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Principal stamp

SIEMENS stamp

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 REV

Chapter 3.2.1.2 & 3.3.4


Add EPS commands BFPT added Issued for approval DESCRIPTION

S. Flieger J.Losekamm J.Losekamm J.Losekamm PREPARED

H. Kullmann H.Kullmann H.Kullmann H.Kullmann CHECKED

08.11.2011 07.11.2011 15.09.2011 12.08.2011 DATE

ELEKTROPRIVREDA SRBIJE (EPS) ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY OF SERBIA

Consultant

THERMAL POWER PLANT NIKOLA TESLA TENT B

Package 1 Contractor LOCATION: -1HA61 Title:

Fossil Power Generation Division

E F IE 48
Turbine Controller System
Main Turbine and Boiler Feedwater Pump BFPT System Description
DOCUMENT No: EPS TENT-B P1 CON 025 1 of 21 REV: 0.3

SCALE: -

SUBCONTRACTOR: -

This document is property of SIEMENS and it can not be reproduced in any part without written authorisation of SIEMENS.
original replaced by M355_Function_Description_E1.0_en.doc

NIKOLA TESLA THERMAL POWER PLANT TENT B Doc.: EPS _TENT-B_P1_CON_025 Modernisation of the Monitoring and Control System Rev.: 0.1 Date: 12.08.2011

Turbine Controller System

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0 0 1 2
2.1

Contents CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................... 2 GENERAL INFORMATION ................................................................................................. 4 STRUCTURE OF THE TURBINE CONTROLLER ............................................................... 5
Hardware ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Software ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5 2.2.1 Controller structure .................................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.2 Software architecture of SPPA-T3000 ..................................................................................................................... 5

MAIN TURBINE OPERATING MODES.............................................................................. 6

3.1 Normal operation ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1.1 Speed control ............................................................................................................................................................. 6 3.1.2 Load control ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 3.1.3 Main steam pressure control .................................................................................................................................... 8 3.1.4 Formation of HP actuation signals........................................................................................................................... 8 3.1.5 Formation of IP actuation signals ............................................................................................................................ 9 3.1.6 Position controllers .................................................................................................................................................... 9 3.2 Limiter functions ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1 Limiters which act on the load setpoint................................................................................................................ 10 3.2.1.1 Maximum load limiter ..................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1.2 Condenser pressure limiter ............................................................................................................................ 10 3.2.1.3 Runback functions ........................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1.4 Fast unload operations ................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.2 Limiters which act on the minimum selection function ...................................................................................... 11 3.2.2.1 Limit pressure controller ................................................................................................................................ 11 3.2.2.2 Main steam pressure gradient limiter........................................................................................................... 11 3.2.2.3 Acceleration limiter ......................................................................................................................................... 11 3.2.3 Limiters which act on HP/IP trimming .................................................................................................................. 11 3.2.3.1 HP exhaust steam temperature limiter ........................................................................................................ 11 3.2.3.2 Thermal limiting of IP valves ......................................................................................................................... 13 3.2.3.3 Reheat pressure buildup controller .............................................................................................................. 13 3.2.4 Thermal limiters ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 3.3 Special operating conditions ............................................................................................................................... 13 3.3.1 Frequency response ................................................................................................................................................ 13 3.3.2 Load rejection and island mode............................................................................................................................. 14 3.3.3 Turbine trip initiation by turbine controller .......................................................................................................... 15 3.3.4 Manual mode ............................................................................................................................................................ 15 3.4 Measured value acquisition and failure ........................................................................................................... 15 3.4.1 Speed measurements .............................................................................................................................................. 16 3.4.2 Load measurements ................................................................................................................................................ 16 3.4.3 Position measurements ........................................................................................................................................... 16 3.4.4 Pressure measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 16
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Turbine Controller System 3.4.5 3.4.6

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Temperature measurements .................................................................................................................................. 16 Critical/uncritical faults ............................................................................................................................................ 17

3.5 Test functions ............................................................................................................................................................ 17 3.5.1 Overspeed test ......................................................................................................................................................... 17 3.5.2 Valve tests during outage ....................................................................................................................................... 17 3.5.3 Valve tests during operation .................................................................................................................................. 17 3.5.4 Simulation of step frequency changes .................................................................................................................. 18

4
4.1

BOILER FEED WATER PUMP (BFPT) ............................................................................. 19


BFPT Control .............................................................................................................................................................. 19

5
5.1

LP BYPASS CONTROLLER ............................................................................................... 20


LP bypass steam pressure controller ................................................................................................................ 20

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General information

This function description describes the design, function and operating principle of the turbine controller. The controller is based on the core functions of the proven Siemens turbine controller. In order to satisfy the present-day requirements imposed on these turbine types, the functionality has been extended for use with turbines like in Nikola Tesla. Therefore the controller provides the possibility to activate more functions, e.g. different runback or unload functions. Interlocks from the thermal monitoring to enter a critical speed band or to release the synchronization can be activated in the controller. Analyzing the actual trends in the modernisation of these turbine types the concept for the HP/ IP trimming will be adapted. The functions are explained in the chapters 3.1.5 and 3.2.3.

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Structure of the turbine controller

The fully redundant automation system for the turbine control is designed for fast-response, complex control structures. 2.1 Hardware

The automation system comprises redundant controller modules and the associated AddFEM input/output modules. These S7 controller modules are integrated in the central section of the S7 subrack. The controller modules are primarily used for functions requiring very fast computing operations, such as speed control, load control, pressure control, load rejection, acceleration limiting, position control, etc. The fastest cycle time is 2 ms. The AddFEM fast-response input/output module is especially adapted to meet the extremely stringent requirements in the area of turbine control. It is connected to the controller modules via PROFIBUS DP. All the process signals, such as speed (pulses), load, pressure, generator breaker and commands from the synchronizer, are read in directly using the AddFEM modules. Analog values for the control of valves or servo valves, binary outputs, etc. are also acquired directly using the AddFEM module. All outputs are monitored. The AddFEM features two PROFIBUS DP interfaces (DP A and DP B), which operate in parallel. This makes it possible to set up a totally redundant system. The automation system is connected to the automation bus (Industrial Ethernet) via a communication module. Due to stringent requirements with respect to system availability, the connection is configured redundantly in a 1-out-of-2 structure. 2.2 Software

The controller structures are implemented in the software of the SPPA-T3000 process control system. Operation and monitoring, diagnostics and engineering are all fully integrated in the SPPA-T3000 system. 2.2.1 Controller structure

The turbine controller is modular in design. This modular design allows for greater transparency and makes it easier to adapt the standard solution to different automation tasks. The redundancy concept and essential core functions are based on the Siemens standard controller. The controller parameters are located at the start of each controller module and are also available in clearly structured parameter lists. 2.2.2 Software architecture of SPPA-T3000

The controller structures are implemented in the form of function diagrams in the SPPA-T3000 digital control system. These function diagrams correspond to the individual controller modules. A separate runtime container exists for the controller module (FM458). Two folders are stored here. The first folder (Functions) contains all the controller functions. The second folder (Infra) is used for the redundancy link, signal exchange with the headend station and signal conditioning and output for the AddFEM modules. The same folder structure exists in the head-end station. The redundant central controllers which constitute the head-end station facilitate operation and monitoring of the turbine controller on the operating displays as well as the data exchange with other automation systems (e.g. unit coordinator level) via the redundant plant bus.
This document is property of SIEMENS and it can not be reproduced in any part without written authorisation of SIEMENS.
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Main Turbine Operating modes

The turbine controller regulates the flow of steam supplied to the turbine via the control valves. The turbine controller adjusts the controlled variables required in each operating phase in line with operational requirements. These variables include: Speed / (frequency) Load Main steam pressure

The output signals of the master controllers for speed/load and main steam pressure are output to the lower-order valve position controllers via a minimum selection function and finally to the electrohydraulic converters (servo valves) for the valve actuators. This turbine controller structure coupled with appropriately selected parameters ensures both optimum power output operation in the interconnected power system and stable grid island operation. The flexible turbine controller can easily be adapted to the usual unit coordination control concepts, such as turbine follow mode, steam generator follow mode, coordinated operation, etc. The digital turbine controller fulfills the following tasks: Startup of the turbine generator with the speed controller from turbine turning speed. This takes the thermal loading of the turbine into consideration (influence of thermal stress calculator) and prevents the turbine generator speed from dwelling in critical speed bands. Adjustment of turbine speed in line with the grid frequency by means of a synchronizer. Loading of the turbine-generator unit from no-load speed by means of the load controller with due consideration for permitted loading gradients. The maximum permissible gradients are defined for loading and unloading based on the power capability of the steam generator. They are, however, restricted by temperature margins if required with a view to minimizing stress on the turbine. Throttling of the turbine control valves by the limit pressure controller in the event of faults in the steam generator or when load requirements are too high. Operating mode selection: Load control with limit pressure control or inlet pressure control. Limiting of overspeed to a value below the response threshold for overspeed trip of the turbine generator in the event of load rejections caused by disconnection of the generator from the grid. After the generator is disconnected from the grid, the speed is returned to unit auxiliary power speed or to no-load speed in the event of zero output.

Grid frequency support by means of accurate static frequency/load characteristic during power operation. Dynamic, stable control of step load changes and the resulting new grid configurations. Parallel operation within a power island which has been disconnected from the power system is possible. 3.1 3.1.1 Normal operation Speed control

The speed controller runs the turbine generator up from turning gear operation to rated speed.
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The speed setpoint tracks the turbine speed minus 1 Hz as long as the stored turbine trip has not been reset on the turbine controller. This ensures that the speed controller remains closed in the event of a trip. This tracking also makes it possible to intervene during turbine coastdown and to run the turbine up back up to speed. Following enabling of setpoint control, the target setpoint is specified by means of commands from the startup sequence or by manual input via a setpoint block. The command Warm-up speed first specifies a holding speed designed to warm up the turbine. The command Synchronizing Speed is then used to set the target setpoint to rated speed. The turbine controller increases the current speed setpoint with a defined gradient until the target setpoint is reached. The gradient is calculated based on the start conditions (cold, warm or hot start) and the available thermal margins. The control deviation between the actual value for speed and the current speed setpoint is applied to the speed controller. Delayed speed setpoint acts on the controller input via the speed controller droop and directly on the controller output via the proportional action component for speed. The controller output is applied to a central minimum selection function. The turbine passes through critical speed bands with a fixed gradient. The thermal stress calculator has no effect on the speed setpoint in critical speed bands. When rated speed is reached, the setpoint can be adjusted from the synchronizing unit by means of Higher/Lower control pulses. Synchronization can be performed with both the generator breaker and the grid tie breaker. If the open switch is closed by the synchronizing unit, the load controller goes into operation. The speed controller can also be activated during load operation, e.g. island mode. This is discussed in greater detail in Section 3.3.2.

3.1.2

Load control

Following synchronization the generator is loaded to minimum turbine load. This is performed as a step change to reach a fast generator loading so as to avoid reverse power protection. The load controller is automatically activated when the generator is connected to the grid. When minimum turbine load is reached, the target setpoint can be input. This should take place automatically when the current load setpoint is transferred from the unit coordination control. The turbine controller then increases the load setpoint with a defined gradient. Upon connection to the grid, a default value is assigned to the load gradient based on the start conditions (cold, warm or hot start). This can then be manually adjusted as required. The selected gradient is multiplied by the thermal margins, i.e. limitations due to thermal stress have a direct effect on the load gradient. The control deviation between the actual value for load and the current load setpoint is applied to the load controller. A settable component of the load setpoint is switched directly to the output of the load controller so as to increase dynamic stability. The controller output is applied to a minimum selection function. In addition to manual input of the load setpoint, external setpoint control by the unit coordination control is also possible. When the HP bypass is closed, an automatic switchover to external setpoint control
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should generally be performed. In this case the internal setpoint tracks the external setpoint so as to ensure a bumpless reset. The current setpoint can contain a frequency-dependent component (see section 3.3.1). Limiters can also act on the load setpoint. These are described below. 3.1.3 Main steam pressure control

Depending on the operating mode of the unit, the main steam pressure controller is operated either as a limit pressure controller or as an inlet pressure controller.

The control deviation between main steam pressure and the pressure setpoint is applied to the pressure controller. The controller output is applied to a minimum selection function. The formation of the pressure setpoint depends on the selected operating mode. Limit pressure mode: The turbine controller regulates the load and the unit controller regulates the main steam pressure. The limit pressure control serves to support the steam generator pressure control in the event of decreases in main steam pressure due to a fault. If the main steam pressure falls below a definable limit value, the turbine control valves are throttled so as to prevent a further decrease in pressure. The limit value is formed from the pressure setpoint received by the turbine control from the unit coordination control minus a tolerable pressure threshold. The lower limit for control valve throttling is defined by a parameter which corresponds to a manipulated variable to ensure minimum load. This is designed to prevent tripping of the generator protection system. As the main steam pressure increases, the control valves are re-enabled. If the load controller assumes control downstream of the minimum value selection, further loading of the turbine ensues. Inlet pressure mode: The turbine controller regulates main steam pressure (inlet pressure) and the unit controller regulates generator power. Power changes in the steam generator result in an appropriate reaction of the turbine control valves. The turbine controller receives the pressure setpoint from the unit coordination control and applies this directly to the control deviation of the pressure controller. In inlet pressure mode the load setpoint tracks the current load so as to permit a bumpless return to load control. 3.1.4 Formation of HP actuation signals

For safety reasons, selection of the effective admission setpoint is performed using a minimum selection function. This ensures that failure of a control function in the direction of 100% will not cause spurious opening of the valves. The following reference variables act on the minimum selection function: Output from speed/load controller Output from inlet pressure/limit pressure controller Output from main steam pressure gradient limiter Output from acceleration limiter

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The output from the minimum selection function is trimmed using the weighted output from the HP exhaust steam temperature limiter (Section 3.2.3.1) and subsequently corrected by the value for main steam pressure. This correction ensures that there is a proportional relationship between admission setpoint and steam flow. The resulting signal then forms the actuation signal for the HP valves. 3.1.5 Formation of IP actuation signals

During acceleration and loading of the turbine group, the IP valve control loads the IP turbine with 1.3 times the steam flow of the HP turbine. The admission start of the IP valves is determined by a parameter. The IP valves are completely open at approx. 24 % load so as to prevent throttling losses. The output from the minimum selection function is added to the IP trimming value, multiplied by the correction factor of 1.3 and subsequently corrected by the value for reheat pressure. The actuation signal is limited to 105 %. The resulting signal then forms the actuation signal for the IP valves. When trimming is 0 %, the steam flow through the HP turbine is proportional to the steam flow through the IP/LP turbines. Trimming can influence the admission ratio between the HP and IP valves. Trimming can be input manually or automatically. In automatic mode, the following limiters have an additive influence on trimming: Reheat pressure buildup controller (regulates the minimum reheat pressure) IP thermal limiter Windage limiter (monitors the HP exhaust steam temperature for upper limit values)

Cooling limiter (monitors the rate of change of the HP exhaust steam temperature for excessively fast cooling) These limiters are discussed in greater detail in Section 3.2.3. 3.1.6 Position controllers

The position control will be changed from group valve actuation to individual valve actuation. Therefore a position controller will be considered for each valve. The position controllers are part of the turbine controller. The position signals from the admission setpoint formation are first mapped using the associated valve characteristic curves. The position signal is then output to the position controller via a minimum selection function in the form of a setpoint. The setpoint can be limited at the minimum selection function by means of a position limiter. This makes it possible to close individual valves during operation (e.g. automatic valve testing). A special automatic control function can also be used to apply the limiting setpoint directly to the position controller. This makes it possible for valves to be operated over the entire range even during shutdown. In the event of a trip or a transient grid disturbance, the setpoint is immediately set to -25 %. The controller is configured as a PID controller. Under normal conditions the P component should be sufficient. The output of the position controller is added to the operating point of the integral-action servo controller. The resulting signal is then output to a monitoring function. The valve position control loop is monitored for operating point disturbances and hardware faults.
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3.2

Limiter functions

3.2.1 Limiters which act on the load setpoint 3.2.1.1 Maximum load limiter A load limit can be input from the OM or from the unit coordinator level. This limits the load setpoint via a minimum selection function. The load setpoint control and its gradient are bypassed in this case. 3.2.1.2 Condenser pressure limiter The condenser pressure limiter limits the specified target output in the event of poor condenser pressure. The limiter acts in the same way as the maximum load limiter or as a runback event acts on a minimum selection function in load setpoint formation. In manual mode the limiter acts on a minimum selection function in admission setpoint formation. The limiter starts to act depending on the actual position setpoint (YKDB). The degree to which the limiter depends on condenser pressure can be defined in the module. A lower limit and a gradient can also be specified.

Fig. 3.2.1.2 Limiter charcteristic

3.2.1.3 Runback functions Runback functions act directly on the load setpoint and gradient. The turbine is unloaded to a minimum load during runback. Thermal limiters have no effect here. Runback functions can be connected to the prepared software in the head-end station. With the signal Gas temperature Generator > 55 C the target setpoint is set to 80% of maximum load (if the actual setpoint is higher) and the de-load gradient to 20%/min. 3.2.1.4 Fast unload operations Fast unload operations act directly on the load setpoint and gradient. The turbine is unloaded to zero load. When the signal is no longer active, unloading is stopped. Thermal limiters have no effect here.
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With the command Shutdown the target setpoint is set to lower than 0% and the gradient to 50%/min. 3.2.2 Limiters which act on the minimum selection function 3.2.2.1 Limit pressure controller See description of limit pressure mode in Section 3.1.3. 3.2.2.2 Main steam pressure gradient limiter The main steam pressure gradient limiter is activated if the pressure suddenly decreases by a maximum of 10 % (at rated pressure) and the gradient of the pressure drop is greater than 3 %/min. The action of the limiter is designed to prevent an excessive decrease in temperature. A minimum pressure value can be defined in the limiter. As soon as this value is reached, the limit controller adjusts the main steam pressure to this minimum value, so as to prevent a further decrease in main steam pressure. The limiter acts directly on the minimum selection function and is enabled upon connection to the grid. The gradient limiter should only ever be activated when limit pressure control is not available (main steam pressure setpoint not available). 3.2.2.3 Acceleration limiter The acceleration limiter intervenes when a defined rate of change is exceeded as the speed increases. The limiter acts directly on the minimum selection function. The limiter can respond during load rejection or in the event of faults in the turbine controller. The limiter output is weighted with the current output of the speed/load controller. The resulting value is then subtracted from the output of the speed/load controller. 3.2.3 Limiters which act on HP/IP trimming 3.2.3.1 HP exhaust steam temperature limiter Windage and cooling limiters are implemented in the combined module HP exhaust steam temperature limiter and act on a PI controller. The P-component can be set separately for each limiter. Windage limiter: A minimum steam flow (cooling steam flow) is required for operation of the HP turbine, in order to keep the exhaust steam temperature in the permitted range. The risk of a rapid increase in HP exhaust steam temperature to impermissible levels is especially great (danger of windage) during no-load operation or at lower loads. If the flow is inadequate, this thermal energy can increase the exhaust steam temperature over the permitted materialspecific limit. Windage is also possible during unloading of the turbine generator and extended lowload operation. This can also result in impermissible exhaust steam temperatures. The setpoint for HP exhaust steam temperature is derived from the main steam temperature.

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Fig. 3.2.3.1: Setpoint formation of windage limiter

If the exhaust steam temperature exceeds a defined value, the IP valves are throttled and the HP valves are opened. This increases the flow through the HP turbine. If the windage limiter is activated, the controller output changes to a negative value and influences IP valve trimming. At the same time the controller output is weighted by a factor and applied additively to the manipulated variable for the HP valves. The parameters shown in Fig. 3.2.3.1 will be adjusted during commissioning. Cooling limiter If the turbine generator has been in operation for a long time with exhaust steam temperatures in the limit range, the HP exhaust steam can cool down during subsequent loading. The cooling limiter throttles the HP valves so as to prevent temporarily inadmissible cooling of the HP turbine casing due to the cooling HP exhaust steam. The setpoint for exhaust steam temperature is calculated based on the exhaust steam temperature, which is controlled in the direction of cooling with a slow gradient of 1.3 K/min. If the control deviation is greater than = 80 K (admissible deviation for cooling), the cooling limiter is activated. The controller output changes to a positive value and influences IP valve trimming in the OPEN direction. At the same time the controller output is weighted by a factor and subtracted from the manipulated variable for the HP valves. If no further cooling takes place, the limit controller re-enables the HP valves step by step.
HP exhaust steam temperature [C]
HP exhaust steam temperature

300 AKBEGA 200 100 0 0 Fig. 3.2.3.2: Setpoint formation of cooling limiter 60
Cooling limiter active

W in da ge

lim ite ra ct iv e

-1,3 C/min

Time [s]

The parameters shown in Fig. 3.2.3.2 will be adjusted during commissioning. Note: If the turbine controller is in inlet pressure control mode when the HP exhaust steam temperature limiter is activated, an automatic switchover to load control is performed.

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3.2.3.2 Thermal limiting of IP valves Thermal limiting of IP valves limits the steam flow through the IP turbine. If the margin for the IP turbine falls below 95 %, the module starts to limit opening of the IP valves. The effective load setpoint passes through a setpoint formation function. The gradient is formed by multiplying the load setpoint gradient by the margin for IP turbine loading. Subsequent to setpoint formation, the deviation is calculated based on the effective load setpoint. If the margin decreases during turbine loading, the deviation increases in the negative direction. This control deviation acts directly on trimming in the HP/IP coordination. If the margin is > 95 %, setpoint formation is set to tracking and the deviation is 0 %. If the margin is < 0 %, the target setpoint is set to 0. The setpoint moves in the direction of zero with the relevant gradient and the IP valves are throttled down to minimum load. 3.2.3.3 Reheat pressure buildup controller If the turbine is started up with a low steam generator output, the reheat pressure could fall below minimum pressure if the IP valves were open wide. This would endanger the supply of steam loads from the reheater. For this reason the steam flow through the IP turbine is limited by trimming such that the reheat pressure does not fall below minimum. The reheat pressure buildup controller comprises two modules: a setpoint module and a controller. The pressure buildup controller is not enabled until the LP bypass station is closed. Until then the setpoint tracks the current reheat pressure minus 2 bar. The deviation between the setpoint and the reheat pressure is input to the buildup pressure controller. If the reheat pressure is below the specified minimum pressure, the controller output changes to a negative value. The controller output acts directly on trimming in HP/IP coordination. 3.2.4 Thermal limiters The thermal stress calculator forms part of turbine monitoring. The thermal stress calculator determines the thermal stress on representative parts of the turbine. It calculates temperature margins by forming temperature differences that constitute a measure for thermal stress and by comparing these with permissible values. An automatic switchover is performed between cold, warm and hot start based on the average rotor temperature calculated in the thermal stress calculator. The selected start condition and the margins for loading and unloading of the HP and IP turbines are transferred to the turbine controller. This information is used to calculate the speed and load gradients. The gradient for cold start is 5 %/min, for warm start 10 %/min and for hot start 20 %/min. These gradients for the speed setpoint cannot be changed by the operating personnel. The load gradients are also set to the selected gradients upon connection to the grid but can subsequently be adjusted by the operating personnel in this case. The thermal margins for the IP turbine also have a direct effect on IP valve trimming. This function is described in Section 3.2.3.2. 3.3 Special operating conditions

3.3.1 Frequency response The following functions are implemented in the turbine controller in order to assure primary control capability:
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Primary frequency influence

- Limit frequency influence Frequency influence serves to support grid frequency. If grid frequency is too low, this influence causes the turbine generator to increase power output proportional to the frequency deviation. If grid frequency is too high, power output is decreased accordingly. The speed/load controller is capable of implementing power output adjustments via the primary frequency influence with a defined droop. The droop setting defines the required increase or decrease in power output from the steam turbine generator when grid frequency deviates from rated frequency. A droop setting of 5 % means that a 5 % frequency deviation will cause steam turbine power output to change by 100 % of rated power. Primary frequency influence is activated and deactivated manually. It is only possible to activate it during load operation with load controller. The selected influence is automatically deactivated in the event of a switchover to a different operating mode. To avoid unnecessary valve movement, a dead band is integrated in this signal path. The values for frequency support band, dead band and droop setting are adjustable. The signal Kf is formed continuously in the controller and transferred to the unit coordination control. The higherorder limit frequency influence for preventing a grid collapse is always effective and is permanently defined. If the grid frequency is less than 49.8 Hz, power output is increased. If the grid frequency is greater than 50.2 Hz, power output is decreased. The droop settings (overfrequency and underfrequency) for limit frequency influence can be defined separately. 3.3.2 Load rejection and island mode The turbine control system controls the wide range of operating conditions which are possible during load operation. The simplest case is load rejection to zero load (e.g. due to a protection trip). Opening of the generator breaker results in an immediate switchover to speed control and overspeed is intercepted. The turbine is decelerated to the no-load speed. Opening of the grid tie breaker results in load rejection to house load, or to zero load if the house load is not supplied by the generator. Opening of the grid tie breaker results in an immediate switchover to load operation with speed control. The speed setpoint is set to rated speed in the operating mode Load operation with speed control. The speed setpoint acts on the controller input via speed controller droop and on controller output directly via the proportional action component for speed. The electrical load increases in accordance with the specified speed setpoint. Effective load setpoint remains deactivated. If the resulting house load is also corrected, a slight underfrequency is produced. The speed setpoint can be readjusted manually to increase the frequency back up to 50 Hz if necessary. Resynchronization with the grid is possible from this operating condition. It can happen that part of the electrical grid is disconnected from the main interconnected power system through opening of a coupling switch. The isolated section of the grid then generally exhibits an overproduction of electrical energy, resulting in an increase in frequency at varying rates. For the turbine controller, the turbine is still in power operation, as the grid tie breaker is closed and power is still being output by the generator. Grid island operation is automatically detected due to the decrease in output generator active power and suitable reactions are output to the speed setpoint, the speed/load controller and the position controllers.

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If the currently generated electrical load is very high and a rapid load reduction suddenly occurs, the signal for transient grid disturbance is immediately generated. This signal deactivates the effective load setpoint in the speed/load controller, causing the controller output to change to zero. The control valves are closed temporarily as a result. If the power output which was generated prior to this change is restored within the time parameter for load rejection identification, normal power operation ensues. If not, a switchover to Load operation with speed control is performed. 3.3.3 Turbine trip initiation by turbine controller The turbine controller initiates a turbine trip via the turbine protection system in the event of the following internal faults: - Total failure of bus communication between CPU and FM458 Failure of both redundancies (FM458 or AddFEM) causes all outputs to be terminated, thereby initiating a trip. Internal backup overspeed protection, which initiates a trip at 1 Hz above the initiation value of the overspeed protection system

- Failure of 2-out-of-3 speed measurements The trip signal is processed by the turbine protection system in the OSPT module and the control valves are closed immediately. The signal is transferred to the turbine controller as a hardware and software signal. 3.3.4 Manual mode In this operating mode the position setpoint can be changed manually. The rate of change can also be adjusted manually. If a fault is detected in the turbine controller, e.g. if load measurements are faulted or noncoincident, an automatic switchover to manual mode takes place. The current manipulated variable is retained as a setpoint. This ensures a bumpless switchover of the control structure. Once the fault is rectified, the controller can be switched back to automatic mode. Since the load setpoint tracks the current load, the switchover is bumpless. The following safety features are also available in manual mode: Load rejection identification to zero load or house load Main steam limit pressure controller Vacuum limiter function

In main steam pressure control mode and during no-load and island operation, switchover to manual mode is inhibited. 3.4 Measured value acquisition and failure

The individual analog signals are read via diodes in the redundant AddFEM modules. The 4-20 mA signals are monitored for open circuits and upward/downward violation of the measuring
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range. Other signals, such as the main steam pressure setpoint and temperature measurements, are read in via the redundant plant bus and monitored for failure by means of a fault bit. 3.4.1 Speed measurements Speed is acquired by means of three speed measurements. One speed is used as the controlled variable and is continuously monitored for deviations from the other two speeds. If a faulted speed is detected, a switchover to the next speed is performed. The selection function detects a channel as faulted if its actual value for speed differs from the average of the three actual values for speed or their substitute values by more than the monitoring limit of 0.5 Hz. 3.4.2 Load measurements The generator load is acquired in the redundant AddFEM modules by means of 2 load measurements. The maximum value of the two values is used as the actual value for load control. Both values are continuously monitored for deviation (10 %). If both sensors are faulted, an automatic switchover to manual operation is performed. The turbine can be operated via the admission controller (see Section 3.3.4) as long as the fault is present. A switchover to automatic mode is inhibited. If a deviation >10 % is detected between the measured values or if only one sensor is faulted, an automatic switchover to manual operation is performed. The operating personnel can switch back to automatic mode in this case. 3.4.3 Position measurements Position measurements are acquired in the redundant AddFEM modules. If the valve position required for position control fails, the associated controller output is set to -25 %, which closes the valve. When the fault is no longer present, the position controller is re-enabled via a ramp.

3.4.4 Pressure measurements The main steam pressure and reheater pressure values are acquired in the redundant AddFEM modules. The minimum value is used for the control in each case. The measurements are monitored for non-coincidence. If one measurement fails, a switchover to the other measurement is performed. If both pressure measurements fail, a switchover to the current setpoint value is performed, thereby setting the control deviation to zero. 3.4.5 Temperature measurements The exhaust steam and main steam temperatures are acquired and monitored in a different automation system. The analog signals are transferred to the turbine controller with a fault bit via the redundant plant bus. If the exhaust steam temperature fails, the setpoint and actual values are set to the same value and the cooling limiter is not activated. If the main steam temperature fails, the setpoint for the windage limiter is set to the upper limit. If the temperatures which are processed in the thermal stress calculator fail, the margin is set to 50 %.
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3.4.6 Critical/uncritical faults A distinction is made between critical and uncritical faults in the turbine controller. A distinction is also made between the master and the redundant controller modules. Uncritical faults are faults which do not result in redundancy switchover. These include sensor faults, non-coincidence alarms for measurements and signals, etc. Critical faults are faults which force a redundancy switchover in the controller or which prevent a switchover to the redundant module with a critical fault. These faults include: S7 system fault

- Profibus fault Alarms indicating non-coincidence between master and redundant controller modules with respect to controllers and setpoints 3.5 Test functions

3.5.1 Overspeed test This test is performed semi-automatically and can be started manually by the operating personnel. The turbine is in no-load operation. The test is performed using the speed controller. The test is started by means of an operation. The speed controller increases the turbine speed with a defined gradient until the overspeed protection system responds. This initiates the turbine trip. The test function is automatically deactivated when turbine trip is initiated. If the test is interrupted prematurely, the speed setpoint is reset to rated speed. 3.5.2 Valve tests during outage This test function makes it possible to test the operability of the control valves during outage. This test function is also performed during initial startup of the control valves. If all the enables and conditions required for the test are fulfilled and if the hydraulic system is available, the step sequence for testing the valves can be started. The step sequence sets all the position limiters to zero and activates a simulation in the position controller. All valves can then be operated manually by means of the individual position limiters. The step sequence cannot be set to manual operation during the test. The test can only be interrupted by shutting down the step sequence. The step sequence enters the shutdown branch, sets all the position limiters to zero, deactivates all simulations and re-enables the position limiters up to 105 %. 3.5.3 Valve tests during operation The control valves can be tested during operation. The control valves to be tested can be selected individually. If all the enables and conditions required for the test are fulfilled, the step sequence for testing the valves can be started. The position limiters for the valves are closed and reopened in succession with a slow gradient. In the event of downward violation of the actual control position, the position limiter at the minimum selection function is activated. If the control position is reached when the valves are opened, the controller assumes control at the minimum selection function.

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3.5.4 Simulation of step frequency changes A simulation is available for testing the frequency influence. A step frequency change can be simulated as an overfrequency or an underfrequency. This step change is added to the actual frequency of the turbine controller. After a parameterized time, the step change is corrected via a definable ramp.

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4
4.1

Boiler Feed Water Pump (BFPT)


BFPT Control

The BFPT turbine controller is based on the speed controller with subordinate position controller. The required feed water flow for the boiler will be determined by the boiler control. The BFPT controller consists of: Speed set point formation, with interface to the start-up program and to the HMI (can be locked); Speed controller Difference between speed set point and actual speed value generates the output of the speed controller (PI-characteristic), which feeds the set point of the valve position controller via the MIN selection. Start up gradient According the temperature of the Turbine metal the Start up gradient is determined. At an temperature of the Turbine metal more then .C the hot start up gradient is used. Steam pressure limit controller In case of inadmissible steam pressure conditions the steam pressure limit controller avoids exceeding the maximum steam pressure after the control valves (wheel chamber pressure) above the permitted maximum steam pressure level. If the limitation controller gets in operation this controller limits the position of the control valves. Acceleration limiter, as a part of the speed controller Feed water pressure limiter To protect the feed water pump a feed water pressure limiter is implemented. Once the feed water pressure rises above a threshold, the control value Y of the speed controller on the MIN-selection is limited. Valve position controller, Trimming module; The valve in the HP Exhaust path begins to open as soon as the control valve is fully open. Overspeed Testing - A physical overspeed test can be initiated via the HMI; - A test sequence can be initiated via the HMI to test each channel of the BRAUN Overspeed Protection System

The BFPT controller is a fully redundant controller, similar the main turbine controller. The output signal of the position controllers drives the electro hydraulic converters of the valve actuators. For each valve a separate valve position controller is provided.

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5
5.1

LP Bypass Controller
LP bypass steam pressure controller

Existing LP bypass steam pressure hydraulic controller will be replaced with new modern electronic controller. During installation phase old hydraulics will be replaced with new ICDs (Integrated Control Device - one per valve) which will together with triplicate position transducers (three for each valve) contribute for precise and quick positioning of the LP bypass control valves. Functional diagram bellow is showing control principal of the new electronic controller. It is a new Siemens solution for LP bypass pressure control. In the valve opening control is introduced so called Admission characteristic which secure open position of the valves during off load operation. Setpoint for the pressure control is chosen between fix value and sliding pressure setpoint (which is in correlation with wheel chamber pressure) over the maximum selector. Demand to the valves can be limited by steam flow limiter or vacuum limiter. In a case of trip output to the valves will be automatically set on the negative value which will keep valves tightly closed.

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For the LP bypass pressure control, following signals are necessary: Reheat pressure Wheel chamber pressure Pressure downstream bypass valves Condenser vacuum

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