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CLASS 10 CORE ASSIGNMENT Topic: Life processes ( Half yearly)

Sub Topic: Transportation in plants and animals Q1. What are the components of the transport system in humans? Ans. Human transport system has 2 components: blood vascular system and lymphatic system Blood vascular system consists of blood, blood vessels, and heart. Lymphatic system consists of lymph, lymph nodes and lymph vessels Q2. What is the composition of blood? Ans. Blood is made up of plasma and 3 types of cells: Red blood cells ( transport oxygen and contain haemoglobin) , White blood cells( phagocytosis of germ cells) and blood platelets( blood clotting). Q3. Explain the different blood vessels. Ans. Arteries: take the oxygenated blood from heart to other body parts.( except pulmonary artery) Veins: take deoxygenated blood towards heart from various body parts( except pulmonary vein) Capillaries: carry out exchange of materials between blood and living cells. Q4. State the functions of lymph. Ans. 1) Collection of extra tissue fluid and passing it back into blood. 2) attracting and carrying germs to the lymph nodes. 3) picks up digested fats from the alimentry canal for pouring into blood. Q5. State the functions of blood. Ans. 1) transport of nutrients 2) transport of oxygen 3) transport of carbon dioxide 4) ) transport of hormones and 5) regulation of body temperature. Q6.Distinguish between arteries and veins. Arteries Carry blood from heart to organs. Veins Carry blood from organs to heart.

Blood flow is rapid. Blood flows with jerks. Blood flows under pressure. Thick walled.

Blood flow is slow. Blood flows smoothly. Blood flows at little pressure. Thin walled.

Q7. Describe double circulation in human heart. Ans. Left atriumLeft ventricleAorta body parts vena cava right atriumright ventriclepulmonary arterylungs pulmonary vein left atrium Q8. Draw a well labelled diagram of human heart diagram.

Q9. Name the components of transport system in plants. Ans. Xylem ( that moves water and minerals from soil to aerial parts), phloem ( that carries food from leaves or storage organs to the areas of utilisation.)

Q10. Define transpiration and write its advantages. Ans. Its the loss of water in the form of water vapour from the exposed part of a plant. Importance: Cooling, transport of water and minerals, loosing excess water and rising water till the top of a plant.

Q11. Draw a diagram showing transpiration from aerial surface causing ascent of sap.

Ascent of sap: its the upward movement of absorbed water from roots to the top of the plant. Its also called transpiration pull. Q12.Why do birds and mammals have a septum between the right and left sides of heart? Ans. These animals spend a lot of energy in keeping their body temperature, this mechanism provides efficient supply of oxygen to all body parts. Q13.Explain the heart structure in reptiles and amphibians. Ans. These organisms have a 3 chambered heart as, the energy needs are lesser because the body temp. Varies with the temp. of the environment. Q14. Explain the heart structure of a fish. Ans. The heart is 2 chambered in fishes. The blood is oxygenated in the gills and then transported to The rest of the body. Q15. What are the differences between xylem and phloem? Xylem Conducts water Has only 1 type of living tissue Has two types of conducting elements ie tracheids and vessels Phloem Conducts food Has 3 types of living tissues Has only 1 type of conducting elements ie sieve tubes.

Q16. Distinguish between: blood and lymph Blood Red in colour Opaque Contains rbcs Contains platelets Q17. Define: Ans. 1) Transpiration: The loss of water in the form of water vapour from the aerial parts of the plant 2) Translocation: The transport of soluble products of photosynthesis from leaves to the other Parts of plant body is called translocation. Lymph Pale yellow in colour Semi transparent Rbcs are absent absent

Q18. What is root pressure? Ans. Salts accumulated in the basal part of the xylem cause osmotic entry of water into xylem and Form a column of water. It creates a positive pressure called root pressure. However, it is unable to push water to great heights. Q19. What is blood pressure . How is it measured? Ans. It is the pressure exerted by flow of blood on the elastic wall of arteries. Its measured by an Instrument called sphygmomanometer. Q20. What is the role of septum? Ans. It prevents the mixing of oxy and deoxygenated blood in animals likehumans and birds to ensure the efficient supply of blood to all body parts.