will be made from stainless
steel type 316.
The stationary parts, that is, casings and feed, rinse and discharge lines that are
stationary and light stressed may be constructed of any suitable, rigid, corrosion-
resistant material such as carbon steel.
Wear-resistant material such as Tungsten and ceramic carbide are often used to protect
the bare metal surfaces in high wear areas of the centrifuge.
Frames that are in contact with the external environment will be made of structural
steel.
7.0.5.3 Vibration problem
In the design of any high-speed rotating machinery, attention must be paid to the
phenomenon of critical speed. This is the speed at which the frequency of rotation
matches the natural frequency of the rotating part. At this speed, any vibration induced
by slight unbalance in the rotor is strongly reinforced, resulting in large deflections, high
stresses and even failure of the equipment.
The critical speed of simple shapes may be calculated from the moment of inertia but
with complex elements such as a loaded centrifuge, it is best found by test.
Nearly all centrifuges operate at speeds well above the primary critical speed and
therefore must pass through this speed during acceleration and deceleration. To permit
them to do so safely, some degree of damping in their mounting must be provided. This
may result from:
- The design of the spindle or driveshaft alone
- Spring-loading of the spindle bearing nearest to the rotor
- Elastic loading of the suspension
- A combination of the above
Smaller and medium-sized centrifuges of the cream separator and bottle centrifuge
design are frequently mounted on elastic cushions.
58

7.0.5.4 Thickness of the centrifuge shell
The thickness of the centrifuge shell is calculated from the equation of stress due to the
contents given by


Therefore


Where
= Thickness of the centrifuge shell

= Average density of the liquid mixture in the shell


The self-stress is taken as 55% of the total stress.


7.0.6 SUMMARY OF CENTRIFUGAL
Table 5.4: SUMMARY OF CENTRIFUGAL
PROPERTY SPECIFICATION
Total feed 0.2175 kg/s
Number of revolutions 7000 rpm
Shell diameter 0.548 m
Disc diameter 0.411 m
Particle settling velocity 5.24410
-8
m/s
Angular velocity 733.04 rad/s
Number of discs 50
Conical half angle 35
Radius of discharge 0.125 m
Radius of interface 0.27 m
Disc length 0.10 m
59

Disc spacing 0.00109 m
Bowl axial length 0.11
Number of perforations per disc 8
Area of disc perforation 7.854410
-5
m
2

Centrifugal settling velocity 7.75510
-4
m/s
Retention time 86.14 s
Power 23.281 W
Stress 575.789 MN/m
2

Thickness of shell 0.0098 m
Material of construction Stainless steel type 316


60

7.1 Design of a wipe film evaporator by JOAKIM KISUA PIUS CPE/09/08
The process by which any substance is converted from a liquid state into, and carried off
in, vapor, as, the evaporation of water ,ether is called evaporation .The transformation
of a portion of a fluid into vapor, in order to obtain the fixed matter or target material
contained in a state of greater consistence. That which is evaporated (vapor).
Equipment used in the process of boiling a liquid in order to reduce its volume is called
an evaporator.
7.1.1 Functions of an evaporator
The main function of an evaporator is to concentrate a solution or to recover a solvent.
The evaporator design consists of three principle elements: heat transfer, vapor-liquid
separation and efficient utilization of energy. For evaporators to be efficient, the
equipment selected and used must be able to accomplish several things.
1. Transfer large amounts of heat to the solution with a minimum amount of
metallic surface area. This requirement, more than all other factors, determines
the type, size, and cost of the evaporator system.
2. Achieve the specified separation of liquid and vapor and do it with the simplest
devices available. Separation may be important for several reasons: value of the
product that would otherwise be lost, pollution, fouling and corrosion of the
equipment downstream with which the vapor is contacted.
3. Make efficient use of available energy. This may take several forms. Evaporator
performance often is rated on the basis of steam economy, pounds of solvent
evaporated per pound of steam used. Heat is required to raise the feed
temperature from its initial value to that of the boiling liquid, to provide the
energy required to separate liquid solvent from the feed, and vaporize the
solvent or to vaporize the target matter from the liquid feed. The greatest
increase in energy economy is achieved by reusing the vaporized solvent as a
heating medium. Energy efficiency may be increased by exchanging heat
between the entering feed and the leaving residues or condensate. When this
method is used each evaporator is known as an effect.
4. Meet the conditions imposed by the liquid being evaporated or by the solution
being concentrated. Factors that must be considered include;
Product quality
61

Salting and scaling
Corrosion
Foaming
Product degradation
Hold up
The need for special types of construction
7.1.2 DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF WIPED FILM EVAPORATOR
The first criterion that a wiped film evaporator should satisfy is that the fulfillment of
the process requirements. The design specifications may contain all the necessary
detailed information on flow rates of streams: pressure drop limitation for both
streams; temperature; size; length and other design constraints such as cost, type of
materials, and arrangement of different components. The wiped film evaporator design
provides missing information based on experiences, judgment, and the requirements of
the process.
Based on the problem specifications, the evaporator construction type, flow
arrangement, surface or core geometry, and materials must be selected.in the selection
of wiped film evaporator, the evaporating pressures and temperature levels,
maintenance requirements, reliability, safety, availability and manufacturability of
surfaces and cost must be considered.
Thermal design of wiped film evaporator may be classified as sizing(design problem) or
rating(performance analysis).in the sizing problem, the surface area and evaporator
dimensions are to be determined; inputs to the sizing problem are flow rates, inlet
temperature, outlet temperature, surface geometries, pressure drop limitations, and
thermo physical properties of process thermal fluid and materials.
In the rating problem, evaporator configuration is selected by approximate sizing.
Therefore, inputs to the rating problem evaporator surface geometry and dimensions,
fluid flow rates, inlet temperature and pressure drop limitations.
The fluid outlet temperature, total heat transferred and pressure drop for both streams
through the evaporator are to be calculated in the rating (performance analysis).if the
rating gives acceptable performance with pressure drop in both streams, this
evaporator configuration may be considered a solution to the problem.it is often
62

possible to find a number of variant configurations that will meet these requirements;
the choice must be made on other criteria, usually cost of evaporator.
Rating is a the computational process (hand method or computer method) by which one
determines the thermal performance and pressure drops for two streams in the
evaporator
The selection criterion is that the evaporator must withstand the service conditions of
the plant environment. Therefore after thermal design analysis, mechanical design is
conducted, which includes the calculation of tubes, shell, and arrangements, the
evaporator must resist corrosion by the service and process streams and by the
environment; this is mostly a matter of proper material selection. A proper design of the
inlet and outlet nozzles, connections and supporting material.
Manifolds are to be made. Thermal stress calculation must be performed under steady
state and transmit process conditions. The additional important factor that should be
considered and checked in the design is flow vibration, and the level of velocities to
minimize fouling and erosion.
Another criterion is the maintenance requirement. The configuration and placement of
the evaporator must be properly chosen to permit cleaning as required and placement
of tubes, gaskets, and any other components that are especially vulnerable to corrosion,
erosion, and vibration or aging.
There may be limitation on evaporator diameter, length, and weight, or tube, matrix,
core specifications due to size requirements. Lifting and servicing capabilities and
availability of replacement tubes and gaskets.
After the mechanical design is completed, the final cost analysis to arrive at an optimum
solution must be considered.
An overall optimum design, in general, is the one that meets the performance
requirements at a minimum cost.
7.1.3 Wiped Film Evaporator Principle
The wiped film evaporator (WFE), also known as an agitated thin-film evaporator
(ATFE) is a device often used to purify liquids with viscosities up to 105 poise, to
63

separate temperature sensitive mixtures, or in general to provide short residence times
in heated zones. Unfortunately, the heat and mass transfer mechanisms involved in
wiped film evaporators are poorly understood. Users of the technology must rely on
equipment vendors experience for guidance.
Wiped film evaporators are designed to spread a thin layer or film of liquid on one side
of a metallic wall, with heat being supplied to the other side. The unique feature of this
equipment is not the film itself, but rather the mechanical wiping device for producing
and agitating the film. This mechanical concept permits the processing of high-viscosity
liquids, liquids with suspended solids, or situations requiring liquid rates too small to
keep the thermal surface of a falling film evaporator uniformly wet.
Most wiped film evaporators are vertical cylinders where the feed material is
distributed to the inner surface. As the liquid flows downward, axially arranged blades
or roller wipers distribute the liquid as a thin film, which is constantly mixed. This type
of equipment can operate at very low pressure and provides minimum pressure drop.
Thin film evaporation is applied in heat exchangers called thin film or thin layer
evaporators. Actually thin film evaporators may be considered as heat and mass
exchangers, since molecules from liquid phase are transferred to gas phase during the
process of vaporization and the movement of molecules from gas phase to liquid phase
is probable during the process of condensation.
These kinds of devices are most commonly applied in chemical, pharmaceuticals and
food industries. Vertical thin-film evaporators are characterized by small pressure drop
and short residence time of the phases in the apparatus, which means also that there is
short contact time of the liquid with the hot surface of the evaporator wall. These
features of the evaporator cause that it is applied for the concentration of heat sensitive
liquid solutions especially with high viscosity.
Because of the low value of pressure drop during gas flow inside the evaporator the
boiling temperature of liquid, which is evaporated, depends only on its composition and
does not depend on liquid position in the evaporator, which is of great importance in
case of evaporation at low pressure.
64

Wiped film evaporators constitute a vertical cylinder heated from the outside, inside of
which liquid flows off gravitationally on the heated surface. During that flow
vaporization of liquid takes place.
There are many interdependent factors that must be considered while designing and
optimizing an evaporator.
1. Heat and mass transfer analysis
2. Passes
3. Mechanical design
i. Shell thickness
ii. Tubing thickness
iii. Installation thickness
iv. Overall dimensions
v. All components material selection
4. Analysis
i. Material properties
ii. FEM and FEA stress analysis
iii. CED
iv. HMT analysis
v. F.O.S[Factor of safety]
7.1.4 Thermal Design Calculations
Important equations
Total heat load = sensible heat + latent heat
(


Agitator power


65




66




7.1.5 Calculations





(


67



7.1.5.1 Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method


68

}
Proper design, plus the cleanliness of the heating medium system and the cleaning effect
of the agitated thin-film evaporator rotor, generally allows neglecting the fouling
factors. (Scale up William. B. Glover thin-film evaporators)


Depending on the velocity criterion internal diameter

of a wiped film evaporator


shall be calculated as under:
The maximum allowable vapor velocity is and minimum velocity is .for this
design assumed minimum possible velocity is .
The expected evaporation rate of the light fraction of virgin avocado oil (sterol
concentrate) is 117.85 kg/hr. The density of the target sterols and tocopherols is in the
range of 800-900|

.hence the volumetric flow rate can be determined.




The table below shows wiped film evaporator standard dimensions used with respect to
the area of the evaporation surface. To determine the optimum dimensions of your
design you can interpolate or extrapolate using the standard dimensions and be able to
obtain the optimum dimensions for your design intend as will be shown in the main
design.
69

Evaporator
surface
area (m
2
)
Dimensions(mm)
A B C D E F Nominal
Diameter
G
0.1 220 135 505 230 240 880 150
0.4 375 236 890 380 860 2070 300
0.8 375 212 1425 1230 840 2500 300
1.2 375 212 1850 1230 1020 3100 900
2.3 1000 325 2027 810 720 3100 900
4.75 1000 325 2885 1660 720 5370 900
7.2 1000 325 3740 2500 1300 5370 900
9.5 1000 325 4587 3360 1645 6560 900
16.2 1650 525 4825 3340 1600 7490 1500

7.1.6 MECHANICAL DESIGN
The material of construction is SS304 (stainless steel304) and its properties are as
under:





7.1.7 AGITATOR DESIGN
Agitation in wiped film evaporators is effected by rotary blades.
7.1.7.1 Number of blade calculations
For effective agitation at the process flow rates and effective heat transfer height the
best blade size is as under:

Effective Heat Transfer Height: 4300-500mm (required for high vacuum model)
=2500mm


70

The blades are welded at

apart to the inner rotating cylinder as shown on the onsite


installation figure.


The total number of blades:
The blades maintain a close clearance of around from the inner tube
wall.
7.1.7.2
Taking outside diameter of tubes to be , then the number entrainment tubes can
be determined.


7.1.7.3
To determine the approximate jacket diameter it is a batch condition is assumed.




7.1.7.4


Where:


71



Therefore,



7.1.7.5 Jacket thickness


The jacket thickness is taken to be 19mm.
7.1.7.6 Feed nozzle


Assuming that the feed velocity is 1.5m/s, the diameter of the feed nozzle can be
calculated as under.

14.19mm
7.1.7.7 Design temperature
The maximum allowable stress for this design is evaluated at 300
0
C.this includes due
allowance for predicting the vessel wall temperature. According to principles of
chemical engineering design, the maximum design temperature should be the
temperature at which the maximum allowable stress is evaluated which in this case is
300
0
C.
72


7.1.7.8 Design pressure

The wiped film molecular evaporator operates at an internal pressure 0f

more advantageously at a pressure of

.Since the system is


subjected to a vacuum the design pressure is negative one bar.

The heating fluid (thermic fluid) is fed in at 3 bars, thus the external design pressure can
be evaluated at 5% to 10% more than the normal working pressure or thermic fluid
pressure.



Weight loads
The major source of dead weight loads in this design is:
The vessel shell
The vessel fittings: nozzles
Internal fittings
For stainless steel vessels the dead weight is calculated as under:


Where,


This can be taken as;


73


7.1.8 Design summary
THERMAL DESIGN MECHANICAL DESIGN
Feed flow rate Number of blades 40
Thermic fluid flow
rate


Blade height 250mm
Heat transfer
effectiveness
0.86 Blade width 70mm
Rate of heat transfer 125.25kW/s Blade thickness 12mm
Welding angle of blades
Heat transfer
coefficient

Blades in one row 10


Heat transfer area

Number of entrainment
tubes
88
Film thickness Shell internal diameter 900mm
Residence time Seconds Shell thickness 9.28mm
Jacket internal diameter 1000mm
Height of the jacket 2.7mm
Design temperature
Design internal pressure


Design external pressure 3.3 bar
Weight loads 9.018N



74

CHAPTER 8
8.0 PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
8.1 Introduction
A chemical plant is an arrangement of processing units integrated with each other in a
systematic and rational manner with an overall objective is to convert certain raw materials
(input feedstock) into desired products using available sources of energy, in the most
economical way.
During its operation, a chemical plant must uphold the requirements of general techniques
as proposed by the designers as well as economic and social conditions responsibilities in
the ever-changing external influences. To ensure these requirements are upheld to the later,
the control and instrumentations of a chemical process plant is put in place for the
following reasons;

- Safe plant operation - This is a major requirement that reduces incidences of
accidents as well as to contribute to maximization of production. The controls
aim;
o To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
o To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide alarms and
automatic shut-down systems.
o To provide interlocks and alarms to prevent dangerous operating
procedures.
- Production rate:
o To achieve the design product output.
- Product quality
o To maintain the product composition within the specified quality
standards.
- Cost:
o To operate at the lowest production cost, commensurate with the other
objectives.
- Environmental regulations
o To comply with the regulation specifications on the condition of the
waste released to the surrounding
- Operating conditions
o To maintain optimum operating conditions for all the equipment
75

8.2 Objectives of process control and instrumentation
The main objectives of process instrumentation and control schemes are outline below
- To suppress the influence of external disturbances,
- To ensure the stability of a chemical process
- To optimize the performance of a chemical process
8.3 Classification of process variables
The process instrumentation and controls and designed based on the chemical variables
which are broadly grouped into two categories;
I. Input variables these are those variables resulting from the influence of
the surrounding on a chemical process
II. Output variables these are those variables results from the influence of the
process on the surroundings
Types of process variables
Controlled variables (CVs): these are those process variables that are controlled the
desired values. The desired value of a controlled variable is regard as its set point. They
include temperature inter alia.
Manipulated variables (MVs): these are those process variables that are regulated,
manipulated or adjusted in order to keep the controlled variables at or near their set
points. They include flow rate among others.
Disturbance variables (DVs): these are those process variables that affect the controlled
variables but can never be adjusted. These variables result from the changes in the
operating environment of the process.
The specifications of the process variables are very important during the development
of a control system. The selection of the process should therefore be based on the
knowledge, experience and the control objectives.
8.4 Control principles
The control principles are the techniques used to monitor and control the behavior of a
process variable for example temperature within a unit operation being carried out.
They include;
Automatic control there is an automatic measurement and adjustment of process
control on a continuous basis
Manual control this is where an operator reads the process variables periodically and
adjusts when the variables towards set values when the variables are deviating from the
set points/values. Manual controls are used when critical applications, where major
upsets are unlikely to occur, where any process conditions occur slowly and in small
increments, and where a minimum of operations attention is required. Operators may
76

also control the process manually by closing or opening the valves at the directions
from the control room. However, with availability of reliable low-cost controllers, most
users opt for automatic mode
Categories of controllers
The controllers are categorized depending on the actuating medium;
I. Electrical controllers- it uses electric power to actuating the final control
element. These types of controllers have wide range of application in the
modern process industries. Electronic controllers can be classified according
to the type of signals they receive from the primary element, as self-operated
controllers and Relay-operated controllers.
II. Pneumatic controllers- they are commonly used in industrial processes due
to their explosion-proof characteristics as well as their simplicity and
maintenance.
III. Hydraulic controllers- they provide control to liquid medium so as to
provide an output which is a function of an input error signal.
Control of unit operation in the production of pharmaceutical avocado jelly
from avocado pear
Level controller (LC)
Level controllers are used to check the level of liquid at the mixer, storage tank 1 and
storage tank 2 so as to avoid overflow as well as avoid emptiness of these equipment so
that the continuous operation is maintained. Liquid levels may affect the pressure and
rate of flow in and out of the vessels hence the quality may be affected. Level
measurements include;
- Direct measurement- sight glasses, float type, hook-type indicator.
- Indirect measurement- hydrostatic pressure type, pressure type, pressure
gauge. Air bellows, air purge system, liquid system and electrical methods.
As for this plant, sight glasses and manual opening of valves are used.
Temperature controller (TC)
Temperature control is important for separation and reaction processes, and
temperature must be maintained within limits to ensure safe and reliable operation of
process equipment. Various thermal sensitive instruments are used to regulate this
parameter; they may be thermostats, thermocouples or digital thermometers. In this
process, shell and tube heat exchanger as well as wiped film molecular evaporator use
temperature control. Virgin oil is heated in the heat exchanger from 25
O
C to 150
O
C by
the heavy phase oil from the evaporator. Temperature controller here ensures that the
temperature of around 150
O
C is achieved by the virgin oil otherwise it would indicate
77

that either the heat exchanger or the evaporator has a malfunctioning. As for the case of
the evaporator, the temperature is maintained at 210
o
C and this is ensured by the
steam.
Pressure controller (PC)
Pressure control is necessary for most systems handling vapor or gas and it is used in
this unit operation at the evaporator. The pressure measurement method used in this
project is electrical pressure transducer which uses elastic primary sensing elements
such as the Bourdon tube, bellows and diaphragm. Pressure controller is only used at
the wiped film evaporator to maintain the pressure between 10
-3
10
-2
mmHg within
the evaporator since the pressure is very essential and sensitive in this unit operation.
Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
This is an automated system used for vessels that have a specified retention time. It
measures the duration in the vessel and the level simultaneously and presents it
digitally. Any changes in the set points are indicated immediately and can either be
manually controlled or automatically altered. In this processing plant, it is used at the
mixer and centrifugal sedimentation tank where retention time is very important
during their respective operations.
Alarms, Safety Trips and Interlocks
Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous deviations in
process conditions. Key instruments are fitted with switches and relays to operate
audible and visual alarms on the control panels and annunciator panels. The instrument
is fitted with a trip system to take action automatically to avert the hazard such as
shutting down pumps, closing valves, operating emergency systems. The basic
components of an automatic trip system are:
- A sensor to monitor the control variable and provide an output signal when a
preset value is exceeded ( the instrument)
- A link to transfer the signal to the actuator, usually consisting of a system of
pneumatic or electric relays.
- An actuator to carry out the required action; close or open valve, switch off a
motor.








78

Illustration of process controls around the wiped film molecular evaporator


79

CHAPTER NINE
9.0 ECONOMIC AND PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
9.1 INTRODUCTION
The project objective is to produce pharmaceutical jelly from avocado pear. However it
will be illogical to produce the jelly without any profit reaps from the investment.
Therefore, the project will be viable if it is going to generate profit so as to ensure
sustainability as well as the plant should be able to return the capital invested on the
project over a certain period of time. This chapter focuses on the economic viability of
the production of pharmaceutical jelly from avocado pear fruit.
The determination and analysis of profits obtainable from the investment of capital and
the choice of the best investment among several alternatives are the major objectives of
an analysis. The primary purpose of the establishment of chemical industries is to make
profit. The processes which are chosen to manufacture the desired products are those
which are believed to offer the best profit to the producer. The major objectives for
economic analysis include:
- To determine whether the project is feasible at the prevailing economic
conditions.
- To compare the designed process to alternative processes and gauge its
attractiveness over others.
A capital investment is required for any industrial process, and determination of the
necessary investment is an important part of a plant-design project. The total
investment for any process consists of fixed-capital investment for physical equipment
and facilities in the plant plus working capital which must be available to pay salaries,
keep raw materials and products on hand, and handle other special items requiring a
direct cash outlay. Thus, in an analysis of costs in industrial processes, capital-
investment costs, manufacturing costs, and general expenses including income taxes
must be taken into consideration.
9.2 Economic Evaluations
For economic evaluation, the following factors are put into account.
Fixed Capital Investment (FCI)
This is the capital necessary for acquisition of manufacturing and plant facilities. It
includes;
- Manufacturing FCI - represents the capital necessary for the installed process
equipment with all auxiliaries that are needed for complete process operation. It
includes expenses for piping, instruments, insulation, foundations, and site
preparation.
80

- Non-manufacturing FCI represents fixed capital required for construction
overhead and for all plant components that are not directly related to the
process operation. It includes; land, processing buildings, administrative, and
other offices, warehouses, laboratories, transportation, shipping, and receiving
facilities, utility and waste-disposal facilities, shops, and other permanent parts
of the plant.
Working Capital (WC)
This is the capital needed to operate the plant, it includes;
- Raw material and supplies carried in stock
- Finished product in stock and semi-finished goods in the process of manufacture.
- Accounts receivable
- Cash-in-hand for monthly payments of operating expenses like salaries, wages
and raw materials.
- Accounts payable.
- Taxes payable.
Working capital has been taken as 15% of the total capital investment.
Total product cost
This is the cost involved in the manufacture of goods. It is divided into:
- Direct cost
- Raw material cost
- Utilities cost
- Operating labor
- Direct supervisory and clerical labor
- Maintenance and repair
- Laboratory charges
- Fixed cost
These are costs not affected by the level of production and include
- Depreciation
- Local taxes and insurances
- Plant overhead costs
- Rent
- General expenses
These are costs associated with management and administrative activities not directly
related to the manufacturing process. They include:
- Administration cost
81

- Ware housing
- Distribution and marketing costs
- Research and development on separation of unsaponifable fraction from the
avocado oil in the wiped film molecular evaporator.
Profitability Analysis
The methods available for profitability analyses are:
- Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return based on full life performance.
- Payback Period.
- Net present worth.
- Rate of return on investment.


82

Table: Purchased equipment cost














Equipment
C S N Base year
cost
Current cost Quantity Total Cost
$
De-stoning machine 10000 5 1 17000.00
Peeling machine 8000 4.5 1 16500.00
High speed grinder 2000 4.99 0.35 3510.47 4628.91 1 25000.00
Mixer 3000 1.331 0.5 3461.07 4563.77 1 4563.77
Storage tank 1 2400 1.577 0.6 3154.35 4159.33 1 4159.33
Storage tank 2 2400 1.139 0.6 2594.93 3421.67 1 3421.67
Storage tank 3 2400 0.17 0.6 828.86 1092.93 1 1092.93
Storage tank 4 2400 0.969 0.6 2355.08 3105.41 1 3105.41
Tri-canter 0.5 - - 50750 1 50750.00
Centrifuge 8000 0.548 1.0 1 16900.00
Shell and tube heat
exchanger
- 24.856 1 12187.328 14287.666 1 14287.66
Wiped film molecular
evaporator
- 3.4 - 140,000 1 140,000.00
Condenser 8000 - - 1 8000.00
Conveyors 1900 4.00 0.75 1900 6115.63 1 6115.63
Bucket elevators - - - - 15750 2 31500.00
Pumps - 0.2337 1.2 3308.39 3378.55 4 17819.82
- - - 5500 3 16500.00
Total Purchased
Equipment Cost(I
E
)
361506.22
83

9.2.1 Estimation of fixed capital investment
Fixed capital cost estimates
Direct costs % Purchased Equipment cost Cost($)
Purchased Equipment cost 100 361506.22
Equipment Delivery cost 10 36150.622
Delivered Equipment Cost(ID)

397656.842


% Delivered Equipment cost Cost($)
Purchased Equipment Installation 50 198828.42
Insulation 10 39765.68
Instrumentation and Control 9 35789.12
Piping 70 278359.79
Electrical Installation 12 47718.21
Yard Improvement 10 39765.68
Service Facilities Installed 60 238594.10
Land 20 79531.37
Total Direct Costs

958352.37

Indirect Costs % of Fixed Capital Investment Cost($)
Engineering and Supervision(20%OL)

104,202
Contractor's cost 4 82,265.42
Contingencies 8 164,530.84
Startup expense 10 205,663.55
Construction cost 7 143,964.49
Total Indirect costs

596,424.297

Total FCI($)

2,056,635.51

84

9.2.2 Total capital investment estimates
Total capital cost estimates
% of TCI Cost($)
Total FCI 80 2,056,635.51
Working Capital (20 % of FCI) 20 411,327.102
Total Capital Investment($) 2,467,962.61

9.2.3 Total product cost
This is the cost involved in the manufacture of goods and sale of products. It can be
estimated on one of the three bases:
- Daily basis
- Unit-of-product basis
- Annual basis
The annual basis is chosen for the calculation of the total product cost because it
smoothes the effect of seasonal variations.
TPC is divided into:
Direct production costs
- Raw material cost
- Utilities cost
- Operating labor
- Direct supervisory and clerical labor
- Maintenance and repair
- Laboratory charges
Fixed charges
These are costs not affected by the level of production and include
- Depreciation
- Local taxes and insurances
- Plant overhead costs
- Rent
General expenses
These are costs associated with management and administrative activities not directly
related to the manufacturing process. They include:

- Administration cost
- Ware housing
- Distribution and marketing costs
- Research and development
85

9.2.4 Raw materials cost estimates
Annual raw materials cost estimates
Name of Material Price,
$/tonne
Annual Amount,
tonne/yr
Annual raw materials cost,
$/yr
Avocado pear fruit 137.25 50000 6,862,745.10
Total annual cost($) 6,862,745.10

9.2.5 Annual utilities cost estimates

9.2.6 Depreciation
Depreciation is calculated using the declining balance method. The table below gives
the depreciation values for all the years, including the salvage value

at the end of the


plant life .









Utilities % of FCI Cost($)
Electricity 1.3 26,736.26
Fuel 0.1 2,056.64
Waste disposal 1.5 30,849.53
Thermic fluid 3 61,699.07
Raw material storage 0.5 10,283.18
Finished product storage 1 20,566.36
Safety installations 0.4 8,226.54
Total Utilities cost($) 160,417.58
86

ANNUAL DEPRECIATION
V N Va D
2056635.51 1 1850971.959 205663.551
1850971.96 2 1665874.763 185097.1959
1665874.76 3 1499287.287 166587.4763
1499287.29 4 1349358.558 149928.7287
1349358.56 5 1214422.702 134935.8558
1214422.7 6 1092980.432 121442.2702
1092980.43 7 983682.3889 109298.0432
983682.389 8 885314.15 98368.23889
885314.15 9 796782.735 88531.415
796782.735 10 717104.4615 79678.2735
717104.461 11 645394.0153 71710.44615
645394.015 12 580854.6138 64539.40153
580854.614 13 522769.1524 58085.46138
522769.152 14 470492.2372 52276.91524
470492.237 15 423443.0135 47049.22372


The average depreciation is calculated as:


Where:



87

9.2.7 Operating labor cost estimates
Annual operating labor cost estimates
Department Job description Number Monthly pay($) Annual pay ($)
Administration General Manager 1 4000 48,000
Human Resource
Manager
1 2500 30,000
Marketing manager 1 2500 30,000
Procurement
officer
1 2000 24,000
Clerk 1 295 3,550
Secretary 2 320 7680
Receptionist 2 200 4,800
Helper 2 150 3,600
Accounting Finance manager 1 2500 30,000
Clerk 1 295 3,550
Accountant 1 1100 13,200
Secretary 1 320 3,840
Sales and marketing Sales
representative
1 1,000 12,000
Clerk 1 295 3,550
Secretary 1 320 3,840
Production Production
manager
1 2250 27,000
Engineers 2 1200 28,800
Technicians 6 500 36,000
Supervisors 6 600 43200
Operators 15 350 63,000
Casual workers 15 170 30,600
Quality control Chemists 6 500 36,000
Support staff Chief security
officer
1 700 8400
Cafeteria staff 2 200 4800
Guards 6 200 14,400
Driver/messenger 2 300 7,200
Total Operating Labor costs ($) 521,010
88





TOTAL PRODUCT COST ESTIMATES
Direct Product Costs Factor

Raw Material

6,862,745.10
Operating Labor costs

521,010
Utilities

160,417.58
Maintenance(3 % of FCI) 0.050 102,831.78
Laboratory charges(10 % of OL) 0.100 52,101
Operating Supplies(0.5% of FCI) 0.005 10,283.18
Total Direct Costs 7,709,388.64
Fixed Charges

Depreciation( Vs=5 % of FCI) 0.05 108,879.50
Property Taxes(2% of FCI) 0.02000 41,132.71
Insurance(1 % of FCI) 0.01000 205,663.55
Total Fixed Charge 355,675.71
General Expenses

Plant Overhead Costs(7 % of TPC) 0.070 670,520.38
Administrative Costs(3 % of TPC) 0.030 287,365.88
Distribution and Marketing(2 % of TPC) 0.020 191,577.25
Research and Development(2% of TPC) 0.020 191,577.25
Financing(7% of TCI) 0.070 172,757.45
Total 1,513,798.21
Total Product Cost($) 9,578,862.56
89

9.2.8 Annual Cash Flow Analysis
Annual Sales
Avocado pharmaceutical jelly (light phase from wiped film molecular evaporator) is the
main product. The triglyceride rich fraction is will be sold to refining companies for
further processing. The table below shows the annual sales from the main product and
the by products;
Annual sales from products
Name of
Material
Price, $/ton Annual Amount,
tons/yr.
Annual value of product,
$/yr.
Pharmaceutical
product
10000 843.48 8,434,800
Triglyceride
concentrate
710 4779.72 3,393,601.20
Total annual value of products 11,828,401.20

Definitions:

197,437.09





The following assumptions are made:
- Income tax is charged at 30% of the gross profit
- The production capacity in the first year is only 70%
- All the products are sold.
The table below shows annual cash flows for the entire plant life.



90

Annual cash flow
Year Plant
capacity
Annual sales USD Annual TPC Annual dep Gross income Net income Annual cash
flow
Cumulative cash
flow
0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2,467,963
1 0.70 8,279,881 7,350,000 205,664 526,780 326,604 532,267 -1,935,695
2 0.80 9,462,721 8,400,000 185,097 680,187 421,716 606,813 -1,328,882
3 0.90 10,645,561 9,450,000 166,587 831,537 515,553 682,140 -646,742
4 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 149,929 981,035 608,242 758,171 111,428
5 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 134,936 996,028 617,538 752,473 863,902
6 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 121,442 1,009,522 625,904 747,346 1,611,248
7 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 109,298 1,021,666 633,433 742,731 2,353,979
8 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 98,368 1,032,596 640,209 738,578 3,092,556
9 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 88,531 1,042,433 646,308 734,840 3,827,396
10 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 79,678 1,051,286 651,797 731,475 4,558,871
11 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 71,710 1,059,254 656,737 728,448 5,287,319
12 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 64,539 1,066,425 661,183 725,723 6,013,042
13 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 58,085 1,072,879 665,185 723,270 6,736,312
14 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 52,277 1,078,687 668,786 721,063 7,457,375
15 1.00 11,828,401 10,500,000 47,049 1,083,915 672,027 719,076 8,176,452

Totals 134,843,774 151,200,000 1,633,192 14,534,228 9,011,222 10,644,414 43,710,597

Averag
e
108,879 600,748

91

9.2.9 Cumulative cash flow analysis



-4000000
-2000000
0
2000000
4000000
6000000
8000000
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

c
a
s
h

f
l
o
w

Year
Cumulative cash flow curve
cumulative cash flow
Break -even point
92

9.2.10 Profitability Analysis
Profitability analysis is a measure of the attractiveness of the project. Absolute profit is of little
significance; instead the rate of return on invested capital is to be looked into.
The methods used to analyze the profitability of this design project are:
- Rate of return on investment
- Discounted cash flow based on full life performance
- Pay out period
Rate of return on investment
Rate of return (ROR), which is evaluated as given below;





Payout period
The payback period is defined as the minimum length of time theoretically necessary to recover
the original capital investment in the form of cash flow to the project based on total income
minus all costs except depreciation.






Discounted cash flow rate of return
This method of approach for a profitability takes into account the time value of money and is
based on the amount of the investment that is unreturned at the end of each year during the
estimated life of the project.
A trial-and-error procedure is used to establish a rate of return which can be applied to yearly
cash flow so that the original investment is reduced to zero (or to salvage and land value plus
working capital investment) during the project life.
( )
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

+
=

=
15
15
1
1
1
1
1
i
V WC
i
NI TCI
S
n
n

Where:



93

Using excel, the DCFROR was established to be 25% as shown in the table below. For a
project to be viable, DCFROR should be at least 5 % more than the bank lending rate.
For an Initial investment of $ the DCFROR is therefore or
Estimating the Bank Lending Rate (BLR) to be approximately 18%, the difference
between the DCFROR and the bank lending rate is an indication that the venture
is very profitable.


94

Trial for i=20% Trial for i=22% Trial for i=24% Trial for i=25%
1+i 1.200 1+i 1.220 1+i 1.240 1+i 1.3
YEAR CASH FLOW 1/(1+i)n P.W 1/(1+i)n P.W 1/(1+i)n P.W 1/(1+i)n P.W
0.0 2,467,963.6
1.0 532,267.3 0.8 443,556.1 0.81967 436,284.7 0.80645 429,247.8 0.80000 425,813.8
2.0 606,812.9 0.7 421,397.9 0.67186 407,694.8 0.65036 394,649.4 0.64000 388,360.3
3.0 682,140.1 0.6 394,757.0 0.55071 375,659.3 0.52449 357,773.8 0.51200 349,255.7
4.0 758,170.7 0.5 365,630.1 0.45140 342,237.5 0.42297 320,686.2 0.40960 310,546.7
5.0 752,473.4 0.4 302,402.2 0.37000 278,414.6 0.34111 256,674.5 0.32768 246,570.5
6.0 747,345.8 0.3 250,284.6 0.30328 226,653.6 0.27509 205,585.0 0.26214 195,912.2
7.0 742,731.0 0.3 207,282.6 0.24859 184,634.5 0.22184 164,770.6 0.20972 155,762.0
8.0 738,577.7 0.2 171,769.6 0.20376 150,493.4 0.17891 132,136.5 0.16777 123,912.8
9.0 734,839.7 0.2 142,416.9 0.16702 122,731.0 0.14428 106,022.4 0.13422 98,628.5
10.0 731,475.5 0.2 118,137.4 0.13690 100,138.6 0.11635 85,110.5 0.10737 78,541.6
11.0 728,447.7 0.1 98,040.3 0.11221 81,741.1 0.09383 68,353.4 0.08590 62,573.2
12.0 725,722.7 0.1 81,394.6 0.09198 66,750.2 0.07567 54,917.5 0.06872 49,871.3
13.0 723,270.2 0.1 67,599.6 0.07539 54,528.4 0.06103 44,138.6 0.05498 39,762.2
14.0 721,063.0 0.1 56,161.1 0.06180 44,559.0 0.04921 35,487.0 0.04398 31,712.7
15.0 719,076.5 0.1 46,672.0 0.05065 36,423.2 0.03969 28,539.7 0.03518 25,300.3
Total 13,112,377.7 3,167,501.9 2,908,943.7 2,684,092.8 2,582,523.7

RATIO 1.283448 1.17868 1.08757 1.04642
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return (DCFROR) table
95

9.2.11 Break-Even Point (BEP) Analysis

This is the point at which the total sales and the total cost of production are equal. It marks the
production rate below which the plant is operating at a loss and must therefore be exceeded.











The BEP is calculated as:

Where:




The break-even point (

) is at of the maximum production capacity (

). The table below shows a detailed breakdown of how Total Production Cost
and Sales Revenue vary with the variable output quantities between production rates of 0
tonnes/year and 6,000 tonnes /year.

Break-even point analysis table

Units(tonnes/year) Total sales Total product cost
0 0 1869473.72
500 1051750 2424603.72
1000 2103500 2979733.72
1500 3155250 3534863.72
2000 4207000 4089993.72
2500 5258750 4645123.72
3000 6310500 5200253.72
3500 7362250 5755383.72
4000 8414000 6310513.72
4500 9465750 6865643.72
5000 10517500 7420773.72
5500 11569250 7975903.72
6000 12621000 8531033.72
96

Break-Even point analysis chart

0.00
2,000,000.00
4,000,000.00
6,000,000.00
8,000,000.00
10,000,000.00
12,000,000.00
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
T
o
t
a
l

s
a
l
e
s

a
n
d

t
o
t
a
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

c
o
s
t

i
n

U
S

d
o
l
l
a
r
s

Tonnes per year
BREAK-EVEN ALALYSIS CHART
Total
sales
Break-Even point
profit zone
loss zone
97

CHAPTER 10
10.0 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Safety, health and environmental issues are very important in any processing plants and
need to be well addressed by outlining precautious guidelines and plans to guide both
the employees and any other persons within the vicinity of the plant area. With well
guidelines in place, the management is assured of minimal occurrence of accidents
which may result in the loss of lives and property as well as environmental pollution. It
is a duty and responsibility that is expected of any organizational management and if
any accident occurs in the light of deliberate violation of rules and guidelines set forth
by the management, someone is expected to take the responsibility. The management is
therefore expected to uphold their duties of protecting the employees welfares as well
as the environment by providing them with resources and skills to avoid and confront
any accidents.
The natures of errors that can occur in a plant are hereby outline below;
- Planning stage
- Designing stage
- Construction stage
- Operation stage
- Maintenance stage
- Repairing stage
- Shutdown stage
The errors which can culminate to accidents at most cases occur or can be avoided at
operators levels. Operator error is inevitable in the system design and the operator like
any other process input in a processing plant has a certain capacity. When the demand
on the operator exceeds his/her capacity, the result will be failure or error due to
negligence. If the system cannot tolerate occasional randomness in his/her response,
the result will be an error. In this view, operator error is a significant contribution to the
safety related incidents and therefore the recommended number of operators to
operate a machine is fundamental for such errors to be averted. In spite having well
trained personnel to operate the plant machines, automation of the plant is also
paramount as it helps in detecting and locating any malfunction making the
confrontation of the situation easier to deal with.
As mentioned, the environmental pollution is of a great concern and any release of toxic
substances to the environment is hazardous to the environment and the people within
the plant areas as well as the people living around the plant area. Environmental
analysis involves the following;
98

- Determining which substance can be released and where
- Determining the rate of release, and total amount release
- Determining the extent of dispersion, spread and hold up that might occur
- Determining the mode of transfer to humans, animals and plants and any
indirect pathway
- Determining the toxicity of substances to humans, animals and plants
Environmental accidents have a long term effects since it is not always possible to carry
out a perfect clean-up operations. The emergency plans in place to combat the release of
toxic substances involve choosing the best techniques at each stage for limiting
environmental consequences.
In the first stage of an environmental accident, release may be limited by shutting down,
by bounding and retaining walls, by holdup ponds. In the third stage when dispersion
had begun, various clean-up methods can be used to limit the risk such as removal of
soil, boom towing and skimming, absorption and pumping. At the fourth stage, the effect
of damage limitations methods, such as special ventilation in housing, water purification
methods etc. need to be taken into account.
10.2 SAFETY
Safety as a concept and practice has evolved from a plain sense approach of eliminating
agents of injury to a more complex and a reliable control of harm to human beings,
animal and plants. Safety is therefore becoming an increasingly important activity in the
chemical industry. A crucial aspect in design of chemical plants is safety. Chemical
process safety refers to the applications of the technology and management practices;
- To prevent accidents in the plant.
- To reduce potential for accidents
Process safety management (PSM) systems are only as effect as the day-to-day ability of
the organization to rigorously execute system requirements correctly every time. This
is because any failure to correctly execute a duty may lead to injurious incidents.
Therefore any processing company or any other company has legal and moral
obligations towards the health of its employees and the environment at large. The
magnitude of safety factors are directed by the economic or market considerations,
accuracy of the design data and calculations, potential changes in the operating
performance and the background information available. The occupation Safety
Safety is a fundamental aspect in the design of chemical plants. The occupations Safety
and Health Act of 1970 aimed at ensuring that every worker was safe and that working
conditions were favorable and bearable. A safety review entails evaluation of
environmental parameters that have been altered by industrial operations. Two
approaches shall be employed to implement approved safety processes:
- Through administrative controls and
99

- By engineering methods
Administrative controls mainly involve regulating the amount of time a worker is
exposed to certain unhealthy environment with the aim of reducing risk. Engineering
methods involve technical solutions within the design of the process to deal with
identified problems. On the overall, process safety of the industry is considered under
the following titles:
Identification and assessment of the hazards
Control of the hazards
Control of the process
Limitation of any loss
The potential health hazard to an individual by material used in any chemical process is
a function of the inherent toxicity of the material and the frequency and duration of
exposure. The designer must therefore be aware of these hazards and ensure through
the application of sound engineering practice that the risks are reduced to acceptable
levels. The necessity to anticipate potential problems so as to avoid them or to reduce
their effect requires thorough appraisal of an environmentally significant action before
it is taken. The formalization of this concept is embodied in the environmental impact
assessment. The main areas that involve safety considerations in this plant include:
- Vibration problems
- Spillage of solvents and their effects
- Accidents
- Pressure buildup in mixers and storage tank.
- Exposure to fumes and vapor from the solvents used.
10.3 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
Housekeeping: The factory must always be kept clean and neat. Trenches, stored
materials, products storage tanks, machines and any other structures that may cause
danger in the factory shall be clearly marked off.
Spillages: any spillages should be identified, contained and collected accordingly.
Hygiene: all persons should access lavatory, washrooms and changing rooms. All meals
must be taken within the designated areas.
Industrial behaviors: all the industrial workers are expected to uphold the industrial
safety precautions as they are outlined in the safety guidelines. Failure to follow them
has penalties and therefore all relevant individuals are expected to have utmost
responsibility to do so. Drinking alcohol or use of illegal drugs is prohibited within the
companys premises.
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Safety campaigns: safety campaigns are necessary to create sufficient awareness
regarding safety requirements. Safety attires provided are strictly expected to be worn
during hours of operations.
Accidents: all accidents should be reported to the relevant section managers and
eventually so that they can be investigated and handled with propriety.
Technical facilities: it shall be required that all personnel working technical facilities
undergo an introductory period to their respective facilities so that they are well
conversant to their functioning
10.4 ENGINEERING SAFETY CONTROL
Engineering safety controls involve technical solutions within the design process that
deals with identified problem.
Ventilation: it is a requirement that buildings are well ventilated to allow fresh air to
remove odor or dilute any gas leakage. When an inflammable gas leaks, it concentration
increases drastically and when there is a fire, then it causes fire to escalate. It is
therefore in this view that ventilation is necessary. Inaccessible areas must be fitted
with hoods, ducts and other air cleaning devices. Fans should be placed downstream of
the air-cleaning device to handle clean air.
Isolation: risk control by isolation or containment will be used for the highly volatile
and toxic materials. All acids in the factory, prior to use, have to be kept in containment
stores to avoid any contamination by fumes, vapors or spillages. It shall be required that
those rooms and containers be clearly labeled. This shall apply to all chemicals used in
the laboratory and outside the laboratory.
Location of flammable material: Flammable materials should be located in areas as
remote as possible, to reduce the risk of fire spreading to other areas.
Explosion in equipment: Explosions in digesters, evaporators, distillation columns and
any other pressure equipment can be avoided by regular inspection of the equipment to
prevent mechanical failure through thermal vibrations, corrosion and stresses.
Spillages: Spillage should be avoided and whenever it happens. The amount of risk
from spillages can be reduced by isolating the failure-prone sections of the plant
installation. Water system should be readily available to wash out any spillage.
Detectors and sensors: Fire detectors and sensors will be installed all over the plant. A
sensor after receiving the fire signal should fire the suppression (often water and
Bromo-chloromethane) at a speed not less than 200m/sec.
Vent: For all pressurized vessels including tanks, columns etc, vent systems must be
installed to protect the vessel from rupturing; the vent is designed so that at a given
pressure, relief device will release to regulate the pressure.
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Storage: All chemical storage vessels shall be regularly inspected to avoid leakages
Spacing: There should be a minimum of 5m distance between vessels and pipeline, and
between vessels and building wall.
Labeling: All containers holding chemicals should be correctly labeled and warnings
appended according to their risk potential, all areas should be marked accordingly to
avoid cases of controllable accidents.
Control valves: There should be remote control valves to isolate equipment and areas
of the plant in case of an emergency. Whenever two pipes, a pipe and equipment, or two
equipments are connected, the equipment should be earthed and connected by a wire
connection.
Sprinkling system: There should be an automatic sprinkling system to put out the fire.
10.5 DEVELOPMENT OF A SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
The development of a safety and health program with a minimum of;
- 45 hours initial instruction of site,
- Days instruction on site and,
- Hour annual refresher training course.
The first two conditions shall apply to any newly hired worker. The third condition shall
apply to all workers, both old and new. It shall be a requirement for each worker to have
the following items within the factory premises;
- Gas masks for protection from fume inhalation especially from the heated
solvents
- Hand gloves - for solvents and raw materials.
- Goggles - for protection against mists and fumes.
- Protective clothing this will consist of overalls and dust coats to be cleaned
twice a week.
- Protect shoes safety boots with special uppers to prevent injury from falling
objects and a special rubber sole to prevent falling or sliding.
- Ear plugs to prevent damage due to vibrations or noise caused by nearby
equipment
- Safety helmet mandatory inside the factory
10.6 HAZARD COMMUNICATION
Hazard communication shall consist of;
- Container labeling, identification and hazards warning.
- A Material, Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) shall be obtained for all chemicals being
used within the factory.
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- All workers within special areas such as the lab must be introduced to all the
chemicals being used in the area of interest and advised accordingly.
- There should be special First Aid emergency plans in case of poisoning of any
kind in the laboratory and the whole factory.
MSDSs must address health and physical hazards in the workplace. They must contain
both toxicological and ecological data as well as fire and reactivity hazards posed by the
chemicals. No data should be omitted from MSDSs.
10.7 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)
Introduction
Environmental impact assessment is a process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and
mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals
prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. It is a process, set down
as a repeatable series of steps to be taken, to allow the environmental consequences of a
proposed development to be assessed.
Purpose of EIA
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision-makers consider
environmental impacts before deciding whether to proceed with new projects. EIA is
intended to identify the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of a proposed
development prior to decision making.
This means that it is easy to identify:
- The most environmentally suitable option at an early stage.
- The Best Practicable Environmental Option.
- Alternative processes.
The objectives of EIA are to provide:
- Baseline information about the environment, social and economic conditions in
the project area.
- Information on potential impact of the project and the characteristics of the
impacts, magnitude, distribution who will be the affected group and their
duration
- Information on potential mitigation measures to minimize the impact including
mitigation costs.
- To assess the best alternative project at most benefit and least costs in terms of
financial, social and environment. In addition to alternative location of the
project, project design or project management may also be considered.
- Basic information for formulating environmental management plan
- To ensure compliance with environmental legislation.
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10.8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES
Environmental issues associated with the operation of an extraction of pharmaceutical
jelly from avocado pear oil plant include:
- Solid waste and by-products
- Wastewater effluents
- Emissions to air
- Noise
- Energy consumption and Management
- Socio-economic Impacts
Solid Wastes and By-products
The production of pharmaceutical jelly from avocado pear oil yields a significant
quantity of solid wastes which should be well managed for economic purposes.
The de-stoning processing and peeling machine yield significant solid wastes. The seeds
and peels are the waste solid products resulting from these two processes. Seeds can be
used by interested companies to extract oil from them or be crashed and used to
improve the fertility of agricultural soil. On the other hand, the peels can also be ground
and use to improve agricultural soil fertility. Their soil improving ability is based on the
fact that they are able to decompose in the soil therefore they dont pose any threat to
the environment.
At the three phase decanting and centrifugal processes result with solid wastes which is
in these cases are cakes and fine solid particles respectively. The cake which is in the
slurry which enters the three phase decanter is removed as a cake in solid phase while
the solid particles which are removed from the centrifuge results from the solid
particles which wont have be completely removed in the oil from the decanter. The
solid particles from the decanter can be disposed off and can be also used to improve
soil fertility. For the solid particles which are drawn from the centrifuge, it is disposed
off in form of oil-solid mixture and the mixture is channeled to waste water treatment
section.
Wastewater Effluents
The principal factors which determine the nature of effluents from this plant and on
which strict controls will be placed by the responsible authority i.e. NEMA are:
- Oil
- Suspended solids.
- Toxicity.
- Biological oxygen demand.
- Temperature
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Recommended measures for the prevention and control of process wastewater include
the following:
- Oil in the sludge and water effluent coming from the decanter has to be
eliminated before these wastes are disposed to the environment. The solids
particles in the washing water (water for washing avocado fruits) are separated
from the water in the clarifier before the water is recycled for reuse.
- Suspended solids can be removed by settling at centrifuge
- For effluents which are highly toxic, the toxicity levels may be reduced by
dilution or chemical treatment.
- The oxygen concentration in a water course must be maintained at a level
sufficient to support aquatic life and therefore it is important to measure the
BOD though standard tests which can then be reduced by activated sludge
processes before discharging the wastewater.
- The products and byproducts temperature has to be significantly reduced before
these materials are taken to the storage tanks. The heavy phase from the
molecular evaporator comes with significant high temperature which is used to
preheat the virgin oil before it delivered to the evaporator in the shell and tube
heat exchanger. The heavy phase oil is able to increase the temperature of the oil
to 150
o
C while the temperature of the heavy oil itself is reduced to 60
o
C. This
temperature of the heavy phase is further reduced to temperature of 25
o
C in the
water cooler while the temperatures of the product (light phase of the
evaporator) is reduced to 25
o
C other water cooler before it is finally pumped to
the storage tank. Other source of heat in the plant is also from the boilers where
steam is being generated. For this matter, the boilers should be operated with
the required procedures being followed to the later.
Emissions to air
The main emission to air in this plant is dust. The dust results from the fresh avocado
pear fruits during the offloading of the raw materials which if unchecked will be harmful
to the staff and also the environment.
Recommended management techniques to prevent and control dust include:
- Ensuring that the offloading of the raw materials should be done in designated
place so that the dust does not affect whose who are not involved in the
offloading.
Noise
Noise can cause a serious nuisance in the neighborhood of a process plant. Care needs to
be taken when selecting and specifying equipment such as compressors, generators,
boilers among other noisy plant units. In this plant the main source of noise is the plant
is from the utility section where generators provide the source of energy throughout the
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plant. Such equipment should be fitted with silencers or the process be done in a sound
proofed enclosed area. This noise can also be controlled by siting this equipment as far
as practicable away from the site boundary. Vendors specifications should be checked
to ensure that equipment complies with statutory noise levels; both for the protection of
employees, as well as for noise pollution considerations.

Energy Consumption and Management
The production of pharmaceutical jelly from avocado pear oil requires a significant
amount of energy therefore energy management is very essential for efficient operation
of the plant.
Various unit operations such as evaporator require heating and so consume energy.
This heating is done by use of steam which is generated in boilers.
For the purpose of energy conservation, the heat in the heavy phase oil from the
evaporator is significant is used to preheat oil before it is being delivered to the
evaporator for the separation. This reduces the cost of preheating which could be
instead incurred in the heating of the oil.
Socio-economic Impact
The plant will be put up in an area human settlement and so there may be displacement
of the locals and hence negatively impacting the immediate society. This may initially
result in an outcry from the local community.
On the other hand the building of the plant in this area will bring about great economic
gains for the local community. Employment will be created and this will increase the
standards of living of the locals. The plant will also bring about development in the area
in terms of improved transport networks, increase in the settlement in area around the
plant culminating to rapid development of businesses in the area. The transportation
section will eventually develop significantly due transportation of the raw materials to
the plant. Agricultural section will also develop significantly because the farmers will be
motivated to plant avocado pear fruits since there will be a ready matter for their
produce.
10.9 LEGISLATION
This refers to the rules and regulations that govern environmental management and
safety and should be adhered to by all process industries.
The legislations enforced in chemical and process industries include:
- Work Injuries and Benefits Act(WIBA)
- Occupational Health and Safety Act(OHSA)
- Environmental Management and Coordination Act(EMCA)
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Work Injuries and Benefits Act (WIBA)
This Act provides for compensation of employees for work related injuries and diseases
contracted in the course of their employment. It applies to all employees except those in
the armed forces i.e. private and public sector. It defines clearly who employer is, who
employee is and dependants to employee i.e. family.
Some of the provisions in this Act include:
- This Act requires an employer to obtain and maintain an insurance policy with
an insurer approved by the Ministry of labour to cater for any liabilities
employer may incur under the Act to any of his employees. Penalty; 100,000 or 3
months imprisonment.
- Every employer must register with the Director of Occupational Health and
Safety Services.(DOHSS)
- The employer must keep records of; earnings and other prescribed particulars
of all employees. He must produce those records on demand to the DOHSS for
inspection and he must retain these records for at least 6 years.
- The employer must notify the DOHSS if he is winding up the organization so as
to address any pending claims and compensation.
Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA)
This legislation is intended to ensure that every employee has safe working
environment. The Act establishes Occupational safety and health standards to be
adhered to in work places. It also establishes the National Council for Occupational
Health Services and Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety Services (DOHSS).
Some of the provisions of this Act include:
- Inspection of all work places
- Maintenance of accurate records of employee exposure to potential toxic
material or harmful physical agents and to have access to such records by
employees and inspectors.
- Maintenance of accurate records of any toxic or harmful material whose levels
exceed those prescribed by an applicable standard.
- It provides for the right of employees to be informed of any violations by
employers, sited by inspectors of work places.
Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA)
In Kenya regulations and policies regarding the environment are regulated by National
Environmental Management Agency(NEMA).These regulations include the
Environmental Management And Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999.This legislation is a
critical component for sustainable environmental management in that it establishes
national environmental principles and provides guidance and coherence to good
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environmental management. It further deals with cross-sectorial issues such as overall
environmental policy formulation, environmental planning, protection and
conservation, environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring,
environmental quality standard, environmental protection orders, Institutional co-
ordination and conflict resolution.
10.10 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY ANALYSIS (HAZOP)
Introduction
A hazard and operability study is a procedure for the systematic, critical, examination of the
operability of a process. When applied to a process design or an operating plant, it indicates
potential hazards that may arise from deviations from the intended design conditions.
The HAZOP process is based on the principle that a team approach to hazard analysis will
identify more problems than when individuals working separately combine results.
Hazard - any operation that could possibly cause a catastrophic release of toxic, flammable or
explosive chemicals or any action that could result in injury to personnel.
Operability - any operation inside the design envelope that would cause a shutdown that could
possibly lead to a violation of environmental, health or safety regulations or negatively impact
profitability.
Purpose of HAZOP
HAZOP is carried out for the following reasons:
HAZOP identifies potential hazards, failures and operability problems.
It encourages creativity in design concept evaluation.
Its use results in fewer commissioning and operational problems and better informed
personnel, thus confirming overall cost effectiveness improvement.
Necessary changes to a system for eliminating or reducing the probability of operating
deviations are suggested by the analytical procedure.
HAZOP provides a necessary management tool and bonus in so far that it demonstrates
to insurers and inspectors evidence of comprehensive thoroughness.
HAZOP reports are an integral part of plant and safety records and are also applicable to
design changes and plant modifications, thereby containing accountability for
equipment and its associated human interface throughout the operating lifetime.

HAZOP Process
The HAZOP process is undertaken in the following procedure:
1. Divide the system into sections (i.e., reactor, storage)
2. Choose a study node (i.e., line, vessel, pump, operating instruction)
3. Describe the design intent
4. Select a process parameter
5. Apply a guide-word
6. Determine cause(s)
7. Evaluate consequences/problems
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8. Recommend action: What? When? Who?
9. Record information
10. Repeat procedure (from step 2)

HAZOP concepts
a) Node
A node is a specific location in the process in which (the deviations of) the design/process intent
are evaluated.
Examples might be: separators, heat exchangers, scrubbers, pumps, compressors, and
interconnecting pipes with equipment.
b) Design Intent
The design intent is a description of how the process is expected to behave at the node; this is
qualitatively described as an activity (e.g., feed, reaction, sedimentation) and/or quantitatively
in the process parameters, like temperature, flow rate, pressure, composition, etc.
c) Deviation
A deviation is a way in which the process conditions may depart from their design/process
intent.
d) Parameter
The relevant parameter for the condition(s) of the process (e.g. pressure, temperature,
composition).
e) Guideword
A short word to create the imagination of a deviation of the design/process intent. The most
commonly used set of guide-words is: no, more, less, as well as, part of, other than, and reverse.
The guidewords are applied, in turn, to all the parameters, in order to identify unexpected and
yet credible deviations from the design/process intent.
Guide-word + Parameter Deviation
f) Cause
The reason(s) why the deviation could occur are many. Several causes may be identified for one
deviation. It is often recommended to start with the causes that may result in the worst possible
consequence.
g) Consequence
The results of the deviation, in case it occurs. Consequences may both comprise process hazards
and operability problems, like plant shut-down or reduced quality of the product.
h) Safeguard
These are facilities that help to reduce the occurrence frequency of the deviation or to mitigate
its consequences.
A sample HAZOP analysis
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A HAZOP analysis of heat exchanger is carried with the exit stream as the node. It is represented
in the table below.

Inlet stream Outlet stream
Heat exchanger
110

Study node: Heat Exchanger Exit
Deviation Causes Consequences Safeguard Action required Assigned to
Less temperature - Decreased flow of heavy
phase oil
- Fouling in the heat
exchanger tubes
- Valve stuck in half-closed
position
- Increased flow rate of
material

- Lower outlet temperature
- More energy requirements in
evaporator

- Conducting temperature
profiles for heat exchanger to
monitor desired temperature.
- Regular inspection and
maintenance of heat exchanger.
-Monitoring of material flow
rates.
-Regular maintenance and
inspection of valves and sensors
- Install sensors to monitor
material and heavy phase oil
flow rates
-Install low temperature alarms
- Repair/replace
malfunctioning sensors
and valves.
- Clean tubes
-bypass heat exchanger
increase thermic fluid
flow rate in the
evaporator.

Process
engineer
More temperature -Temperature control
failure
-Increased flow of heavy
phase oil.
- Increased temperature of
heavy phase oil from the
evaporator
-Less flow rate of virgin
- High energy consumption.

- Conducting temperature
profiles for heat exchanger to
monitor desired temperature.
-Monitoring of material and
heavy phase oil flow rate.
-Regular maintenance and
inspection of valves and sensors
- Install sensors to monitor
- Repair/replace
malfunctioning sensors
and valves.
- Maintenance of alarm
systems
Process
engineer
Table: HAZOP Analysis of Heat Exchanger
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avocado oil. material and heavy phase oil
flow rates
-Install high temperature alarms
-No flow - No material in storage
tanks
- Bursting of material
delivery pipe
- Valve stuck in close
position
- Failure of feed pump
- Blockage of pipes

- No heat exchange occurs
- Overheating of heat exchanger
tubes leading to damage.
- Installing level indicators in the
material storage tank
- Installing alarms to detect low
material levels
- Regular maintenance of pumps
and valves
- High strength materials used
for pipes

- Repair/replace
burst/leaking pipes
- Regular maintenance
of valves
- Maintenance of feed
pumps
- Removal of blockages
from pipes
Operator
Less flow








- Leakages from feed pipe
- Blockages in feed pipe
- Valve stuck in half-closed
position
-Blockages in exit pipes
Flow control failure
-Affects subsequent processes
-High temperatures of the exit
stream if it is caused by less
flow of material.
-Overheating of plates.
-Regular maintenance of pipes
-Regular checks of flow control
systems
-Maintenance of pumps and
valves
-Installing alarms to detect less
flow.
- High strength materials used
for pipes
-Repair/replace
burst/leaking pipes
- Regular maintenance
of valves
- Maintenance of feed
pumps
- Removal of blockages
from pipes
Operator





More flow -Flow control failure
-Valves stuck in open
-Increased pressure in the heat
exchanger
-Regular inspection of flow
control systems.
- Regular maintenance
of valves
Operator
112


position



-Low temperature of the exit
stream
-Insufficient heat exchange
-Higher energy consumption in
subsequent processes

-Installing alarms to detect more
flow.

Regular maintenance
of flow controllers

114

CHAPTER 11
11.0 PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT
11.1 INTRODUCTION
The setting and location of a plant has a very huge impact on the profitability of the
enterprise and the capability for future expansion. There are several factors that influence
the location of a specific plant. The location for our avocado oil processing plant is Athi
River in Machakos county, Nairobi province. The following factors explain the choice of our
site.
RAW MATERIAL
The availability and accessibility of raw material is a key to the sitting of any plant. Athi
River is in a centralized position to allow us to access the eastern avocado market, the
central avocado market and the rift valley market due to its proximity to all producers and
also a good road network. Locating the plant in this area will ensure reduced transport
costs and easy access to the farmers.
AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR
This strategic location of the plant opens us to a huge labor resource. Nairobi being the
capital city allows us access to both skilled and unskilled labor for training. Skilled
construction labor will be outsourced or contracted from within.
UTILITIES
The production of avocado oil and its processing to meet market requirements requires
water for washing and for general process use. Athi River and Nairobi River being near will
sustain us with sufficient supply of water.
Electrical power is a very key utility for any processing industry. The power required in
running the plant will be supplied from the national grid by Kenya Power and lighting
company.
CONSUMER MARKET
The sitting of this plant opens us to a huge market for our products. The final product
which is a concentrate of the unsaponifiale fraction of avocado oil which is rich in sterols,
tocopherols, vitamin E and beta-sistosterol can be sold in bulky to the cosmetic and
pharmaceutical industries. The heavy phase oil(byproduct) which is rich in esterified
sterols can be sold in bulk to oil refining industries for further processing and stabilization
115

such as Olivado, Pwani oil. The plant therefore has an adequate market for its products and
byproducts.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND EFFLUENT DISPOSAL
This plant poses no threat to the environment due to minimal emissions and the waste
water is recycled and its oil content tested before discharge. The solid waste from this plant
which includes the peels, pits and the cake from the decanter has been incorporated in our
waste management programme were we are considering selling the peels and the cake to
farmers for use as fertilizer and the pits can be sold to interested buyers for mechanical oil
extraction hence no severe frestrictions to waste disposal with regard to this location.
LOCAL COMMUNITY
The proposed plant must be acceptable by the local community. This plant can be located
close to the people because it does not pose a risk to the local community owing to the
short process involved, minimal use of chemicals and minimal effluent. This plant will be
located at Athi River just close to the centre. This will ensure access to social amenities like
hospitals, recreational facilities and schools thus making it easier to accommodate our
employees for efficient production.
LAND
In Machakos County and particularly Athi River, there is sufficient land for the location of
the proposed plant and room for future expansion. This area being within the urban setting
lacks idle land and thus leasing will be way convenient for the construction of the plant.
POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC CONSIDERATION
Following the recent devolution of power, bringing finished goods closer to the people,
creating job opportunities for the locals and creating market for farmers will be hailed as a
very ingenious and resourceful move. The proposed plant being in Machakos county will
benefit from government incentives, tax wavers and security.
11.2 SITE LAYOUT
The process units and ancillary buildings should be laid out to give the most economical
movement of materials, machinery and personnel around the site. Hazardous process
buildings must be located at a safe distance from the other buildings. The layout of the
infrastructure should allow room for future expansion. In addition to the main process
buildings, the following units and service units are required on site:
- Raw material storage facilities, products storage tank farm and warehouses
- Maintenance workshops
116

- Maintenance stores and operating supplies
- Process control labs
- Effluent disposal unit
- Administrative offices
- Canteens and other amenities
- Car parks

FACTORS CONSIDERED
The following factors are to e considered in sitting a plant and laying down the plant:
- The layout of the processing units should be such that it allows flow of materials
through the various production stages, from the raw material to the finished
products tanks with ease.
- The arrangement of principle ancillary buildings such as the administration block,
laboratories and process control rooms should minimize time spent by personnel
moving from one building to the other. These buildings where large numbers of
personnel will be should be located away from hazardous processes and upstream
of the prevailing wind.
- The sitting of the main processing buildings will help determine the sitting of plant
roads, pipe alleys and drainage lines.
- Storage units should be placed within a close proximity to the process units they
serve.

117

11.3 PLANT LAYOUT



Pipe Bridge
Road
Wind
Car
Park
Workshop
Administration
Offices
Fire
Assembly
Point
Canteen



















E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n


Laboratory Control
Room


Plant area
Product
Warehouse
Raw material
Reception
Waste
Water
Treatment

Utilities
Product
Loading
Bay
Security
118

CHAPTER 12
12.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The introduction of avocado oil in the Kenyan market will go a long way in boosting the
economy. This will be attained through creation of a market for avocado farmers who for
long have been lacking a sustainable market for their farm outputs, creation of employment
and improved health.
The cold press process involves minimal number of stages and energy consumption thus
making the process very economically viable with a high rate of return. The main challenge
in this process is minimizing the local heating effects resulting from prolonged exposure of
the oil to heat. This has been achieved by use of a short path molecular distiller. Minimal
information has been provided on the wiped film molecular distiller but the practical
aspect of it has been proven on an industrial scale.
The three phase separation technology used in this process is new in the market but it has
been put to practical use recently and has worked well. This technology has proven very
efficient in our process and thus it choice instead of two phase separation process.
This process has very minimal to no negative impact on the environment and also
minimizes the energy consumed. The waste from this process is easily manageable and fits
well within our waste management programme. This technology is effective and requires
minimal modification to perfect and optimization. If incentives are given to attract
investors, tax wavers and sufficient financing of the county governments, then the
economic viability we are talking about will be a reality.

119

REFERENCES
Bailey, AE, 1951. Industrial oil and Fat Products. 881.
S. B. Wepukhulu, J.K. Njuguna, M.W. Kamau, B.K. Chegeh, 2005. Assessment of Avocado
in Embu, Kirirnyaga and Muranga Districts of Kenya.
K.A. Finau, 2007. Literature Review of Avocado Oil for Technological Purpose. SROS
publishers.
Couper, Penney, Fair and Wals, 2008. Chemical Process Equipment; Selection and
Design
J.M. Coulson and J.F. Richard, 2005. Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 6, Fourth Edition,
Elsevier Publishers.
Gavin Towler and Ray Sinnott, 2008. Chemical Engineering Design Principles, Practice
and Economics of Plant and process, design Elsevier publishers
McCabe,W.L., and Smith, J.C., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, p.418,Mc-
Graw-Hill,New York, 1950.
Freeze, H.L., and Glover,W.B, Mechanically Agitated Thin-Film Evaporator,Chem.
Eng..Prog., Vol.75,No. 1, p.53, January 1979.
Jacinto Lopez-Toledo, Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of a Wiped Film
Evaporator The University of Texas at Austin
Janusz Dziak, Mass and Heat Transfer during Thin Film Evaporation of Liquid solution
Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Vol. 2, No. 2, Aug. 2012, pp. (105-
108)
The Indian Journal of Technical Education (Futuristic Trends in MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING)
Pfaudler- Wiped Film Evaporators (Pfaudler Engineered systems)
http://www.wxhysh.com/products/prod9.htm
http://www.dalalengineering.com/wiped_fim_evaporator.aspx
120

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Data
Table A-1: specific heat capacities of key components
Compound Cp(Kj/kg.K)
Sterols (tocopherols,sistosterols)the light fractions 2.33
Triglyceride and esterified sterols 3.20
Virgin avocado oil 3.01

Appendix B: Detailed Sample Mass Balances
Average weight of one avocado=600g=S1
Average weight of flesh=432g
Average weight of skin=50g
Average weight of seed=118g
Light phase is between 8 15% of the original oil
Raw material, 50,000 tons per year.
Taking a basis of 4999 kg of avocado pears per hour
300 working days a year.
24 hour operation
Heavy phase is between 85 92% of the original oil weight of avocados =6944kg/hr. =S1
Average weight of flesh=4999kg/hr.
Average weight of skins=580kg/hr.
Average weight of seed=1365kg/hr.
Mass of virgin oil from various researches using cold press {13-22%}
Ratio of avocado flesh to water in the mixer =1:2.2
Average percentage of oil content= (13 + 22)/2 = 17.5% = 17.5%
121

Therefore average oil content in avocado pulp is 0.175 x 4999= 868kg/hr.
Water in an avocado pulp (70 80%) assumed %= (70+80)/2=75%
Overall mass balance
Mass in = mass out
Stream 3(kg/hr.) = stream 4 (kg/hr.) +stream 5 (kg/hr.)
Component mass balance
Mass in (S3) = 5579 kg/hr.
Mass out (S4) = peels 580 kg/hr.
Mass out (S5) = 5579-580 =4999 kg/hr. (pulp)
Table B-2: Summary of mass balance around peeler machine

INLET STREAMS OUTLET STREAM
Streams Components Mass
(kgs)
Streams Components Mass (kgs)
S3 Pulps 4999 S4 Skins 580
Skins 580 S5 Pulps 4999
TOTAL

5579 TOTAL

5579

Appendix C: Sample energy balance calculation
i. Heat Exchanger or pre-heater.
This unit is used to the raise the temperature of the virgin avocado oil from 25C to 150C
by using triglyceride rich fraction of avocado oil at 1.1 bars from the evaporator.
Sensible heat loss to the environment is assumed to 0.04%.
A schematic of the unit is shown in the diagram below.


122










The amount of energy required to effect temperature rise is given by the expression below.


Where,


Accounting for sensible heat loss (QL)



The total energy to be supplied by the latent heat of vaporization of triglycerides at 1.1
bars is given by;


Heat Exchanger
Heavy fraction oil in
(210.00C)
663.85kg/hr.


273.10 kg/hr



Virgin Avocado oil
(150C)
781kg/hr.
10000.00 kg/hr

Virgin Avocado oil (25C)
781.00 kg/hr.
Oil out (60.00C)
663.85 kg/hr.


Q
L
123

Mass flow rate of triglyceride rich fraction required is calculated as,


Where





Appendix D: Equipment Sizing Calculations
i. Avocado slurry tanks
This equipment is used for mixing of avocado pulp and water to attain the required
consistency and to lower the viscosity of the pulp for easy pumping. The chosen design is a
cylindrical tank fitted with a Rushton 6 blade agitator.



Assumptions
- The tank should be way full.
- The height to diameter ratio chosen is
- A basis of 1 hour is taken
124

- 10 minute residence time is assumed




The mixing in the tank should be severe to ensure complete mixing of water and pulp to
achieve the required consistency. To effectively carry this out, an agitator with 4 baffles is
selected.