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Physical Fitness Introduction Physical Fitness defined as the ablitiy to complete daily tasks with energy, reduce health risks due to inactivity, and be able to participate in a variety of physical activities. The fitness components are qualities that

athletes must develop to physically prepare for sport competition. Fitness has 7 common component which is speed, strength, endurance, agility fitness, power, flexibility and balance. Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Aerobic exercise is physical exercise of low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Generally, light-tomoderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by

aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time. The aerobic exercise are medium to long distance such as running, jogging, swimming and cycling that needs a lot of oxygen to perform. Anaerobic exercise refers to an intense exercise which enough to trigger lactic acid formation. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes such as weight lifting and sprinting.


Stretching and type of stretching Stretching and type of stretching Stretching is a form of physical exercise for muscle group. It is a natural activity. It help to improve the muscles felt elasticity and achieve comfortable. Help to increase muscle control. It also used as a treatment to alleviate cramps. It helps to improve the range of motion, blood flow and produce synovial fluid. Athletes must be doing stretch before and after exercise. This is because it can help to reduce injury and increase performance during training.

Types of Stretches Types of Stretches Ballistic Stretching Definition It is a rapid bouncing stretch. It will moving with momentum that stretches the muscles to maximum. This types of stretching need perform before exercise to increase blood flow, strength and power. Dynamic Stretching It is a walking and movement stretch. Normally used by perform slow controlled movements. It need to have a full range of motion. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular It is a type of stretch for a particular



muscle. Resistance should be applied, then the muscle should be relaxed. It should be performed during the exercise to a specific part of muscle.

Static Stretching

It is a stretch that a person stretches the muscle until a gentle tension. It need to hold the stretch for thirty seconds without any movement. It should be performed at the end of exercise to increase the flexibility and remove the lactic acid build up.

Warming up and Cooling Down Warming up is intended to raise the body temperature and prepare a player physiologically to compete in a competitive game. The purpose of warming up is to improve elasticity in our muscles,promote the circulation in our body and gain more muscle control. It is dangerous if we didnt warming up before exercise as it can lead to muscle cramps. Cooling down is a necessary process after a workout. A proper cooldown can help to reduce heart rate, prevent muscle soreness, improve muscle strength and growth. Lot of heart attacks and strokes cases occur at the gym because of skipping Cooling down process. Warming up and cooling down is 1 set of necessary activity before and after workout.


Purpose 1. To reduce heart rate WHY ? A proper cool down is important for keeping you healthy. Skipping a cool down can sometimes lead to sudden dizziness. When you cool down properly, you help to resume normal breathing. HOW ? The first thing you should do is bring your heart rate down slowly. This means doing light cardio, such as walking at a steady pace. This will help you avoid feeling sick after finishing your workout. A good rule of thumb is about 5 minutes of walking. 2. Reduce Muscle Soreness WHY ? A cool down will also help to reduce muscle soreness after a workout. You do not want lactic acid and toxins to lodge themselves in the muscles. When you stop abruptly after a strenuous workout, the likelihood of this occurrence is greater. A cool down portion will help to gradually push the lactic acid and other unwanted substances out of the muscles. This often helps to reduce soreness after your workout. HOW ? Next, you should stretch. After a workout, your muscles will naturally contract. By stretching, you prevent them from shrinking and this will allow your


muscles to grow stronger quicker, which helps you get the full benefit from your workout. Stretching also relaxes your muscles, which helps improve circulation and hastens the removal of waste products from your workout. Less waste products means less soreness and stiffness the next morning. 3. Blood Circulation WHY ? In general, the cool down portion of your workout will allow for the blood to circulate throughout your body. This is important for carrying important nutrients and oxygen to your muscles and cells, and assists in the growth and repair of muscles. HOW ? Stretching can increase blood flow to your muscles. Stretching may also help improve your performance in some activities or decrease your risk of injury by allowing your joints to move through their full range of motion. 4. You should also make sure that you are fully hydrated. Working out makes you sweat, which can dehydrate you. Even if you drank water while working out, you need to keep replenishing your fluids. You may not be thirsty, but it is recommended that you drink another 2 to 3 cups of water within 2 hours of completing your workout. 5. Finally, you need to eat. Working out caused you to burn hundreds of calories and wear your muscles. You need to help your body repair, which you can do by eating. Try to eat something with 1 hour of working out the


sooner the better. And eat foods with complex carbs and protein. This will help your body rebuild quicker. Cardiovascular Response and Adaptation to Exercise Definition: Adaptation refers to the your body's physiological response to training. When you do new exercises or load your body in a different way, your body reacts by increasing it's ability to cope with that new load. It typically takes anywhere from four to six weeks for your body to adapt to a training method so it's a good idea to change the frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise you do periodically to avoid plateaus and continue challenging your body. Factors involved in the adaptation of body. The purpose of training is to stress the body so it improves its capacity to exercise. Physical training is beneficial only as long as it forces the body to adapt to the stress of physical effort. If the stress is not sufficient to overload the body, then no adaptation occurs. PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD: should be used when prescribing exercise so as the body adapts, the intensity can be increased to obtain improvements in performance. The variables that contribute to overload during exercise training are intensity, frequency and duration. SPECIFICITY : derived from the body being able to adapt specifically to demands imposed on it and becomes extremely important when prescribing resistance-training programs


INDIVIDUALITY: There is nothing more important in designing resistancetraining programs than taking into account the goals, needs, preferences and strengths/weaknesses of the client. As every client is individual in every way, they will react differently to the same program designed for another individual, therefore, you cannot write generic programs for specific goals and expect that all clients you give this to will achieve the same results. REVERSIBILITY: Ending your exercise program will cause your body to revert back to pre-training state over a period of time. Therefore keep up the training! When undertaking an exercise program you must continue to overload the training variables (i.e. intensity, duration and frequency) in order for your body to adapt to the training and thus cause an improvement in performance. In summary make sure you keep up the exercise because if you stop training you will quickly revert back to your pre-training state! Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Muscle tissue adapts to the demands placed upon it - on this page you'll learn what types of training produce the most significant adaptations in the muscles of the heart and blood vessels Aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, and muscular endurance training place larger demands on the heart than any other type of training. Over time these demands result in adaptations to the cardiovascular system such as


Physiological Adaptation

Heart Size

The muscular walls of the heart increase in thickness, particularly in the left ventricle, providing a more powerful contraction. The left ventricles internal dimensions increase as a result of increased ventricular filling.

Stroke Volume (SV)

The increase in size of the heart enables the left ventricle to stretch more and thus fill with more blood. The increase in muscle wall thickness also increases the contractility resulting in increased stroke volume at rest and during exercise, increasing blood supply to the body.


As cardiac output at rest remains constant the increase in

Heart Rate stroke volume is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in (RHR) Cardiac Output (Q) heart rate. Cardiac output increases significantly during maximal exercise effort due to the increase in SV. This results in greater oxygen supply, waste removal and hence improved endurance performance.


Blood Pressure (BP)

People with blood pressure in the normal ranges experience little change in BP at rest or with exercise; however hypertensive people find that their BPs reduce towards normal as they do more exercise. This is due to a reduction in total peripheral resistance within the artery, and improved condition and elasticity of the smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls.

Other training types such as hypertrophy training can also result in these adaptations occurring in the cardiovascular system however the degree of adaptation will be less significant than the adaptation caused by aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness and muscular endurance training.