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Development

MCQ Q.1 The total income of the country divided by its total population is Called: (a) National income (b) Per capital income (c) Total income (d) None of these Q.2 Which organization publishes the Human Development Report: (a) WHO (b) UNDP (c) WTO (d) IMF Q.3 Development of a country generally be determined by: (a) its per capita income (b) its literacy level (b) health status of its people (d) all above Q.4 As per Human Development Report 2006 which neighboring country has the highest income following (a) Sri Lanka (b) India (c) Pakistan (d) Nepal
Answer key of MCQ: 1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1) In World Development Report 2006 , the criterion used for measuring the development of the country was (a) Total income (b) per capita income (c) Literacy level (d) health standard (2) Human Development Report is published by (a) UNDP (b) UNHAR (c) UNICEF (d) UNESCO (3) Life expectancy of birth denotes (a) Condition of life (b) need of life (d) Expected outcome of life (d) average expected length of life (4) A person will be considered as undernourished if his/her BMI is less than (a) 20.5 (b) 18.5 (c) 19.5 (d) 21.5 (5) Apart from income, things desired for development by people are

(a) Freedom (b) equal treatment (c) Security (d) all the above (6) According to World Development Report 2004, rich countries are those which have per annum per capita income as (a) Rs 4, 53,000 or more (b) Rs 4, 20,000 or more (c) Rs 4, 50,000 or more (d) Rs 4, 80,000 or more (7) Which of the following countries has better performance in terms of per capita income than India (a) Pakistan (b) Sri Lanka (c) Nepal (d) Bangladesh (8)For how many years the stock of crude oil will last if people continue to extract it at the present rate? (a) 43 years (b) 50 years (c) 60 years (d) 75 years (9)What is the HDI rank of India in the world? (a)126 (b) 93 (c) 130 (d) 137 (10)Which particular agency of UNO publishes human development report? (a)WHO (b) UNDP (c) UNESCO (d) UNICEF (11)Which criteria was used by World Development Report 2006 for comparing countries (a)Education status (b) Health status (c) Total income (d) Average income (12)What is the HDI rank of Sri Lanka in the world? (a)126 (b) 93 (c) 130 (d) 137 (13)What was the infant mortality rate of Kerala in the year 2003? (a)9 (b) 15 (c) 20 (d) 11 (14)Which of the following is an example of renewable resources? (a)Coal (b) Petroleum (c) Groundwater (d) Uranium (15)Which of the following is an example of non renewable resources? (a)Solar energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Wind energy (d) None of these ANSWERS (1) b (2) a (3) d (4) b (5) d (6) a (7) b (8) a (9) a (10) b (11) d (12) b (13) d (14) c (15) d

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1 Why do different people have different goals for development?

Ans: Different people have different goals for development because: Different people have different aspiration and desire. Some may like to have `more income and better quality of education for their children, while others may require no social discrimination and high support price for their crops. So according to the living conditions and the environment in which the person stays, he or she pursue for the goals. People seek things that are most important for them i.e., that which can fulfill their aspiration or desires.
Q.2 Why average income is taken into consideration instead of total income while making comparison between countries?

Ans: The total income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. For comparison between countries, total income is not such a useful measure. Since countries have different population, comparing total income will not tell us what an average people is likely to earn. Hence we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. So, Average income = Total income / Total population The average income is also called per capita income.
Q.3 Write a paragraph on your nation that what should India do, to become a developed country?

Ans.(i) Control the rate of increasing population. (ii) Use of latest technology, irrigation facility, chemical fertilizers, and all information should be provided to farmers. (iii) New economic policy, international trade, liberalization and globalization should be adopted sincerely and effectively. (iv) Adequate facilities related with infrastructure, education, health, electricity, water, transport etc should be provided to all people of all regions and areas.
Q.4 What is the main criteria used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Ans :Per capita income is the main criteria used by World Bank. Limitations of per capita income: It enables to show how income is distributed among the people of the country. Cost of pollution is not considered in this average. Some other important aspects like infant mortality rate, literacy rate, net attendance ratio etc are not considered while calculating per capita income.

Q.5 Think of some examples where collective provision of goods and services are cheaper than individual provision.

Ans: (i) Public Distribution System for rationing, vegetable and fruit distribution from fixed price shop. (ii) Collective security arrangement. (iii) Collective transport system (iv)Collective provision of health services (v)Collective provision of education for children.

Q.6. What is development? A. It means progress. It has many aspects. Different people have prespectives on development. Q.7. Why do different people have different notions of development? A. Different people have different notions of development because life situations of persons are different and therefore their aspirations and desires and goals. Q. 8. Do the statements mean the same? Give examples to prove. a)people have different development goals. b)people have conflicting development goals. A.No the two statements differ. a) People have different development goals means that since people come from different situations therefore their development goals differ as an urban unemployed youth would aspire for a good salaried job,promotions ect. And on the other hand a rural unemployed would want better job oppurtunities in the village, job security and dignity of labour. b) People have conflicting goals means that development for one may not be development for the other .Their goals may clash. For example-1. industrialist may want more dams for electricity but this may submerge the land disrupt lives of the people who are displaced-such as tribals, who may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their lands. 2.Landless rural labourers want more days of work &better wages; schools for quality education; no social discrimination and politcal participation whereas the Prosperous farmer would want assured high family income through high support prices for their crops and hard working and cheap labour. Here if the labour wants high wages and the farmer wands cheap labour their goals clash and are conflicting.

Q.9. HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OS STATES?

For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.

Countries with higher income are more developed than the countries with less income.It means that higher income means more of all things that human beings need.
Q. 10. Why do we take average income to compare two countries?

Since countries have different populations comparing total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn, hence we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called per capita income.
Q. 11. What criterion is being used by the World Bank as per World Development Report 2006, in classifying the countries?

World Bank says that countries with the per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004

are called rich countries and those with the per capita income of Rs 37,000 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the categoery of low income countries because its per capita income in 2004 was just Rs. 28000 per annum. Rich countries excluding the countries of Middle-East and certain other small countries are generally called developed countries.

Q. 12. What does this table show?

A- In this Punjab has the higest per capita income and Bihar is at the bottom. If per capita income is used as the measure of development, Punjab Punjab is the most developed and Bihar is the least developed state.

Q.13. What does this table show?

The first column of the table show that in Kerala out of 1000 children born alive 11 died before completing one year of the age but in Punjab the proportion of the children dying within ne year of the birth is 49, which is nearly 5 times more. also per capita income of Punjab is much more than Kerala. The last column shows that more than half of the children donot go school.
Q. 14. How is it that the average person in Punjab has more income than in Kerala but lags behind in other crucial areas?

A. The reason is that money cannot buy all the goods and services that we need to live a healthy and happy life. Therefore income by itself is not the only adequate indicator of the material goods & services that citizens are able to use.
Q. 15. Why does Kerala has low infant Mortality rate?

A.It is because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities. Which has resulted in better health and nutritional status of the people.

Q. 16.

What are the different questions that arise when we think about development of countries?

The different questions that arise when we think about development of countries are the following: What are the essential things that we require? Can life be better for all? How should people live together? Can there be more equality?

Q.17.

"The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to meet the greed of one". How is the statement relevant to the discussion of the development?
A.This means that there are enough resources to meet the needs of all if they are used judiciously and not over exploited by a few,& depriving the others who need them. Over exploitation of resources has led to their depletion.

Some resources are non-renewable, can not be replenished and will soon get exhausted. Therefore with the greed of a few developed and rich countries the other countries are found to
suffer a shortage of resources.

The statement warns against the modern technology of production, which leads to over
exploitation of resources and further leads to environmental pollution and wastages of resources. It is due to the greed of human beings that the resources are over exploited and the environment is polluted. It is not sustainable. Sustainable development takes care the needs of the present generation as well as the future generation.
Q.18.Why

is Per Capita Income calculated in U.S. dollars?

A.Per Capita Income calculated in U.S. dollars for all the countries so that it can be compared. It is an internationally accepted currency. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.
Q

.19. What would be the development goals or aspirations of the land less rural labourers? Labourers wanted more days of work and better wages. They wanted that local school should provide quality education to their children. They do not want any social discrimination and they wanted to become leaders in the village.

Q.20.

Prove by giving examples that developmental aspirations are some times conflicting each other. Industrialists wanted more dams to get more electricity. On the other hand, tribal people do not want more dams, which submerge their land and disrupt their life.

A girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother but the brother may not like it. Q.21. State any two concepts of development goals. Different persons can have different developmental goals. What may be the development for one may not be the development for the other.
Q.22.

What are the two types of development goals? ( What are the attributes that we consider when we look at individual aspirations and goals?) Money or material things: People wanted regular work, better wages, and decent prices for their crops and thus wanted more income. Non material things: People wanted equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others.
Q.23.Why

do people have different notions of development?

A. Life situation of people are different- they are born and brought up in different situations. Their educational and spiritual thoughts will be different. Their concept of life is different. So their notions of development will be different.
Q.24.Give

two examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives. People wanted equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others. A job with low income but offer regular employment will be more preferred than a job with high pay with no job security. People desire friend ship. It plays an important role in their life style.

Q.25.

Why is greater income to be considered as one of the important national goal of development? Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income. More income means more of all things that human beings need. What ever people like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.

Q.26.

What is per capita income? It is the average income of a citizen. It is calculated by dividing the total income of the country by the population. The per capita income of an Indian is Rs. 28000 in 2004.

Q.27.

How did World Bank classify countries? What criterion did they use? What are its limitations? The World Bank classified countries in to High Income countries, Medium Income countries and LowIncome countries. Countries with per capita income above Rs. 4, 53,000 is considered high income countries. Countries with per capita income between Rs. 4, 53,000 and 37 000 is considered medium

income countries. Countries with per capita income less than Rs.37000 is considered low income countries.

They used per capita income as the criterion to classify countries. Limitations of this criterion are the following:

Per capita income alone cant bring development. Even though per capita income of many countries is very high, it is noticed that the standard of living of the people remained low.
Q.28.

Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations. Or Why do we use averages? What are the limitations to their use? The per capita income or the average income is used to compare economic development of countries. We use averages to identify and analyze performance level in different areas. It is used to compare different situations and to find out the strong and weak points. We use averages to make calculations easier and averages reveal general performance level. There are limitations to their use. Averages will not represent the actual performance. When we take the average of similar performance or similar amount, it is meaningful. However, when we calculate two extremes or a number of very low performances and a very high performance, the average will not tell the exact situation.
Q.29.

Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain. Average income represents the total income of a country keeping in view of the total population. If the average income is adequate to meet, the basic requirement and other facilities that country is considered developed. More income means more of all things that human beings need. What ever people like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.

Q.30.

Besides size of per capita income what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies? Equal distribution of income is important in comparing two or more societies. Utilization effect( what for you use ) of income is also important.
Q.31.

Prove by giving examples that income itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material

goods and services that citizens were able to use. The per capita income of Panjab and Kerala is Rs. 26000 and 22800 by the year 2002 . Though the per capita income of Punjab is much higher than Kerala their infant mortality rate is 49 and it is higher than 11 in Kerala and literacy rate is 70 % in Punjab and 91 % in Kerala. Money cannot buy all the goods and services that we need to live well. It can not buy a pollution free environment or ensure that we get unadulterated medicine.
Q.32.

In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? United Nations Development Programe used three criteria, life expectancy(health status) , literacy rate and per capita income as the criteria to measure human development where as World Bank used per capita income only as the criterion to classify countries. The World Bank considered the economic aspect i.e., the average income only whereas UNDP considered over all achievement in different aspects like health status, educational achievements and average income to measure human development.
Q.33.

What are the three attributes of regional or national developmental aspirations or goals? Per capita income or the average income of a citizen, Infant Mortality Rate or the number of children dying before the age of one year per thousand births and Literacy rate or gross enrolment ratio are three attributes of regional or national developmental aspirations or goals

Q.34.

Find out the present source of energy used by the people in India. What could be the possibilities fifty years from now? At present we use conventional source of energy mostly like coal and petroleum as the major source of energy. Since it is an exhaustible and non renewable source of energy it may not be available after fifty years. We use non conventional source of energy like solar energy, wind energy, and hydel energy to a small extent. After 50 years we have to depend on non conventional sources of energy only or we have to develop a new source of energy.
Q.35.

Why has Kerala a low infant mortality rate and a high literacy rate even though the per capita income is comparatively low? Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities. The Government spent a fair amount of money in the field of health and education. The Public Distribution System functions properly in Kerala and essential goods are supplied at a lower price than the market prices. Therefore, the health and nutritional status of the people is very high.

Q.36.

How do public facilities stand as a clear indicator of development? Money cannot protect you from diseases unless the whole community takes preventive steps. You can not get good education if the provision is not available to all or no one else, other than you, is interested in education. Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities. The Government spent a fair amount of money in the field of health and education. The Public Distribution System functions properly in Kerala and essential goods are supplied at a lower price than the market prices. Therefore, the health and nutritional status of the people is very high.

Why have the scientists of the 2nd half of the 20th century been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable?
Q.37.

It is because the present type and levels of development is not eco friendly. It creates a lot of problems like ozone layer depletion, global warming and environmental pollution. The present type and levels of development is not judicious-there is too much over exploitation of resources causing depletion of resources by which the future generation would suffer.
Q.38.

List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you. Large areas of forests are destroyed in different parts of India. Industrial effluents are disposed and discharged without proper treatment causing land and water pollution.

Q.39.

What should India do to achieve to become a developed country? Per capita income of India should be increased by achieving rapid industrial development and increasing national income and by reducing the population to the size of the resources available in the country. Life expectancy of the people of India should be increased by improving the health status of the people through awareness and immunization programmes, maternal and child health care and improving overall medical facilities in India. Literacy rate and Gross Enrolment Ratio should be increased by effective implementation of the constitutional provision to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 and by launching various education programmes.

Q.40.Give

two examples to show that collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual Collective security for the whole locality is cheaper than individual security to each house. A pond or a playground for all people will be cheaper than individual ones.

provision.

Q. 41. Mention any four characteristics of development? Ans .

Different people have different development goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be destructive for other. Income is the most important component of development, but along with income, people also seek equal treatment, good health, peace, literacy, etc. For development, people look at mix goals. Q.42.. What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development? Ans. Under national development, the government decides what would be a fair and just path for all. Under national development, only those programmes and policies are implemented which would benefit a large number of people. Under national development, it is very important to decide about the conflicts and their solutions. Under national development, we have to think whether there is a better way of doing things. Q. 43. What contributes to the human development? Ans . There are many economic as well as non-economic factors which contribute to the human development. Living a long and health life. To have education, information and knowledge. Enjoying a decent standard of living. Enjoying basic fundamental rights like freedom, security, education etc. To have equality and enjoyment of human rights.

Q.44. What is the importance of Human development Index? Ans.


It indicates the level of development of a country. It indicates to a country how far it has travelled, and how far it has yet to travel to achieve a high rank Through it one comes to know the important elements of economic welfare like life expectancy, level of education attainment and read per capita income. Q.45. Human development is the essence of social development. Explain.

Ans.
Human development focuses on the people. It is concerned with the well being of the people, their needs, choices and aspirations. All these help in building a right kind of society. It is all about the enlarging or widening the choices for the people. It is the building of human capabilities, such as education, information and knowledge, to have opportunities of livelihood.

Human development focuses on the expansion of basic choices. Q.46. What are the limitation of the per capital income criteria of development? Or Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well. Explain

Ans.
Per capital income of Punjab is higher than Kerala but still in lacks behind in education and health facilities. In Kerala, out of 1000 children born alive, 11 die before completing one year of age but in Punjab the proportion of children dying is 49, which is nearly 5 times more. Money or higher per capita income cannot buy a pollution free environment or good health. Money cannot buy peace and democracy. Q. 47. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion?

Ans.
Rich or High income countries: Countries with per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004, are called rich countries. Poor or low income countries: The countries with per capital income of Rs 37,000 or less, are called low income countries. India comes in the category of low income countries because its per capital income in 2004 was just Rs 28,000.

Limitations:

It covers only the economic aspects ignoring peace, health, environment, education, longevity, etc. The method does not provide us the distribution of income. Q.48. Explain two main reasons for the need of environment friendly economic growth and two suggestions to achieve them.

Ans.
A REASONS FOR NEED OF ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY ECONOMIC GROWTH: Present production technology has polluted atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, smoke and poisonous gases. Rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources.

SUGGESTION TO ACHIEVE IT :

Increased use of renewable and clean sources of energy, less use of fossil fuels, organic farming. Measures to reduce global warming and global limits on carbon emission, etc. Q. 49. How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain three measures to control environment degradation.

Ans.
Industrial pollution degrades the environment in the following ways : Air is polluted by the gases. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain particles. Industrial effluents pollute rivers.Paper pulp, textiles, chemicals, etc industries pollute land and soil due to toxic materials.

Steps to control : Careful planning and setting of industries. Better equipment. Proper fuel selection and utilization. Use of oil instead of coal. Treatment of industrial liquids. .

Q.50. What are the efforts made by the government in the field of health?

Ans.
In the plan-period, the mortality rate declined to nearly 9 per thousand and infant mortality has come down to 70 per thousand live births. Similarly maternal mortality rate has also declined. Efforts have been made to overcome the nutritional problems in the country and considerable progress has been achieved. Smallpox has been completely eradicated and malaria, T.B., leprosy, filaria, etc has also been controlled to a large extent. There has been a large increase in the number of hospitals, doctors, nurses, and compounders and the extension of health facilities in the country. Special attention is being given to the extension of health facilities in the rural areas and small progress has also been made in this direction. Q.51. What are the limitations of per capita income?

Ans.
A rise in per capital income is due to rise in prices and not due to increase in physical output, it is not a reliable index of economic development. National income rises but its distribution makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.

In excludes all non-marketed goods and services, even though they may be important for human happiness and better quality of life. Rise in per capital income may be due to use of modern capital intensive technology in production which may be labour displacing in nature thus adversely affecting the poor masses. If rate of population growth, is higher than the rate of growth of national income, this will lead to fall in per capital availability of goods and services and economic welfare. Q.52. What measures should be adopted by the underdeveloped countries to protect environmental degradation and promote sustainable development?

Ans.
Property rights must be assigned to individual or groups of people on natural resources. Government should impose cost on the users in the form of fee or taxes. Efforts should be made to replenish renewable resources such as forests and water resources. Stricter regulations must be enforced to ensure pollution under control.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q.1 What is meant by sustainable economic development? Give its main features.

Ans: Sustainable development may be defined as development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the need of ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. Environment and economy are inter-dependent and complementary to each other. Hence the process of development should not ignore environmental issues. The main features of sustainable development are as follow: (i) It stresses meeting the needs of the present generation and future generation. (ii) There should be restraints on wasteful luxurious consumption pattern. (iii) Efforts should be made to invent environment friendly technology. (iv) Fast growing population should be effectively checked.
Q.2. What is human development index? Who has prepared it? Write about basic components of human development measurement.

Ans : Human development index is the cumulative measurement of the overall development of the people of a country. It was prepared by United Nation Development Organization and it is published by UNDP.

The basic components of human development index are as follow: a. Life expectancy at birth- It denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. It is measured in terms of life expectancy in years. b. Literacy- It is measured by gross enrolment ratio for three levels means enrolment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school. c. Per capita income- It is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.
Q.3.The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other

important things in life. Discuss. Ans : Besides seeking more income, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others. They resent discrimination. All these are important goals. In fact in some cases, these may be more important than more income because material goods are not all that one need to live. Money or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of our life also depends on non-material things. There are many things that are not easily measured but they mean a lot to our lives. For example, if a person get a job in a far off place, before accepting it one would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as facilities for the family, working atmosphere etc. In another case a job may give less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances the sense of security. Hence the development goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
Q.4.How is that average person in Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but lags

behind in other crucial areas? Ans : Money in the pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that one may need to live well. For example money cannot buy a pollution free environment or ensure to get unadulterated medicines. Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases, unless the whole of your community takes preventive steps. Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and education facilities. Similarly the public distribution system functions well. If some ration shop does not function properly in such places, the people there are able to get the problem rectified. Health and nutritional status of people of such states is certainly likely to be better. Hence, Punjab lags behind Kerala in other crucial areas.

Q.5.Mention some of the examples where collective provision of goods and service is cheaper than

individual provisions. Ans : Following are some of the examples where the collective provisions of goods and services are cheaper than individual provisions : (i) Hospital : Public hospital will certainly be cheaper and better in comparison to have medical facilities privately . (ii) Electricity : Electricity from state electricity board is cheaper than having a generator in the house.

(iii) Education : Education from government school is better and cheaper than taking private tution at home. (iv) Security : It will be cheaper to have collective security for the whole locality than for each house to have its own security man..

PASSAGE BASED QUESTION ANSWERS

Read the following passage and answer the given questions :


One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index (BMI) . This is easy to calculate . Take the weight of the person in kg. Then take height in metres .Divide the weight by the square of the height . If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished . However, if this BMI is more than 25, than a person is overweight. Do remember that this criterion is not applicable to growing children . (I) Why do we calculate BMI ? Ans : We calculate BMI to know about the state of nourishment of a person . (II) How do we calculate BMI ? Ans : This is easy to calculate . Take the weight of a person in kg. Then take the height in metres. Divide the weight by the square of the height. If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. However , if this BMI is more than 25, then a person is overweight. (III) Why is BMI not applicable to growing children? Ans : BMI is not applicable to growing children because children will have different weight according to their age group.

Chapter 1 : Development
Development Different People, Different Goals. Different persons can have different development goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be destructive for the other.

Income and Other Goals : More income; equal treatment; freedom; Job security; facilities for family; environment (healthy & secure).

Concept of National Development : World Development Report 2006, In 2004 countries with per capita income of Rs. 453000 per annum are called rich or developed countries. Those with per capita income of Rs.37000 or less are called low income countries. Human Development Report 2006 published by UNDP, Development is based on per capita income, educational levels of the people and their health status.

Sustainability: The regular process without harming the productivity of future generation and satisfy the need of present generation. Sustainable Development: Development without damaging surrounding. Average Income: Total income of the country divided by its total population. Also known as per capita income. National Income: Sum of value of final goods produced within the country and income from foreign factors. Infant Mortality Rate : The number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year. Literacy Rate: The proportion of literate population in the 7 and above, age group. Net attendance Ratio: The total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

Developed economics: These are those economic which are characterized by high level of per capita income and high standard of living. Developing Economic: Those economics which are passing through the stages of growth and development. In such economics significance of agriculture tends to decline whereas the industrial sector grows sharply. Economy: It is a sum total of all the economic activities like production, consumption distribution, exchange etc. National income: It is the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus the net income from abroad during a year. Underdeveloped economics: Under developed economics are the economics which are characterized by low level of per capita income and miserable standard of living. Literacy Rate: Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group. Public Distribution System (PDS) or Ration Shops: PDS ensures availability of essential commodities like wheat, rice, sugar etc. to the consumers through the network of outlets or fair price shops. It checks the forces of supply and demand. The prices are fixed by the government. Sustainable Economic Development: It means that development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

Development
It pertains to the growth of an individual, a society, a nation or the entire world. Development involves thinking about the betterment of life and working towards progress.

Development goals are different for different people according to their needs. What may be
development for one may prove to be destructive for the other. E.g. Industrialists may require dams for the generation of electricity for propelling their industries. The same dams may be resented by those who are displaced from their homes.

Most Common Developmental Goals


Increase in income Equal treatment Freedom Security End of discrimination Decent standard of living

All developmental goals are co-related.

National Development It refers to the progress of the nation as a whole. The policy decisions that benefit a large section of a countrys population lead to national development. Attributes of National Development National Income It is the sum total of the incomes of all the residents of the country. Countries with higher incomes are considered more developed than those with less income. Per Capita Income (PCI) It is the average income earned by each person of the country in a year. It establishes a relationship between the income and population of a country. Countries with higher PCI are considered developed as it determines the amount of money at the disposal of each person of the country. World Bank uses PCI for classifying countries as developed and developing in its World Development Report. However, PCI hides the inequalities in income in the society. Indias current PCI is approximately Rs. 38000. In India, the PCI of Punjab is highest while that of Bihar is the lowest.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) It is the number of children that die before attaining one year of age as a proportion of 1000 live births in a year. It indicates the development of health facilities in a country. In India, Kerala has the lowest IMR while Bihar has the highest. Literacy Rate It is the number of people above 7 years of age who are able to read and write with understanding. More is the literacy rate, more developed a country will be. India has a literacy rate of 64%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate and Bihar has the lowest. Body Mass Index (BMI) It is the ratio of the height and weight of a person. It is a major indicator of the health of a person. If the BMI is less than 18.5, then the person is undernourished and if it is more than 25, then a person is considered overweight.
How is calculated: Take the weight of a person in Kg and then take the height in metres. Divide the weight by square of height, if this figure is less than 18.5 then the person is undernourished and if it is more than 25 than the person is overweight. This is though not applicable to the growing children.

Human Development Report Published annually by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) since 1990. Compares countries on the basis of education levels, health status and per capita income in order to gauge their development. Development is measured on the basis of four indices:
Human Development Index (HDI) Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)


Human Poverty Index (HPI) Of the four, HDI is the most important. It ranks 177 countries of the world on the basis of three indicators: Life Expectancy at Birth

Literacy rate : for population above 15 years of age and gross enrollment ratio for the primary, secondary and higher education levels. Per Capita Income Indias rank on HDI 2009 is 131 and it is rated as a medium-developing country with an HDI of 0.612.

Sustainable Development It refers to a concept of maintaining the present development in such a way that it becomes available to the future generations. Whatever development is taking place currently must be sustainable enough that it can be used by the generations to come. Over-utilization of non-renewable resources has posed a serious threat of their extinction, which means the future generations will not be able to reap their benefits.