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Topics of Systematic Pathology 1. Cardiovascular System 2. Respiratory System & Head and Neck Pathology 3.

Kidneys and Urinary Tract 4. Male Genital Tract 5. Alimentary System 6. Liver, biliary tract and exocrine pancreas 7. Female Genital Tract & Diseases of the Breast 8. The Lymphoid System 9. Endocrine System 10. Bones, Joints, soft tissue 11.Central and Peripheral Nervous System

a. Describe the main diseases of the cardiovascular system Ischaemic heart disease 1. List the risk factors for ischaemic heart disease 2. Distinguish between regional and subendocardial infarction in terms of pathogenesis and macroscopic appearance 3. List the possible complications of infarction Cardiac failure 1. List the causes of right and left ventricular failure and the pathogenesis underlying each 2. Describe the clinical features of left and right ventricular failure 3. Describe the macroscopic and histological changes in the lungs and liver in heart failure Pericarditis 1. List the causes of pericarditis. Relate these to the different macroscopic types 2. Outline the clinical features and complications of pericarditis Endocarditis 1. Outline the main types of endocarditis. Summarise the clinical features, pathogenesis and appearance of vegetations in each of these types. 2. List the risk factors for and causative organisms of infective endocarditis Rheumatic fever 1. Discuss the aetiology, pathogenesis, pathology and complications of rheumatic fever

Valvular heart disease 1. Classify the causes of valvular heart disease 2. Describe the morphology and pathological consequences of stenosis or incompetence of the different valves 3. Describe the tetralogy of Fallot Hypertension 1. Distinguish between 1ry (essential) and 2ry hypertension. List the causes of the latter 2. Describe the effects of systemic hypertension, particularly on the heart, kidney and brain 3. List the causes of pulmonary hypertension 4. Describe the effects of pulmonary hypertension on the heart Aneurysms 1. Define aneurysms and outline a simple classification. 2. Compare and contrast the pathology and complications of the different types of aneurysm b. Describe the main diseases of the respiratory system Diseases of upper respiratory system 1. Compare and contrast between Acute and chronic rhinitis 2. List main causes of epistaxis 3. List main causes of anosmia 4. Describe causes, types, and morphology of laryngeal carcinoma Diseases of lower respiratory system Asthma 1. Describe the aetiology, pathophysiology, morphology and pathological consequences of asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1. Define the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Outline the recognised risk factors, pathological features and complications 2. Define emphysema and distinguish between the two main types with particular reference to the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying each Pneumonia 1. Compare and contrast lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia with particular reference to clinical features, pathogenesis, macroscopic appearance and complications 2. Relate the pathological findings in different types of pneumonia to the clinical signs and radiographic features Tuberculosis 1. Distinguish between primary and post primary (secondary) pulmonary tuberculosis. Relate the differences to host immunity 2. Describe the clinical features, radiographic findings and possible sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. 3. List the possible sites of primary tuberculosis other than the lung 4. Outline the differential diagnosis of pulmonary granulomas 2

Bronchiectasis 1. Define bronchiectasis. Outline the main causes, pathogenesis, morphological changes and complications Pleural disease 1. Distinguish between the different types of pleural effusion and list the underlying causes of each. 2. Outline the causes of pleural thickening. 3. Describe the risk factors, pathology and complications of malignant mesothelioma Bronchial carcinoma 1. List the risk factors for the development of primary bronchial carcinoma 2. Outline the major pathological classification of bronchial carcinoma, highlighting the difference in clinical presentation, pathological features and prognosis between the different tumour types 3. List the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with bronchial carcinoma 4. List the main tumours that commonly metastasise to the lung c. Describe the main diseases of the alimentary system Oesophageal carcinoma 1. Give an account of carcinoma of the oesophagus, with emphasis on risk factors, presenting features, pathology and prognosis Chronic gastritis 1. Define chronic gastritis and list the major causes 2. Describe the potential sequelae of H.pylori-related chronic gastritis Peptic ulceration 1. Define peptic ulceration. List the sites where peptic ulcers can occur. 2. Outline the causes of peptic ulceration. Describe the role of H.pylori and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcers 3. Describe the pathology of peptic ulcers. Outline the features that distinguish between peptic ulcers and ulcerating carcinomas 4. List the complications of peptic ulceration Gastric carcinoma 1. Describe the role of gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in the evolution of gastric carcinoma (gastritis-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence) 2. Discuss the classification of gastric carcinoma, highlighting the difference in macroscopic appearance and prognosis between the different types 3. Outline the presenting features of gastric carcinoma Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 1. Compare and contrast the clinical and pathological features of the idiopathic types of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease 2. List the complications of IBD, in particular the extra-intestinal manifestations 3. Outline the risk of colonic malignancy in IBD. Diverticular disease 3

1.

List the risk factors for colonic diverticula and outline the mechanisms by which they arise. Describe the pathology and complications of diverticular disease

Colorectal polyps 1. Outline a simple classification of polyps of the large bowel. Describe the pathological features of each type

Colorectal carcinoma 1. Give an account of colorectal carcinoma, emphasizing risk factors, hypotheses of aetiology, presenting features and pathology 2. Describe the essential features of the common staging systems for colorectal carcinoma (Dukes, TNM). Outline how stage is related to prognosis d. Describe the main diseases of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas Jaundice 1. Briefly outline the pathological features seen in the liver with obstructive jaundice Hepatitis 1. Outline the main causes of acute hepatitis and briefly describe the pathology 2. Outline the main causes of chronic hepatitis and briefly describe the pathology 3. Give an account of the viral hepatitides. Describe the epidemiology, clinical features, pathology and complications 3. Describe the effects of alcohol on the liver Cirrhosis 1. Define cirrhosis and list its main causes 2. Describe the morphological features of cirrhosis and discuss the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie its complications 3. Describe the systemic effects of hepatic failure Portal hypertension 1. Define portal hypertension. List its main causes and outline its complications Liver tumours 1. Give a brief account of hepatocellular carcinoma with emphasis on risk factors, clinical features, pathology and prognosis. 2. List the tumours that commonly metastasise to the liver Diseases of the biliary tract 1. List the common types of gallstones and describe the pathophysiology of their formation. Briefly describe the complications 2. Describe the pathology and complications of acute and chronic cholecystitis e. Describe the main diseases of the endocrine system Diabetes mellitus 1. Describe the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM) 2. Classify the major types of diabetes mellitus and list the causes of secondary DM 4

3.

List the complications of DM, with special reference to the vascular system, kidney, and peripheral nervous system

Disorders of the pituitary gland 1. Discuss the clinical syndromes and presenting features resulting from anterior pituitary tumours 2. Outline the disorders associated with hypopituitarism and the clinical syndromes thereby produced Disorders of the adrenal gland 1. Discuss the clinical features, causes and pathology of Cushing's syndrome 2. Outline the clinical features, biochemical abnormalities and pathology phaeochromocytoma

of

Disorders of the thyroid gland 1. List the causes and discuss the clinical features of hypo and hyperthyroidism 2. Define goitre, list the causes and briefly describe the pathology. 3. Give an account of autoimmune thyroiditis as exemplified by Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis with particular emphasis on epidemiology, associated diseases, pathogenesis, clinical features, pathology and complications 4. List the causes of thyroid "nodules" and distinguish between benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid. 5. Briefly describe the main types of thyroid carcinoma with particular reference to risk factors, morphological features, mode of spread and prognosis Hyperparathyroidism 1. Describe the clinical features and complications of hyperparathyroidism f. Describe the main diseases of the urinary tract Acute renal failure 1. Classify the causes of acute renal failure into pre-renal, renal and post-renal. 2. Outline the systemic effects and pathological changes in the kidney of acute renal failure Chronic renal failure 1. List the common causes of chronic renal failure 2. Describe the pathological changes of chronic renal failure in the kidney 3. Outline the systemic effects of chronic renal failure, particularly on bone Disorders of the glomerulus 1. Describe the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying glomerular injury and the tissue reactions of the glomerulus to injury. 2. Define the terms nephrotic syndrome and nephritic syndrome 3. Describe the clinical syndromes associated with glomerulonephritis. 4. Outline the clinicopathological features of the common types of glomerulonephritis Disorders of the tubules and interstitium 1. Describe the risk factors, morphology and complications of acute and chronic pyelonephritis 2. Describe the clinical features, causes and pathology of acute tubular necrosis 5

Vascular disorders of the kidney 1. Outline the effects of hypertension on the kidney Renal cell carcinoma 1. Give an account of renal cell carcinoma with emphasis on presenting features, morphological appearances and associated paraneoplastic syndromes Obstructive uropathy 1. Outline the causes and pathology of reflux nephropathy 2. Describe the causes and effects of outflow obstruction at different levels in the urinary tract Urinary tract calculi 1. Discuss the aetiology and pathological consequences of calculi in the kidney and ureter. The kidney in systemic disease 1. Describe the effects on the kidney of diabetes mellitus Carcinoma of the bladder 1. List the sites of origin of transitional cell carcinoma and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis. 2. Give an account of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder with emphasis on morphology, grading, staging and prognosis g. Describe the main diseases of the male genital system Prostatic hyperplasia 1. Discuss aetiological hypotheses, clinical features, morphology and complications of nodular hyperplasia of the prostate Carcinoma of the prostate 1. Discuss the importance of prostatic carcinoma in terms of incidence and mortality 2. Describe the aetiological hypotheses, morphological appearance, staging and prognosis of prostatic carcinoma Diseases of the testis 1. Outline the important inflammatory conditions of the testis, particularly tuberculosis 2. Give a brief classification of testicular tumours. Outline what is known of the aetiology and pathogenesis 3. Compare and contrast seminoma and teratoma in terms of clinical features, morphological appearance, tumour markers, treatment and prognosis h. Describe the main diseases of the female genital system and breast Disorders of the endometrium and body of uterus 1. Briefly describe non-neoplastic lesions of the endometrium, in particular endometritis and polyps 2. Outline the theories of causation, pathological features and complications of endometriosis 3. List the causes of endometrial hyperplasia. Discuss the relationship to endometrial carcinoma. 4. Give an account of endometrial carcinoma with emphasis on risk factors, clinical features and pathology 6

5.

Outline the clinical features, pathology and complications of uterine leiomyomas

Papilloma virus infection 1. Outline the spectrum of pathology related to HPV infection; warts, intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma Carcinoma of the cervix 1. Give an account of cervical carcinoma, in particular theories on pathogenesis, relationship with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), clinical features, pathology and staging Disorders of the ovary 1. Give a simple classification of ovarian cysts and neoplasms. Describe the clinical features and pathology of the common tumour types Benign breast disease 1. Outline the pathology and natural history of fibrocystic change of the breast 2. Briefly describe the pathology and natural history of fibroadenoma, duct papilloma and phyllodes tumours Carcinoma of the breast 1. List the risk factors for carcinoma of the breast 2. Describe the aetiology, classification, pathology and staging of breast carcinoma j. Describe the main diseases of the central nervous system i. Cerebrovascular disease 1. List the risk factors for cerebrovascular disease 2. Outline the pathology of cerebral infarction Intracranial haemorrhage 1. List the possible sites for intracranial haemorrhage. Outline the common causes of bleeding at each site 2. Describe the aetiology and pathology of cerebral aneurysms Cerebral infections 1. Describe the causes, clinical features, pathology and complications of acute pyogenic meningitis 2. Compare the CSF findings in bacterial and viral meningitis 3. Briefly describe the pathology of tuberculous infection of the CNS Raised intracranial pressure 1. Describe the clinical and pathological effects of raised intracranial pressure. 2. List the types of space-occupying lesion that may cause mass effect 3. Discuss some primary intracranial tumors as meningioma, astrocytoma, ependymoma oligodendroglioma, glioblastoma multiforme , and medulloblastoma k. Describe the main diseases of the musculoskeletal system Arthritides 1. Describe the clinical features, aetiology, pathology and complications of osteoarthritis 2. Give an account of rheumatoid arthritis with emphasis on clinical features, pathogenesis, serology, sequence of pathological changes in an affected joint and systemic effects 7

3.

List the main seronegative arthritides and briefly describe their pathology

Bone and joint infections 1. Outline the aetiology, pathology and sequelae of pyogenic osteomyelitis 2. Briefly describe the clinical features and pathology of suppurative arthritis Metabolic bone disease 1. Compare and contrast osteoporosis and osteomalacia in terms of aetiology and pathogenesis, clinical features, pathology and complications. 2. Discuss the effects on the bone of sustained hyperparathyroidism Bone tumours 1. Compare and contrast the common malignant tumours of bone, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, in terms of age, sites of origin, pathology and prognosis 2. Discuss other malignant bone tumors like giant cell tumor and Ewings sarcoma 3. List the common malignancies which metastasise to bone l. Describe the main diseases of the lymphoreticular system Lymphadenopathy 1. List the causes of local and generalised lymphadenopathy 2. Briefly describe the morphological appearance of reactive nodes Splenomegaly 1. List the common causes of splenomegaly 2. Describe the consequences of hypersplenism Hodgkin lymphoma 1. Discuss the role of oncogenes and viruses in the pathogenesis of lymphoma 2. Give an account of Hodgkin lymphoma with emphasis on histological classification, clinical features, staging and prognosis. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1. Give a simple classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Briefly describe an example of each subgroup 2. Describe the differences between high grade and low grade lymphoma 3. List the common sites of origin of primary extranodal lymphoma. Briefly describe the pathology of such tumours, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract Multiple myeloma 1. Describe the clinical features, pathology and complications (particularly those in the kidney) of multiple myeloma.