Anda di halaman 1dari 38

Base Oil for Lubricants - Manufacture & classification

Hussam Adeni
Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are Lubricants Lubricants Special materials to


Reduce friction Reduce wear
In machine elements

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are lubricants


Lubricants come in a variety of

forms
Liquids fluids Semi solids - grease Even solid, at times - graphite

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are lubricants Lubricants are Mineral Oils Vegetable oils Synthetic

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are Lubricants Lubricant comprise of Base oil or carrier fluid Specially formulated additives

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Flow chart Lube manufacture

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are lubricants

Finished lubricants - a careful blend of


Base Oils And additives

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base Oil manufacture


Overview of the process A series of steps
To improve desirable lube properties
Viscosity Index Oxidation Heat resistance Low temperature fluidity

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacture Starting with crude oil, typical process of making lube oil consists of
Separation Removal Distillation Dewaxing Finishing
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacture


Crude oil distillation - First the lighter ends removed Motor spirit Kerosene Solvents - Middle distillates separated Lube base stocks
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base Oil manufacture - Flowchart

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Distillation Top fraction

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacturing process


Middle distillates refined further
Vacuum distillation Propane de asphalting Solvent refining Solvent dewaxing Treating Clay filtering

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacturing process


Lubes base stocks

- Vacuum distillation Single stage Multi stage required for removal of balance - lighter ends

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacture Flowchart

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Distillation middle fraction

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacturing Lubes base stocks - Dewaxing


- MEK Toulene - For Pour Point reduction

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacturing


Hydrofinishing - Reduction with hydrogen
- For removal of Sulphur Nitrogen Oxygen

Improves heat & oxidation stability


Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oil manufacturing


De asphalting - Reduction with propane
- For removal of Asphaltic compounds

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Crude Oil composition


Composition (weight %) Carbon 84% Hydrogen 14% Sulphur 1.5% Others (nitrogen, Oxygen, Metals, salts) < 2%

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Yield Base Oil manufacturing process


Yield in percentages Gasoline 44% Diesel 21% Kerosene /Jet Fuel 9% Others ( Coke , asphalt, residual fuel oil) 25% Lube Oil base stock 1%
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base Oils types

Paraffinic Naphthenic Aromatic

60% 28% 12%

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base Oil classification


Pale Oils Lighter ends Neutrals Middle ends Bright stock Heavy ends
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Typical base oils


Solvent neutrals SN 70 SN 100 SN 150 SN 300 SN 350 SN 500 SN 650 SN 900

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Typical base oils


Bright stock BS 150

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

API classifications Base Oils


American Petroleum Institute (API)

Group I, II, II+


Mineral Oils

Group III, IV, V


Synthetic Oils

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

API classifications Base Oils


American Petroleum Institute (API)

Group I,
Solvent Refined base stocks Mineral Oils

Group II, II+,III


Solvent refined and Hydro treated

Group IV, V
Synthetics Polymerized olefins from petrochemical source
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

API Base Oil Interchange Guidelines


Base Oil category Sulphur (%) Saturates (%) Viscosity Index (VI)

Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V

> 0.03 < 0.03 < 0.03

< 90 > 90 > 90

80 to 120 80 to 120 > 120

All polyalphaolefins (PAO) All others not included in Group I, II, III or IV
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Typical cost of base oils


From crude oils - Yield of Lube

stocks is 1% If crude price is X Lube base oil price = 2X In short base oil costs can be upto twice price of crude oil

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What is a lubricant

Finished lubricants - Careful blend of


Base Oils additives

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What is a lubricant

Finished lubricants
=
Base Oils + Additives

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are additives

Lubricant additives
- classified on their functional capability 1. Enhance existing property 2. Suppress undesirable property 3. Impart new property
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are additives 1. Enhance existing property


Anti oxidant Corrosion inhibitor Anti foam agent Demulsifying agent

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are additives 2. Suppress undesirable base oil property


Pour Point depressant VI improver

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

What are additives 3. Impart new property


E P additive Anti wear agents Detergents Dispersants Metal deactivators Tackiness agents
Hussam Adeni Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Base oils Holly Lubricants & Specialities Ltd

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com

Thank you

Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist@gmail.com