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Architectural Engineering February 2014, Volume 2, Issue 1, PP.

15-19

Case History Based on Jacked Steel Pipe Piles to Rectify Inclined Buildings
Hailei Kou#, Mingyi Zhang
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033, China
#

Email: kou123321@126.com

Abstract
Steel pipe piles are often used as an effective technique for improving the performance of inclined buildings, which derive their
load-carrying capacity due to lateral confinement from the surrounding soil and toe resistance. The traditional steel pipe piles may lead to uncontrollable settlement and instability after rectification. In this paper, an alternative method of enhancing the performance of steel pipe piles with screw devices driven vertically is suggested. The method is developed in a practical

engineering and verified feasible. The investigation is carried out by monitoring the cracks on the wall with Electronic Levels
during and after rectification. It is indicated that the steel pipe piles with screw devices have much higher stability with a significant reduction in settlement comparing with other methods. Keywords: Inclined Buildings; Steel Pipe Piles; Rectification; Screw Device

I. INTRODUCTION
Among various techniques for improving the performance of inclined buildings, jacked steel pipe piles are considered as one of the most versatile and cost-effective improvement techniques (Guo Tong et al., 2002). Steel pipe piles,which the end locates on bearing stratum, act as strong and stiff elements that can carry higher bearing capacity (NICOLA,1999).It is well established that jacked steel pipe piles can supply load-carrying capacity in building rectification (Thorburn,1985).After installation, the steel pipe piles may not derive significant load carrying capacity owing to uncontrollable settlement. In order to enhance the performance of steel pipe piles when treating weak deposits, it is imperative that the tendency of uncontrollable settlement during rectification should be restricted effectively. Hence, there is a need to identify effective and alternative methods which should be practically feasible to enhance the performance of steel pipe piles in building rectification. In this paper, an alternative method to enhance the performance of steel pipe piles in building rectification by special screw device on top of steel pipe piles is suggested. Through the rectification case history in Shanxi province of China, the design and technological process of the screw device are introduced in detail.

II. DESIGN PROGRAMME


As steel pipe piles are generally used beneath uniformly loaded areas such as buildings, the common method of restraining further settlement fails adequately. A special adjustable screw device is designed to reduce the subsequent settlement after rectification and enhance the stability of buildings, as shown in Figure1.The screw device, which locates on the steel pipe piles, can be adjusted according to engineering needs. As the most important part of the method, the screw devices need have good self-lock property in order to prevent subsequent settlement. Therefore, triangle screw thread is taken and number 45 carbons steel is chosen as the material. The parameters of the screw device should be chosen according to the largest force of the inclined building and, the strength needs be checked before used. In order to prevent further sink during rectification process, pre-compression screw devices with two single screws are adopted in the side with larger settlement, as shown in Figure 2. After rectification, the jack would be pulled out and only one pair of screw device will be used.
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foundation ring beam


foudation ring beam

soleplate
screw cap (hexagan)

screw bolt H-steel transmission bar pile

precompression screw device (as tool)

jack

the reserved pisition of screw

pile

FIG. 1 SCREW DEVICE AND INSTALLATION

FIG. 2 PRE-COMPRESSION SCREW DEVICE

Before start to rectify, the accurately accommodation amplitude must be calculated to make sure that the building is safe enough during the process. The calculated principle is shown in Figure 3,where stands for inclination magnitude and H is the total height of the building. The theoretical fulcrum should be in the middle of bottom surface. However, in practical engineering, there may be no pile at that point, the pile nearest to the point is taken as the fulcrum. s1, s2, s3 and s4 in the Figure 4 stand for the demanded rectification magnitude of piles respectively, which can be calculated by graphic method or simple proportional relation. The rectification should be done for several times, and about 1/10 of the total regulation magnitude for each time.

the rectified plane

incline plane

fulcrum

FIG.3 CALCULATION PRINCIPLE OF RECTIFICATION MAGNITUDE

In order to avoid further cracks, it is more effective that lifting-up and forcing-down are carried out simultaneously. Forcing-down measures, including moving away the excessive remained foundation under the foundation ring beam, soaking the soil under remained foundation, and loading heavy objects on the floor are necessary in the method. The up or down extent of screw device can be controlled precisely, that is, corresponding up or down value occurs when the device turns some angle. Because of good self-lock property of screw device, there is no need to measure the angle one by one. The magnitude of each rectification should be controlled strictly in order to avoid temporary twist of building caused by lifting-up. It is generally about 1-3mm or 1/10 of the total magnitude mentioned above. The upper structure can afford such small deformation through inner force redistribution, and the further cracks can be avoided. After every lifting-up, the space on another side will shrink in several hours and repeat that until the building is ok. When the rectification is finished, the screw device has to be welded and wrapped with protective concrete.

III. ENGINEERING APPLICATION


A. Example situation
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The inclined building is a brick -concrete structure with 48.0m of length, 7.8 m in width, and 15.0m in height, which is located in Yi xing, Shanxi Province, China. It is divided into 4 units, and the total floor area is 2031 m2. Two years after construction, the building has been inclined because of non-uniform settlement and has big space between building and ground (see Figure.4 and Figure.5). At northeast corner, the largest settlement is 17.5 cm, about 1.13 % of the total height, and the ratio is over 0.7 %. According to Chinese code The identification standard of dangerous building (CJ13-86), it is termed as dangerous building and there are several cracks through the building. Through field investigation before rectification, the main reason is that within 10m under the building ,there exists non-uniform miscellaneous fill and silty clay which is not treated sufficiently .The ring beams with section of 0.4 m 0.3 m in each floor are integrity and the foundation is made of rubble.

A. FULL-LENGTH CRACK UNDER THE BUILDING

B. SOME CRACK UNDER THE BUILDING

C. CRACKS THROUGH THE BUILDING

FIG.4 SITUATION OF INCLINED BUILDING

FIG.5 SKETCH MAP OF INCLINED BUILDING

B. Rectifying construction
In this engineering, the designed dead load of each unit is 12500KN, and 58 piles are used, which the standard
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bearing capacity of each pile Rk is 220 kN.The final installation pressure should not be lower than 330 kN (1.5 220 kN).Hence, the biggest load of each screw device is confirmed as 350KN, and M36 3 is chosen according to mechanics code. The detailed parameters are shown in Figure 6. In addition, the shear stress, bending stress and bearing capacity of screw device should be calibrated in laboratory before used. Before rectification, some remained foundation must be moved away, and then pilot holes with 60cm in width should be excavated immediately, as shown in Figure7.Steel pipe piles are pressed into the holes sectionally by hydraulic jack, which the section is about 2 meters and joined with sulphide mastic. The total pile with 10.5m in length can reach the stratum of dense sand through the stratum of silty clay and miscellaneous fill. But in practice several piles may not follow the procedure exactly because it is mainly controlled by the pressure. Static loading testing is later carried out to substantiate the piles bearing capacity.

135~185

125

10 5

50

FIG.6 STRUCTURE OF SCREW DEVICE

FIG.7 PILOT HOLE IN BUILDING RECTIFICATION

FIG.8 SCREW DEVICE IN BUILDING RECTIFICATION

A. INTEGRAL DECLINE OF THE BUILDING

30

hexagonal s=55,e=66

120

M36 3

B. SITUATION AFTER RECTIFICATION

FIG.9 COMPARISON BEFORE AND AFTER RECTIFICATION


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145

M60

On the basis of engineering situation, the rectification is conducted only in unit 3 and unit4, while unit 1 and unit 2 are reinforced (see Figure 5). Figure 8 shows the screw devices installed on the top of piles in unit 3 and unit4. .Keep on observing about 150 days after rectification, there is only a little inclination occurred. The comparison before rectification and after is shown in Figure9. The method was verified feasible, and then the building begins to be reused normally. The cost of rectification of the engineering is only about 25% of reconstruction.

IV. CONCLUSIONS
The technique described in this paper is verified feasible. The screw device special made on the top of jacked steel pipe piles is important during the process and the construction must be conducted according to practical conditions. The leading results can be summarized as follows: (1) By means of the method described in this paper, the inclined building can be rectified and reinforced at the same time. The screw device is the most important part of the mehod, which is simple and easy to be conducted. (2) The method can be directly used in the rectification of multistoried building and structure with foundation ring beam. To the buildings without foundation ring beam, it is also useful after reinforcing the concrete framework. (3) The inhabitants except for in the first floor of inclined building could not move away during rectifying, because the method can make the building safety enough during the process.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to acknowledge the technical staff in the structure laboratory at Qingdao Technological University, China.

REFERENCES
[1] DE NICOLA A, RANDOLPH M. Centrifuge modeling of pipe piles in sand under axial loads [J]. G otechnique, 1999, 49(3): 295-318 [2] Guo Tong, Wei Long-wu&Chen Wenhai. (2002). Jack Lifting and Leaning Rectifition of a Six-storied Masonry Building: Design, Building Structure.11, No.32,3-5.(In Chinese) [3] Thorburn.S.HutchisonJ.F. (1985).Underpinning, Glasgow and London.Suvery University Press

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