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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670 Line Differential Protection IED Introduction, Functionality, Application, Principles of operation

ABB AB, 2007 2008-01-30 1

Substation Automation and Protection Training

Contents

Introduction Functionality Application Principal of operation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

Contents

Introduction Functionality Application Principal of operation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Introduction

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Introduction


Application Areas

Multi-terminal lines with communication to 4 remote line ends Multi-terminal lines with transformers in the protected zone Tapped lines Tapped lines with transformers Short lines Long lines with charging current compensation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Introduction Some features:


Line differential terminal for:


All voltage levels OH-lines and cables Double circuit lines Series compensated lines Single and two pole tripping Optional protection functions Digital communication between line ends Route switched communication networks Easy upgrading from 2 terminal to tapped line protection

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Introduction User Friendly Package


Pre-selected set of functions: configured and tested First Alternative: Single-Breaker application

Functionality for all over-head and cable lines: The user can order this version and apply it directly Three-pole or single/three pole trip

Second Alternative: Multi-Breaker application


Functionality for all over-head and cable lines: The user can order this version and apply it directly Breaker related functions for each breaker Three-pole or single/three pole trip

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

Contents

Introduction Functionality Application Principal of operation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Functionality User Friendly Package: Single breaker


Line differential function


Over-/Undervoltage protection

Main function of the IED clearing all shunt faults


Often required equipment protection

Phase overcurrent protection


Residual over voltage protection


Simple back-up short circuit protection


Simple and sensitive earth fault protection

Residual overcurrent protection


Pole Discordance protection


Simple back-up earth fault protection


Limitation of consequences of unsymmetrical breaker function

Breaker failure protection


Distance Protection (option)


Essential in a local redundant fault clearance system

Best redundancy at communication failure

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Functionality


Fuse Failure detection


Power Swing Blocking (option) Disturbance recording


Necessary to avoid protection malfunction (voltage related) Enables choice of trip possibilities, 1 or 3 pole trip at single phase faults Standard functionality to increase network availability To avoid dangerous breaker closing

Trip logic

Essential for analysis of disturbances Primary fault classification Check of fault clearance

Autoreclosing

Fault clearance time Selectivity Over/Under function

Synchrocheck

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Functionality Multi-breaker


Same as single breaker with addition: STUB Protection


Auotoreclosing for two breakers


Sequential

Fault clearance of faulted 1 breaker diagonal, when line out

Syncrocheck for two breakers Pole discordance for two breakers Trip logic for two breakers

Breaker Failure protection for two breakers


Necessary for power system security

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Functionality Line Protection: Distance/Differential Protection


Distance Protection

Differential Protection

Local measurements of voltage and current Enables remote back-up protection Communication not primarily needed Great Flexibility Independent of IED at the other line end

Instantaneous fault clearance Absolute selectivity Best for Multi-terminal lines High sensitivity Not sensitive for power swing Suitable for series compensated systems Suitable for protection of short lines Easy to set

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Functionality Differential and Distance Protection


Differential Protection: Dependent of communication Distance protection in RED 670: Selective back-up protection if the communication is unavailable The distance protection will also serve as protection (main protection or back-up protection) for the adjacent bus bar.

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

Contents

Introduction Functionality Application Principal of operation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application with up to 5 ends

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application with three ends and 2 CT per bay

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application with transformer in the zone

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application problems Transformer Inrush Current Stabilisation


Heavy internal fault

Second harmonic blocking normally causes delayed operation in case of CT saturation

CT saturation will cause a second harmonic component in the secondary current


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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application problems Transformer Inrush Current


current in pu
10.0 phase L3 current

5.0

iL1 iL2 iL3


-5.0 0.0

CB closes

phase L1 current

20

40

60

80

100

time in ms

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If Transformer in the zone: Inrush Current: Differential Current Detection: 2nd Harmonic and 5th Harmonic As in normal transformer differential protection
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RED 670, Application problems Transformer Over excitation

If Transformer in the zone: Over excitation: Differential Current Detection: 5th Harmonic As in normal transformer differential protection

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application problems Current transformer saturation

Primary Current

Secondary Current

High Degree of Harmonics (2nd and 5th)


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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Application Charging Current


Ic1 Idiff,false = Ic1 + Ic2 Ic2

RED 670

Communication

RED 670

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

Contents

Introduction Functionality Application Principal of operation

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

REL 551/561 Current information

Fourier coefficient Iphase = f(t) = f(f) + f(f) f(f) = a*sin f t + b*cos f t


a and b transmitted and evaluated together with check bits

Minimum transmission demand Maximum security Reduced influence from charging currents a and b transmitted every 5 ms

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

REL 551/561Trip Evaluation Logic


Evaluation every 5 ms Trip at 2 or 3 tripevaluations out of 4 evaluations

Moving

Window
0 0 0 0 T T 0 T 0 0 0 0 0

5 ms
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2/3 of 4

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation


Time tagged instantaneous sampled values Remote Communication Local anlogue inputs
Line end E Line end D Line end C Line end B Line end A2 Line end A1

Differential Protection algorithm

iin

I= O + charging current

iout

id

All currents iin , iout & id are calculated from phase current values from all line ends

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation


Sampled values collected every ms Communication message sent every 5 ms Each communication message contains 5 sets of sampled values
0 0 0 0 0 T 1 2 3 4 5

Trip enabled with 5 consecutive sample sets calculated to trip 1 or 2 messages required depending on fault incidence point

1 2

T 3 4 5

5 ms
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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation General princips


Main biased differential current function Complementary functions


Negative sequence fault discriminator 2nd harmonic restrain 5th harmonic restrain

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation Simplified block diagram


CH1IL1IM CH1IL2RE CH1IL2IM Currents from all ends as phasors CH1IL1SM CH1IL2SM CH1IL3SM CH2IL1SM Curr. samples from all ends

Calculation of fundamental Magnitudes of frequency differential differential currents currents (3x) & bias current
Bias current

Differential and bias currents applied to operate / bias-, and unrestrained characteristics

>= 1
Start L1 Start L2 Start L2

TRIP

Output logic:
- 2nd harmonic block, - 5th harmonic block, -Cross-block logic - Enhanced trip for internal faults, - Blocked trip for external faults - Trip allowed for external and simultaneous internal faults - Conditional extra delay for trip signals

TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TRIPRES TRIPUNRE TRNSUNRE TRNSSE NS START STL1 STL2 STL3 BLK2H BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5H BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 INTFAULT E XTFAULT

[samples]

5th h. block CH1INSRE CH1INSIM CH1INSRE CH1INSIM [real, imag]

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Neg. seq. currents from all ends as phasors

Calculation of negativesequence differential current (1x)

Two to six contributions to neg. seq. differential current as phasors

Disturbance detected with high sensitivity and characterized as internal or external

Internal fault External fault

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation

CAP531

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

Information

Calculation of instantaneous differential currents (3x)

Instantaneous differential currents (samples)

Harmonic analysis (the 2nd, and the 5th),

2nd h. block

Trip commands

CH1IL1RE

[magnitude]

Trip request by unrestrained differential protection

RED 670, Principal of operation Fundamental frequency current phasors


I1 I2

RED 670

RED 670

RED 670

I3

Differential and bias current in phase L1

I DiffL1 = I1L1 + I 2 L1 + I 3 L1

I BiasL1 = max( I1L1 , I 2 L1 , I 3 L1 )

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation The Characteristic


Idiff Unrestrain

IMaxAddDelay

SlopeSection3

Operation
IdMinHigh SlopeSection2 Idmin EndSection1 Section 1
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Restrain

EndSection2 Section 2 Section 3

Ibias

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation


Possible to select user defined inverse time characteristic

t op = k (

a + b) IMeasured p ( ) -c IMaxAddDelay

t op = operate time
a, b, c,p = settings that will model the inverse time characteristic k = time multiplier IMaxAdddelay = Current limit for extra delay

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation Negative sequence current


Negative sequence currents will occur during all types of faults, also for a transient period during three phase short circuits The fault point will serve as a source for negative sequence current Negative sequence current can be seen as normal phase currents but with reverse phase rotation In normal operation, under balance conditions, the negative sequence current components are zero

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation


I- Remote 1

Negative Sequence Current Fault Discriminator


I- Local
RED 670

RED 670

I- Remote = I- Remote 1 + I- Remote 2

Studied Terminal
90 deg 120 deg If one or the other of currents is too low, then no measurement is done, and 120 degrees is mapped Internal/external fault boundary

RED 670

I- Remote 2

If the two currents I-Remote and ILocal flow in the same direction (to the object), the fault is internal. If the two currents I-Remote and ILocal flow in opposite directions (from the object), the fault is external.

NegSeqROA (Relay Operate Angle)

180 deg

0 deg

IMinNegSeq

External fault region

Internal fault region

270 deg
en05000188.vsd

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation


Calculation of negative sequence current from fundamental phase current per CT grope gives stability against CT saturatin

Trajectory of local (Current Terminal 1) contribution to total neg. seq. diff. current 90 No directional test done: neither external, nor internal 150 fault declared 120 60 Excursion from 0 deg due to transient ct saturation 0
0.1 0.2

15ms

30

26ms 8ms

180 External fault region

210
0.3 kA 0.4 kA

330

Internal fault declared here 8 ms after fault

240 270

300

Local contribution to total negative sequence diff. current Directional limit (within 60 degrees is an internal fault)

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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation Fault discriminator logic


Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: Internal Fault


2nd and 5threstrain function are overridden The biased differential function operates without delay (start) Exception: Inrush current of transformer in the protected zone: Special logic will detect this 2nd and 5th harmonic restrain is active, with cross blocking function. This means that harmonics also in non faulted phase will block the function. Temporary (during 100 ms) the limit of differential current for operation will be increased to the value of Ibase. Further analysis of the fault conditions is initiated Normal differential protection function with 2nd and 5th harmonic restrain

Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: External Fault



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Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: No Operation


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Substation Automation and Protection Training

RED 670, Principal of operation Charging Current Compensation


Continuous estimation of differential current at no-fault condition: Charging current Pre-fault charging current estimation kept during faults Subtraction of the false pre-fault differential currents

At low resistance faults the fault current is large: dominating over the charging current: Error in the charging current compensation has minor influence At high resistive faults the voltage is maintained and the charging current is close to the non-faulted case

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Substation Automation and Protection Training