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Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

Textual Questions
Q#1 i. Ans. ii. Ans. iii. Ans. Answer the following questions briefly: What are reserved forests. Already given What percentage of India is covered with forests? In India, the total land area under forests cover is about 76.5 million hectares which is about 23% of the total geographical area. What is a natural park? National parks are the reserved forests where natural vegetation, natural beauty and wild life are preserved in the natural environment.

A national park is relatively large area where one or several ecosystems exist and where animal and plai1t species and natural habitats of animals are preserved for education and recreational purposes. iv. Why is irrigation necessary in India? Ans. Irrigation is necessary because of the following reasons: a. The irrigated area in India has increased by four terms since independence. b. Most of the cultivable land in India depends on the rains brought" by monsoons, which sometimes come too early and other times too late and thus upsetting the agricultural operations. c. Rains brought by the monsoons are unevenly distributed all over the country. d. Timely and adequate irrigation ensures the productivity and quality of crops. e. Most of the rains in India are concentrated only in few months. v What is a river valley project? What are uses of a river valley project? Ans. The projects which are constructed on the river valleys for multi purposes functions are called river valley projects. These projects are meant to tackle various problems associated with river valleys. The various functions of the river valley projects are as following: a. They control floods. b. They check soil erosion. c. They provide us water for irrigation and drinking purposes. d. They help us in generating electricity for our industries, villages, cities and towns. e. They provide us inland navigational facilities. f. They help us in the preservation of wild life and development of fisheries. g. They provide us recreational facilities. vi Name the states which have got more than 40% of the net sown area under irrigation. Ans. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Predesh, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu and Manipur have more than 40% of their net sown area under irrigation. vii What is rain water harvesting? Ans. It is a technique of capturing and storing rain water into dug wells, check dams and percolation pits in order to increase the recharge of ground water. Rainwater is stored is ground water reservoirs by adopting artificial recharge techniques in order to meet the household needs through storage in tanks. The objectives of rainwater harvesting are: a. To meet the increasing demand of water. b. To reduce the wastage of rainwater which drains off the ground into the rivers, oceans and seas. c. To avoid flooding of roads and fields. d. To raise the level of the water table. e. To reduce groundwater pollution. f. To improve the quality of ground water. g. To meet the water requirements during summer and long dry spells. viii Name National parks of the state of J&K Ans. The National parks of the state of J & K are: 1

Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

ix Ans. Q#2 Ans.

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Q#4 Ans.

1. Dachigam National Park (Srinagar). 2. Bemis High Altitude Park (Lch). 3. High Altitude National Park (Kishtawar) Where in our state are wildlife sanctuaries located? The wildlife sanctuaries in our state are located at Overa (Phalgam) Ramnagar (Jammu) Nandni (Jammu) Swinsai Mansar (Jammu). How are forests useful to man? Forests are important natural resources which contribute a lot in the economic development of a state or a nation. Forests are useful to man in the following ways: i. They playa great role in enhancing the quality of environment. ii. They modify the climate of a place. iii. They stop the soil erosion. iv. They regulate the water flow of streams. v. They support a variety of industries. vi. They provide livelihood for many countries and offer opportunities for recreation. vii. They reduce wind force and influence the temperature of a place. viii. They add leaves, twigs and branches to the forest floor, which after decomposition form soil. ix. They provide timber, fuel wood, industrial wood, fodder and similar other products which are of great economic value. x. They also provide natural habitat for wildlife. Describe the methods of forest conservation. The conservation of forests is a national problem which is needed to be tackled with perfect coordination between the forest deptt. and other departments. The participation of the common people in the conservation of forests is equally important. Afforestation programmes must be encouraged tin the areas which are unsuitable for crop cultivation. It is also important that people are educated about the importance of trees. All national day celebration progran1mes must follow a programme of tree plantation. Van Mahotsava must be celebrated with zeal and vigour throughout the country. Besides the national forest policy holds the following objectives regarding the protection, conservation and development of forests in the country: i. Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance. ii. Check on soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. iii. Substantial increase in the forest tree cover through massive afforestation programmes. iv. Steps to meet the local requirements of wood, fuel, fodder etc by the rural and tribal people. v. Increase in the productivity of forests to meet needs at national level. vi. Encouragement of proper utilization of forests and optimum substitution of wood. Describe the importance of water in life. Water is an inexhaustible gift of nature, without which life on earth is not possible. But its uneven distribution in the space and time has often threatened our economic development, livelihood and human welfare. The shortage of water is increasing by every day because of the rapid growth in population, rising demand for food and cash crops, increasing urbanisation and rising standard of living. These will further increase the acuteness of the problem of water scarcity in future. The regular supply of the drinking water is the basic need of the life. Despite of the efforts made by the government in increasing the drinking water facilities, there is still wide gap found between the demand for water and supply of water. Inspite of the fact that there has been a tremendous improvement in the irrigational facilities since independence, yet there is two-thirds of the cropped area entirely dependent on the rains. The increasing number of the wells and tube wells has lowered the water table level and has caused depletion of under ground water. 2

Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

Q#5 Ans.

Q#7 Ans.

Keeping in view the above facts, the Importance of water is quite clear. Government has now taken some steps in their regard. Water conservation technique, watershed development and water harvesting are some of the steps taken by the government in this direction. Why are the Himalayan rivers perennial while the peninsular rivers seasonal? Most of the rivers coming from the Himalayas have got their sources in the glaciers or in the snow fields. They keep flowing throughout the year and are thus perennial in nature. On the other hand, the rivers rising from India peninsular largely depend on the monsoons which shed rains during a certain period of time and are thus seasonal in nature. Name important Multi-purpose projects of India and the rivers on which they are located. Also name the states which are benefitted by the projects. The important river valley projects and the rivers on which they are located along with the states which are benfitted by these projects are as under: 1. Damodar valley project on river Damodar. The major beneficiant of this project are Jharkhand and West Bangal. 2. Bhakra Mangal Project on river Satluj benefits Punjab. Haryana, Rajasthan and Orissa 3. Hirakud on river Mahanadi benefits Orissa. 4. Kosi project on river Kori benefits Bihar and Nepal. 5. Chanbal valley project on river chambal benefits M.p and Rajasthan. 6. Tungobhaia project on river tungabhadra benefits kamataka and Andhra Pradesh. 7. Nagarjuna Sagar on river Krishna benefits Andhra Pradesh. 8. Naumada valley on river Namada benefits Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat and Rajasthan. 9. Indira Gandhi canal (Rajasthan canal) longest land of the world on river be as and satluj benefits Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Additional Questions
Q#1 Ans. What is a soil? What are the different kinds of soils? The word 'soil' is derived from a Latin word "solum" which means floor or ground. Generally speaking soil is the loose surface of the earth consisting of clay, sand, stones, minerals, humus etc. This is that layer of the earth where all kinds of vegetation grow. It is due to weathering and other erosional agents that even big rocks are broken into pieces' and soil is formed. How much of the total India land is under irrigation? The total India land under irrigation is about 85 million hectares. What percentage 9f net sown area is under irrigation? It is about 38% of the net sown area which is under irrigation. What is the percentage of net irrigated area to net sown area in Mizoram and Punjab? What do we understand from this fact? , Mizoram has 7.3% of net sown area under irrigation while as it is 90.8% in the state of Punjab. We understand from this fact that the percentage of net irrigated area to that of net sown area varies from state to state. Name the areas of the country which are intensely irrigated by the different sources of irrigation. The deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri, the costal area of Andhra Predesh, Orrisa and Tamil Nadu, and the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Bihar are intensely irrigated areas of the country. What are the three major sources of irrigation in India? The three major sources of irrigation in India are wells and tube wells, canals and tanks. i. Wells and tube wells: - Wells and tube wells are the main source of irrigation in India. These wells are quite common in the states of Punjab, Haryana, U.P., Rajesthan, Gujrat and Maharastra, It is because of the soft soil and plenty of rain found in these areas. 3

Q#2 Ans. Q#3 Ans. Q#4 Ans.

Q#5 Ans.

Q#6 Ans.

Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

ii. Canals: - Canals are the second important method of irrigation in India. Canals are quite common in the states of Punjab, Haryana, U.P., Andra Predesh and Tamil Nadu. iii. Tanks: - Tanks are commonly used in the eastern and southern states of India. Andra Predesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are the three main states where tank irrigation is very common because of scarcity of water. Q#7 What are the different techniques we can use to increase the recharge of groundwater? Ans. The techniques available to us to increase the recharge of groundwater include: a. The construction of dug wells, percolation pits and trenches around our fields. b. The construction of check dams on river streams. c. Roof water can be also collected and stored in tanks and trenches dug below the ground. Q#8 What points should we keep in mind for efficient management of water? Ans. We should keep the following points in mind for efficient management of water resources: a. Creating awareness among the common people and involve them in all such activities which are concerned with water conservation and proper management of water resources. b. Educating the people that they never use the treated water for watering their gardens, washing vehicles and toilets and wash basins. c. Preventing of pollution of water bodies. d. Registering of wells, tube wells and bore wells. e. Checking of wells, tube wells and bore wells in order to stop the drying up of underground aquifers. f. Immediate repairing of the water supply pipelines wherever needed in order to prevent the wastage and pollution of water. Q#9 What is watershed development. Ans. The water shed is the basin of a tributary. In other words it is the area through which rainwater flows and drains into a tributary or a stream. Water shed, thus is the natural gifted area which can be used for the development of small natural unit areas. The watershed development is an encouraging step which includes soil and moisture conservation, water harvesting, afforestation, horticulture and pasture development and upgradation of land resources. We should take into consideration the capacity of the land and local needs of the people before such plans are carried soil. It is thus necessary that we get local people involve in such programmes in order to achieve better and. successful results. Q#10 What is a bio-reserve? Ans. A bio-reserve is a multipurpose protected area to preserve the genetic diversity in the representative ecosystem. It is one of the main steps towards conservation and protection of our great biological diversity. In each biosphere reserve, the core preserves the wild life, flora and fauna in their natural farms. The surrounding zone is utilized for research and experimentation in forests and other products and the periphery is used for agricultural research and development. Q#11 What is a wild life sanctuary? Ans. A wild life sanctuary is a reserved area which is dedicated to protect wildlife and conserve species. The wildlife sanctuaries in our state area at over (Phalgam), Ramnagar (Jammu) Nandi (Jammu) and Surinsar (Jammu). Q#12 Write short note on conservation of wild life: Ans. Wild animals are an important link in our food chain and help in maintaining the ecological balance. The dwindling numbers of various wild animals is alarming particularly since the 1940's the drastic reduction in wild life was attributed to unregulated hunting for fun or food and distinction of natural habitat due to increasing population. Disappearance of wildlife is symptomatic of the global ecological destabilisation and large scale resource depletion. The national wildlife action plan adopted in 1983, provides the strategy as well as programme for the conservation of wildlife. There are about 89 national parks, 490 sanctuaries and 13 biosphere reserves in the country. The act prohibits trade in rare and endangered species. The act also provides for financial and technical assistance for the development and management of national parks and 4

Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

Q#13 Ans.

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Q#16 Ans. Q#17 Ans. Q#18 Ans. Q#19 Ans. Q#20 Ans. Q#21 Ans.

bioreserves control of poaching and illegal trade in wildlife products. development of zoos and their upkeep maintenance and veterinary care of animals along with projects like Project Tiger, Project Elephant and Project Rhino under Project Tiger 27 Tiger reserves have been setup in 14 state and under project elephant, financial, technical and scientific assistance are provided for population of elephants in natural habitat. What is deference between forest area and forest cover? Forest area includes large area without forest cover. The total forest area in lndia is 76. 5 million hactarcs that is about 23.3 percent of the total geographical area. Forest cover includes areas actually covered with forests. The total forest. cover in India is 63.7 million hactares accounting to 19. 4 percent of the total geographical area. Give a brief account of distribution of rainfall in India? The average annual rainfall in India as a whole is estimated at 117 cm in a year. It is less than 20 cm in the part of the Thar desert more than 200 em in eastern India and western coastal tracts of the peninsular plateau and between 50 and 200 cm in the rest of India. Give the difference between surface water and ground water resource? Amount of water available on the land that is in rivers, ponds, lakes, streams, tanks and reservoirs. Constitute the surface water resource the river is the main source of surface water. The mean annual flow of the Indian rivers is estimated to be about 1869 billion cubic metres, out of which 6QO billion cubic meters or 36.92 percent can be utilised. The variation in availability is due to variation in precipitation. Ground water resource: - Rainwater which seeps through the permeable rocks and soil and is stored in the layers of the rocks is called ground water resource. It can be used only when taken out through wells and tube wells or when reappears on the ground as springs or geysers. Replenishable ground water potential in India is about 434 billion cubic meters but so far, we have been able to utilise only 37% of the available ground water resource. The variation in the ability depends upon the type of soil and vegetation. How arc coral reefs characterised? Coral reefs are characterised by high bio-mass production and rich floral and faunal diversity. Where do we find wild sheep, mountain goat lesser panda and snow leopard in India? We find them in Himalaya ranges How many wet lands are in India? There are 20 wet lands in India. What percent of the net sown area is under irrigation? It is about 38%. What are the main causes of growing scarcity of water? i. Rapidly growing population ii. Rising demand for food and cash crops iii. Increasing urbanisation iv. Rising standard of living. What is the average annual rainfall in India? It is 117cm in a year.

Q#23 What is the mean annual flow of Indian rivers? Ans. It is estimated about 1869 billion cubic metre (bcm). Q#24 What is the replenshible ground water potential in India? Ans. It is estimated to be about 434 cubic metres. Q#25 What is a coral reef? Ans. Coral reefs are those areas which have been identified for intensive conservation and management purpose coral reefs are characterised by the high biomass production and rich floral and faunal diversity. Four coral reefs have been already identified for the conservation and management purposes of rich floral and faunal diversity. 5

Class 10th

FORESTS

Geography

Coral reef is an offshore ridge by the secretions of small marine animals corals flourish in shallow waters over 21C and need abundant sunlight, so the water must be mud free and shallow. Q#26 What is meant by Hydrology? Ans. Hydrology is the scientific study of the distribution and properties of water with in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, including precipitation, euaporation, evapotranspiration runoff, soil moisture and groundwater and the mass of balance of glaciers and snow packs. Q#27 What are the objectives of rainwater harvesting. Ans. 1. To meet the increasing demand for water. 2. To reduce runoff 3. To prevent flooding of roads. 4. To reduce groundwater pollution. 5. To improve the quality of ground water. 6. To supplement domestic water requirement during summer and long dry spells. Q#28 What arc the major sources of irrigation in India? Name the regions where they are used? Ans. Canals, tanks, waals and tubewells are the major sources of irrigation practised in India. a. Canal irrigation is practised in northern India and the deltas on the eastern coastal plains. b. Tanks are common mainly in South India, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. c. Walls and tubewells are used in U.P, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana. Q#29 What are the different types of forest from administrative point of view? Ans. For the purpose of administration forests are classified in the following types: 1. Reserved forests: - The forests which are permanently kept reserved either to the production of timber or other forest products and in which right of grazing and cultivation is seldom allowed are called reserved forests. 2. Protected forests: - The forests in which right of grazing and cultivation is allowed subject to certain minor restrictions are called protected forests. 3. Un classed forests: - The forests which are either unaccessible or consist of largely unoccupied wastes are called unclassed forests. Q#30 Give the percentage of the following: 1. Reserved forests: - 54. 4% 2. Protected forests: - 29.2% 3. Unclassed forests: - 16.4% Q#31 How much of the total geographical area is under forests cover? Ans. The area under forests cover is about 76.5 million hectares which is about 23% of the total geographical area. Q#32 Name five major divisions of natural vegetation found in India. Ans. The five major divisions of natural vegetation are: i. Tropical evergreen forests. ii. Tropical deciduous forests. iii. Thorny forests. iv. Tidal forests. Mountain or Alpine forests