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Thermal power station

A thermal power station includes all the equipment and systems that go in to make a complete thermal power station of an electricity utility company with fossil fuel or biofuel fired steam generator or boiler, but excludes the civil connected works.

Part I- Steam generator unit

The steam generator unit has to produce steam at highest purity, and at high pressure and temperature required for the turbine. This is made up of Economizer, the steam drum with all internal and external fittings and chemical dosing arrangement, generating tubes with necessary headers for uniform distribution of water flow! forming the "urnace chamber and superheater coils. #ecessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. Air and gas path equipment are$ forced draught fan "% fan!, air preheater A&'!, boiler furnace, induced draft fan (% fan!, mechanical and electrical dust precipitators and the )tack or *himney. "or units of about +,, megawatt -.! capacity, "% fan, A&', dust collectors and (% fan are duplicated with necessary isolating dampers. /n some units of about 0, -. two boilers per unit are provided instead. Mounted equipment The boiler furnace has mounted on it the coal nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, and water lancing. #ecessary ports on furnace walls with safety covers for manual observation inside the furnace are provided. #ecessary air vents and drains are provided on steam drum, superheater coils and headers etc. for initial start up and for maintaining the boiler water concentration.

Economizer, air preheater, etc.

External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The "orced %raft "%! fan takes air from atmosphere and in1ects it through the airpreheater to the air nozzles on the boiler furnace to give hot air for better combustion. The (% fan sucks out or draws out the combustible gases from the furnace to assist "% fan and to maintain always slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. 2ust at the outlet of furnace and before the furnace gases are handled by (% fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases are removed to avoid atmospheric pollution environmental limitations prescribed by law! as well as to minimize erosion of (% fan rotors etc. The drum internals provided are such that the wet steam entering the drum from the generating tubes is removed of moisture, and then the dry steam enters the superheater coils. "urnace explosions due to accumulation of combustible gases after a trip out are avoided by flushing out these gases from combustion chamber before starting igniters. The general location of equipment in the boiler cycle is shown in the schematic sketch. The boilers come under the statutory inspection of *hief 3oiler (nspectorate in every state in (ndia.
Fuel preparing system

The coal crushed to about 4 inch 0 mm! in size from the coal yard is conveyed and stored in the boiler hoppers above the boilers. The coal then passes through pipes to the coal feeders for regulating and measuring coal quantity, then to coal pulverizers for pulverizing coal, and then to a pulverized coal bin. The pulverizers may be of rotary drum type or ball or roller grinder type. (n some power stations what is known as residual oil is used as main fuel. This oil congeals becomes solid like wax! below about 5, 6* due to its high content of wax, about 5,7. This oil therefore is always kept above this temperature even in storage tanks to make it pumpable. "or spraying into the furnace the oil temp at burner tips is maintained at about 8,, 6*. "or all instruments on this oil line lagging or heat insulation is provided for their proper working. This oil is transported from refinery direct by means of oil wagons provided with steam heating coils. This oil is generally loaded at the refinery at about 9, 6*. The pipe line carrying this oil is lagged insulated! at all points. )ome boilers in some power stations use natural gas also as main fuel. :as taken out from gas wells is sent to group gathering station nearby at about 0,, psi ;.8 -&a! by reducing the well pressure at wellhead by means of a 3eans orifice named after the inventor! installed in the outlet of the *hristmas tree at the well head. At the group gathering station the pressure is further reduced by pressure reducing stations and the separated liquid, known as condensate highly volatile like petrol! in petroleum industry not to be confused with steam condensate!, is stored in tanks for disposal separately. The gas at outlet of group gathering station at about ;, kgf<cm= ; -&a! is sent to power station about +, miles >, km! away by pipeline, wrapped and protected for electrolytic corrosion. At the power station site the gas pressure is further reduced to about +, kgf<cm= + -&a! and supplied to the electricity utility company. The gas up to the point of supply to utility is handled by a :overnment of (ndia organization known as the /il and #atural :as *orporation. The gas at boiler burners is at about one half kgf<cm= 5, k&a!, and separate gas burners are provided for this on the boilers.

Fuel iring system and igniter system "rom the pulverized coal bin coal is conveyed by hot air in1ectors through coal pipes to boiler coal burners of one tier or level at a horizontal angle into the furnace to give a swirling action for powdered coal for proper mixing of coal powder and also the incoming hot air from "% fans, to give the best combustion. (f the system does not have pulverized coal bin then coal powder is conveyed directly to coal burners from pulverizes. Then generally one tier is fed by one pulverizer. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before spraying powdered coal to catch fire or ignite, the furnace temperature is brought up by spraying and burning light oil by means of igniter oil guns. /il is used in a fine spray, as oil can catch fire even in ambient temperature. Alternatively gas is also used for ignition instead of oil, if available in plenty. 'owever in this case the igniter gun design differs. To ignite the ignition oil or gas, an Electric 'igh Tension spark in the path of oil or gas is used momentarily and then the spark gun is withdrawn. E!ternal to "oiler unit
Fly ash collection equipment and disposal

%ust separators are provided immediately at the outlet of the furnace and before the (% fan. They are of mechanical type or electrical type, sometimes mechanical followed by electrical type to reduce the load on the electrical type and also may be to comply with the provisions of law. The dust normally is collected in hoppers below them. They are emptied periodically by water 1et e1ectors or by air suction depending on how they are further disposed off. (n case of further use of this fine ash, it is generally handled dry by air and taken to a silo located at a higher level for loading the fine ash in trucks from bottom of silo. (n case of these being dumped in the yard, then wet method by water 1et in1ectors is employed.
#oiler ma$e-up water treatment plant and storage

)ince steam is taken out continuously and returned to the boiler, losses due to blow? downs and leakages have to be made up for maintaining designed boiler water quantity by means of the level gauges provided on the boiler drum. "or this, continuous make up water is added to the boiler water system. )ince this make up requires pure water this quality water is obtained by a %emineralised %-! water treatment plant. 'owever some storage is essential as %- plant may be down for maintenance. "or this purpose a storage tank is installed from which continuously %water is drawn for boiler make up. The impurities in water input to this plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts imparting hardness to the water. These salts have to be removed from the water. (f hardness is present in make up water to the boiler, the salts not only form deposits on the tube water surfaces but also lead to overheating in those localities resulting in tube failures. Therefore these have to be completely removed for use as boiler make up. This is done using %- water treatment plant which gives the purest form of water.

This generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The %- water being very pure becomes highly corrosive, once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the %- plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. The storage tank for %- water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as &@*. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. )ometimes on top of the water in the tank a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided to avoid contact with atmosphere. %- water make up is generally added to the boiler<T: cycle at the steam space of condenser, i.e. vacuum side. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also %- water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the e1ector of the condenser itself.

The boiler and turbine generator, steam and water cycles are shown in the schematic diagram. This also shows the %- water make connection to the condenser steam space. "rom condenser the condensate extraction pumps pump the condensate through A& feed heaters to deaerator and then it drops to feed tank. "rom feed tank the feed water is pumped by feed water pumps, through the '& feed heaters to the boiler through economizer.
Fuel transport to site and uel storage

-ost thermal stations use coal as the main fuel. Baw coal is transported from collieries to a power station site by railway wagons only. :enerally coal wagons are sent as a full railway rake. The coal received at site by wagons may be of different sizes. They are unloaded at site by rotary dumpers or side tilt dumpers to tip over conveyor belts below. They are generally carried direct to the crusher house for crushing the coal to about 4 inch 0 mm! size and then by belt conveyors to storage yard. #ormally this crushed coal is stored with compaction by bulldozers, as compacting of highly volatile coal avoids spontaneous ignition. 'ence this arrangement is generally adopted.

The crushed coal from storage or after crushing direct is conveyed to top of boilers by means of belt conveyor system. At the top of boilers a horizontal conveyor with distributing arrangement for feeding to any boiler bunker will feed the coal to the required boiler bunkers generally which ever boiler is in operation. This is to avoid long hours of storage in boiler bunkers to avoid spontaneous ignition at that point.
#ottom ash collection and disposal

At the bottom of every boiler a hopper has been provided with a sealing arrangement with water between boiler furnace and this hopper. This is to give a seal against slightly negative pressure maintenance in the furnace and also for the expansion of the furnace walls downwards on furnace heat up. This hopper is always filled with water, overflowing continuously at the top seal to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. )ome arrangement to crush these clinkers, then for removal outside and conveying to ash dump yard is made. (n some designs clinker crushers are provided submerged in water to crush the clinkers and then convey the crushed pieces by means of hydraulic 1ets. "or long distance disposal, ash sluice pumps are also provided for conveying to ash yard. (n another design the clinker crushers are provided outside submerged in water with clinker inside the hopper being removed by chain conveyors.

%thers
Monitoring and alarm system or "oiler unit

The boilers and connected systems do require prechecking for start up during the first start or after a shut down for any reason whatsoever. The safety aspects and the normal procedures have to be looked into at all stages of operation. -anual intervention is also unavoidableC however, much the system is made automatic. (n view of this necessary protection, monitoring with alarms for out of limit parameters, and auto and manual control equipment are provided on the operatorsD console, both on mechanical and electrical equipment. The control room for dust collectors, ash sluicing and other equipment is provided in separate control rooms nearer to each of them.
#attery supply emergency lighting and communication

*entral battery system consisting of lead acid cell units to make up +;, @ %*, sometimes in two individual stacks with its own battery charging unit, inverter to get +>, @ A*, and auto?stepless changeover in case station supply of +>, @ A* fails. The batteries are installed in separate rooms battery rooms! with exhaust fans and all round coated with acid?proof paint 3attery roomE%esign (ssues!. The essential equipment supplied by this battery system are$ control and relay equipment, communication and emergency lighting, and turbine lube oil pumps. This control equipment is installed in separate rooms with monitoring on the operatorsD console. This is essential for smooth and damageless shutdown of the units. This system generally caters all the T: units and the steam generator units.

Ma&or pro"lems e!perienced


Furnace e!plosions

A few times furnace explosions have occurred due to wrong operation. (n one case the boiler suffered a very bad shock that even stay girders got bent, in addition to good number of tube ruptures. As a temporary measure all boiler tubes were checked for thinning out and rupture, at all surfaces. Thinned out portions were removed and new stubs were welded. The remaining tubes bent due to explosion were left as they were. .ith minor repairs to stay girders the boiler was lighted up with all precautions such as uniform expansion all round, leakages from tubes etc. This emergency repair was done as grid supply was starving. The boiler thus could run for a year without any problem. This short gap arrangement was adopted as it required for about a year to get the new girders and tubes etc. to make a permanent repair. This stop gap procedure, however is not recommended.
%il contamination o complete cycle

%ue to a wrong operation large amount of oil got sucked into the turbine boiler cycle during normal operation of the unit, indicated by all drains showing foaming. This also indicated that impure steam or condensate was circulating. The unit was taken out immediately. The boiler was given several times alkaline boil out a normal practice! but on starting, the drains at all points still showed foaming indicating that the complete boiler turbine cycle had got contaminated and required flushing. The flushing of the complete boiler turbine cycle could only be done by running the boiler and turbine on low pressure steam and turbine at lower B&-. %uring this process all the drains in the system were kept open and continuously monitored for clear and pure condensate by lab tests. After obtaining the required purity only the boiler pressure was raised slowly, continuously lab testing the sample at all drain points for clear and pure condensate. (n addition, the speed of T: unit was simultaneously raised to normal speed. The system thus could come back to normal only after about 8, hours. Part II- Steam Tur"ine 'enerator unit (T' unit)
Steam tur"ine generator unit (T' unit) )team turbine!

The FDDsteam turbine generator unitsDDD are provided with auxiliary systems to make it work not only satisfactorily but also safely too. The following auxiliary systems are generally provided by various manufacturers depending on the size of unit and construction details. The list herein also shows what is normally provided for large units, of the order of about +,, -., depending on the type of construction of the main components. The typical line diagram also shows the different auxiliary systems.

The T: unit being rotating equipment has generally a fairly heavy and large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. "urther they should offer less resistance friction! for rotation. Therefore the shaft is provided with number of bearings, "luid bearing corresponding housings and supports, depending on the construction adopted by each manufacturer. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with material with low friction, like 3abbitt metal. /il lubrication is used to reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and limit the heat generated. This mandates the use of pumps, monitoring, and control equipment. The sketch shows a typical oil system. #ormally the oil system is such that the T: unit can be started on its own without any assistance from grid or other units. /ne fairly large oil tank is provided for not only storage of oil but also for locating the oil pumps needed. The oil pumps are generally vertical type, motor on top of the tank and pump themselves submerged, to make pumps more reliable. )ince there are other systems requiring this oil, this oil tank is made as a common oil tank catering other oil requirements as well. The bearing oil itself has requirements for normal operation, emergency operations and shut down conditions. %uring normal operation of the T: unit the oil pump is driven by the turbine shaft itself, taking suction from the oil tank. "or starting of the T: unit, an Auxiliary /il &ump A/&! is provided. (n emergencies when A/& is not available, a %*?driven oil pump is provided in such a way that it takes over automatically when the lube oil pressure falls down to a particular level due to any reason whatsoever. 'owever the %* oil pump cannot cater for the hydraulic system. 'ence %* pump is only for lubrication and seals, when the A/& and main oil pumps are not available due to any reason whatsoever. The unit cannot be started in this condition. )ome manufacturers provide therefore two auxiliary oil pumps.

The bearing oil not only acts as a lubricant but also as a cooling medium. The hot oil coming out of the bearings generally drains to a sump below the bearing housing. Each of the pipes coming out is connected to a drain pipe header leading to the oil tank inside, where it falls on a strainer basket to remove any foreign particles. The drain pipe header sometimes is enclosed in another casing for fire protection purposes. An auxiliary oil pump A/&! is provided for start up operation. -ain oil pump driven by the turbine shaft takes over automatically when the T: shaft comes to near about full speed. (n case of emergency, due to any tripping of T: unit with A/& not coming up! the %* oil pump will start, to supply oil to bearings at a predetermined fall of lube oil pressure. The auxiliary and main oil pumps also supply the hydraulic oil for governing control but the %* oil pump is only for bearings and generator seals. (n general all oil pumps are submerged in lube oil inside the tank. This also gives them positive suction to increase their reliability. #arring gear 3arring gear is the term normally used for the complete mechanism provided for the rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed of the order of one revolution per minute! after unit stoppage for any reason. The requirement for this is very important for all capacities of turbine generator units. /nce the unit is GtrippedG i.e. the turbine stop valve is closed cutting off steam to the turbine! the unit starts slowing down also known as Gcoasting downG!. .hen it reaches a dead stop, if it is allowed to be in one position for some time there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend. This deflection is because of the heat inside the turbine casing tends to get concentrated in the top half of the casing, thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches, only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters on the operatorsD console. 3ut this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and wreck the whole turbine generator unit when the huge mass starts spinning. Even the whole concrete building vibrating has been observed in some cases where barring was not used. Therefore the shaft is not allowed to come to a dead stop, but a mechanism known as turning gear or barring gear automatically takes over to rotate the set at a particular set low speed. (f the unit has to be taken down for ma1or maintenance requiring inspection of turbine bearings, etc., then barring gear has to be kept in service till the temperatures of the casings and bearings, as seen on the operatorsD console, are sufficiently low as prescribed by the manufacturers. The barring motor supply is therefore taken from a reliable source. (n very small units of capacities of the order of about 5,, k. and below, the mechanism may be hand operated to change the shaft position by 89, degrees frequently. This is done using a bar temporarily attached to the shaftHhence the term GbarringG.

All the necessary monitoring instruments such as turbine casing temperatures, shaft eccentricity meters, vibration indicators, etc. with alarms for various operating limits, are provided at operatorsD console, in addition to starting and stopping controls. *u!iliary oil system This system with auxiliary oil pump A/&! is designed for supplying oil at the start up of T: unit. The oil pump is designed to supply the hydraulic oil system consisting of Turbine stop valve in the main steam line to turbine, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems and relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At about a predetermined speed the turbine main shaft driven pump takes over the functions of the A/& and then A/& is stopped manually. )ome units have a stand by A/& to automatically take over if first one fails during start up due to defective conditions. The pump casings are submerged in oil so that they have always positive suction to make them more reliable. Seal oil system, hydrogen cooling system and stator cooling water system The generator coupled to the turbine does require some arrangement for cooling to dissipate the heat generated inside, depending on the size of the unit. Though in small size units it is mostly natural air cooling through air filters at inlet, in larger units generally found in power generating utilities nowadays, special closed circuit cooling arrangements are incorporated. The one shown in the typical diagram has hydrogen gas cooling in the generator casing and stator coils are hollow to take water cooling. The 'ydrogen gas is used because mainly of its higher affinity for heat absorption, lowest density to give less friction in a rotating medium, and being non self igniting. 'owever it should be noted that 'ydrogen gas is explosive in presence of air. The hydrogen pressure therefore is maintained slightly higher than atmosphere pressure say at about 8.5 kgf<cm= 85, k&a!, to avoid outside air ingress. %ue to this higher pressure than outside pressure, to avoid leakage to outside atmosphere where shaft emerges out of the casing, some form of sealing arrangement has to be provided.. This is done by providing mechanical seals round the shaft with a very small annular gap in?between to avoid rubbing between shaft and seal. To avoid gas leakage from this very small annular gap and also to avoid heat generation beyond limit, oil under pressure is provided in such way that part of the oil flows to inside and part to outside. The oil flowing inside prevents the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. This oil is called seal oil and should always be present as long as gas pressure inside is above atmosphere. )ome manufacturers provide *arbon rings in housing as seal and some others provide other types known generally as labyrinths. The seal oil entering the seal oil housings is therefore split in to two parts one going inside the casing and the other coming out. The coming out oil is taken to bearing drain itself. The oil going inside the casing, which is under pressure, requires some sort of seal system to remove this oil to outside of casing as no oil should accumulate inside the casing, having conductors stressed to high voltage. %ifferent makers have their own designs for removing through a loop seal arrangement. )ince hydrogen gas is explosive with atmospheric air under certain conditions, a system has to be incorporated for its handling. "or the first filling of hydrogen, purging out of the same for any inspection inside, for normal make up for losses

during running and to maintain desired pressure and purity continuously, a separate system is provided. Also firefighting arrangement for inside generator explosions is incorporated with monitoring and control equipment. This system includes hydrogen gas cylinders and carbon dioxide */+! gas cylinders suitably located with pressure reduction stations and piping to the generator casing, and purging piping. All purging pipe connections are lead to open air at highest level to dilute the purged gases to avoid explosions. )ome power stations have hydrogen generation plants at site to avoid long distance transport of a large number of cylinders. The generator conductors are made hollow to take water for cooling to remove further heat from coils. The generator coils being at about ++ kilovolts k@!, and water being conductive with and from safety point of view, some form of insulating barrier material such as Teflon tubing! is used for interconnection of cooling water line and the generator '@ coils. The %- water of lowest conductivity and without any impurities is used for passing through the coils. The %- water used for this purpose is in a closed circuit, because of its affinity to absorb oxygen from the atmosphere and make it highly corrosive. (t is also provided with its own mixed bed ion exchangers and magnetic and mechanical filters to maintain highest purity and free of any foreign material, though it takes %- water from the station %- plant unit for initial charge and small make up. +ondenser *ondenser has twin steam e1ectors or twin rotary motor driven exhausters outside the condenser for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum always. /ne e1ector or exhauster unit is a standby to the other. The circulating water passes through the tubes. This system is generally once through or recirculation type after being cooled in the cooling towers. *hemical treatment of circulating water is done to avoid growth of algae in the circulating water system. )ome condensers may have an on line cleaning system with sponge circulating balls, such as Taprogge :mb'. a :erman! product. 'enerator high ,oltage system The generator voltage is normally 88 k@ in smaller units and in bigger units it would be about ++ k@. &robably this is limited by the insulation media available and the construction methodology limitations available today. The generator '@ leads are normally of large section aluminum channels because of very high current as against cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in aluminum bus ducts with good grounding!, live channels being supported on suitable insulators inside. "urther the generator '@ channels leads! are directly connected to suitably designed step?up transformers for connecting to a transmission yard high voltage substation, of the order of 88, k@ or ++, k@ for further transmission by grid. The '@ generator channels generally being of long run and also sub1ected to heat and cold, necessary suitable expansion 1oints are also provided.

The necessary protection and metering devices are incorporated on the '@ leads of generator. Thus the T: unit and the transformer form one unit. (n smaller units, generating normally at 88 k@, a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 88 k@ bus system in a cubicle located normally indoors. (n this case the T: unit by itself, becomes a unit. %thers
Monitoring and alarm system or the T' unit

The T: units do require prechecking for start up during the first start or after a shut down for any reason whatsoever. The safety aspects and the normal procedures have to be looked into at all stages of operation. -anual intervention is also unavoidable however much the system is made automatic. (n view of this necessary protection, monitoring with alarms for out of limit parameters, and auto and manual control equipment are provided on the operatorsD console, both on mechanical and electrical equipment.
Ma&or pro"lems e!perienced %n condensers

The problem was on condensers of steam turbines. The condenser tubes made of aluminium brass, otherwise called Alumbro, started failing in hundreds per day generally termed catastrophic failure! after about a year of operation. After detailed investigation the cause was attributed to stress corrosion cracking. This in turn was attributed to high &' steam entering turbine condenser from turbine. This in turn was attributed to high concentration in boiler water maintained due to carry over from nake up water at the initial stages of operation. The make up then was from evaporators only which was not up to the purity as given by %- water treatment plant. This problem was solved by replacing all the condenser tubes by *u?#i tubes and changing over to %- water from newly installed %- water treatment plant. The testing for leaky tubes had to be done only in the night as in the daytime powersupply had to be mainained to the grid. .ith half condenser operation and with a small gadget such as simple I tube water manometer with coloured water, unskilled workers could find out the leaky tubes very fast and plug them too.
%n Tur"ine proper

%ue to high T%) total dissolved solids! from boiler water carried by steam, the turbine blades etc got hard and soft deposits of salts. Trial of turbine washing with low pressure wet steam, with turbine on low speed gave only partial result by removing soft deposits only. The only way left was to open the casing and mechanically clean inside after the %- plant was installed.

-acuum Systems
.E/ #E0EFITS

Materials o +onstruction
)team 1et e1ectors are readily available in ductile iron, steel, stainless steel and any alloy such as -onel, 'astelloy, Alloy +,, Titanium, and bronze. This equipment is also available from a wide variety of non?metals such as Teflon, :raphite and 'aveg.

*pplications
)team 1et e1ectors are used in the chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper, food, power, steel and allied industries in connection with such operations as filtration, distillation, absorption, mixing, vacuum packaging, freeze drying, flash cooling, dehydrating and degassing to name 1ust a few. They will handle both condensable and non?condensable gases and vapors as well as mixtures of the two. )mall amounts of solids or liquids will not adversely affect performance. All )JK e1ectors are computer designed and type?tested to insure reliability.

*d,antages
Low Cost ? &umps of the e1ector type are small in relation to the work they do and their cost is low in comparison with other types of equipment. No Moving Parts ? These units have no moving parts to ad1ust or repair. Simple, Compact Construction ? #othing could be simpler than a 1et vacuum e1ector. (t consists of an expanding nozzle, a body, and a venturi or diffuser!. Reliability ? 3ecause of their inherent simplicity, these pumps are reliable. -aintenance requirements are simple and easily accomplished. Corrosion/Erosion Resistance ? Inits can be made in practically any workable material to provide utmost resistance to corrosion and erosion. Easy Installation ? Belatively light in weight, 1et e1ectors are easy to install, and typically require no foundations. Even multi?stage units are readily adaptable to existing conditions. Hig !acuum Per"ormance ? )team 1et e1ectors can handle air or other gases at suction pressures as low as three microns 'g 3ased on the e1ector?venturi principle, steam issuing through an expanding nozzle has its pressure energy converted to velocity energy. A vacuum is created, air or gas is entrained and the mixture of gas and steam enters the venturi diffuser where its velocity energy is converted into pressure sufficient to discharge against a predetermined backpressure.

"ig. 8

PE1F%1M*0+E +2*1*+TE1ISTI+S
The graph "ig. +! shows the relative suction pressure capabilities of )JK )team 2et E1ectors from single?stage through six?stage types. (t can be seen that in some cases units overlap. .hen this occurs, a detailed comparison of initial costs and steam consumption should be made before making a decision as to the exact type required to meet specifications. )JK engineers should be consulted for their recommendations based on experience in many applications. )ingle?)tage E1ectors are made in several models to meet various suction pressure requirements.

"ig. +

SI0'3E-ST*'E E4E+T%1S
TL&E 550 Application ? )JK )ingle?)tage E1ectors are designed to cover a suction pressure range from 8G to >,G 'g Absolute utilizing eight specific internals as shown in "ig >. Each of the G)G types indicated will produce the most economical performance in its specific suction pressure range. "ully custom designed units are also available when performance optimizing or prototyping is required. )uction &ressure ranges of )ingle?)tage E1ectors

Fig. 5

M63TI-ST*'E E4E+T%1S
)taging of e1ectors becomes necessary for economical operation as the absolute suction pressure decreases. 3ased upon the use of auxiliary equipment, two and three?stage e1ectors can either be condensing or non?condensing types. "our, five, and six?stage units can also be non?condensing, but are usually condensing types.

T7%-ST*'E E4E+T%1S
Application ? Two?)tage )team 2et E1ectors have the same general field of application as the single? stage units. They handle both condensable and non?condensable gases or vapors, as well as mixtures of the two. The general operating range is between 5G 'g. abs. and > mm 'g. abs. %epending on conditions, however, a single?stage unit may be more economical at the top of the range and a three? stage unit near the bottom. &lease refer to "igure +. "igure ; describes a two?stage vacuum system with direct contact pre?condenser and intercondenser. 'owever, as waste water treatment costs continue to escalate, these types of systems are more commonly furnished with surface condensers as shown in "igure 5.

Fig. 8

T21EE-ST*'E -*+66M S/STEMS


Becommended for applications where a two?stage unit will not provide low enough suction pressure economically. Applicable range is from +0 mm'g.A to ,.9 mm'gA. These systems consist of a booster e1ector, a booster condenser, and a two?stage e1ector system consisting of a high vacuum e1ector, intercondenser, and a low vacuum e1ector. A typical system using surface condenser is depicted in "igure 5.

Fig. 9

F%61, FI-E *0: SI;-ST*'E E4E+T%1S


These multi?stage e1ectors have applications similar to the previously described applications. They are used for applications where required suction pressures are beyond the range of the 8?> stage systems. :enerally, suction pressure ranges are as follows$ ; )tage E1ectors ? ; mm'gA to M5 microns 'gA 5 )tage E1ectors ? ,.; mm'gA to 8, microns 'g,A 0 )tage E1ectors ? 8,, microns 'gA to > microns 'gA

Scru""er System
The E1ector @enturi )crubber has gained wide acceptance commercially and industrially as an efficient and low cost means of air pollution control.

Principal o %peration
)crubbing liquid is supplied to the motive inlet under pressure. As a result of the large drop in liquid pressure across the nozzle, a high velocity liquid spray exits the nozzle. This atomized liquid provides surface area for transfer of mass from the gas to the liquid phase and allows for capture of particulates from the gas phase due to impaction. (n addition, the velocity of the liquid spray creates a negative pressure which pulls gas into the )crubber.

2ow The E&ector--enturi Scru""er 7or$s *d,antages


Aow initial cost )mall spatial requirement A fan is not required to move the gas )imultaneous removal of gases and particulates #o moving parts *ontaminant recovery<reclamation Inlimited turndown

Primary 6ses

&articulate or dust removal )crubbing noxious gases, odors and fumes

%ther 6ses
%irect *ontact *ondenser :as *ooler "an or :as mover &rocess Beactor 'eat Becovery %evice

Product 3ine
"ig. M,8,, E1ector @enturi )crubber "ig. M,8;, )crubber<)eparator )ystem "ig. M,+5, &ackaged )crubber )ystem "ig. M,55, &acked *olumn )crubber

Figure <=>=, E&ector -enturi Scru""er


The "ig. M,8, )crubber can achieve contaminant removal efficiencies as high as N57 or more in a single stage. 'igher efficiencies can be obtained by adding a second stage E1ector @enturi )crubber or &acked *olumn )crubber. :as handling capacities of up to N,,,,, acfm or more are possible with larger sized )JK )crubbers. )tock units up to 8+G in size are available in a variety of materials of construction for immediate shipment

Fig. <=>8, Scru""er?Separator Systems


The simplest )JK single stage )crubber system consists of a "ig. M,8, E1ector @enturi )crubber and "ig. M,;, )eparator. This system is designed to discharge clean, dry gas to atmosphere. A unique baffling arrangement within the )eparator reduces moisture carryover from the )eparator gas outlet to as low as ,.,,,+ gallons per 8,, cubic feet of gas. Aiquid drains from the bottom of the "ig. M,;, )eparator to a storage tank or to waste. The compact design of this system permits installation in small spaces. )tock )crubbers and )eparators up to 8+G size are available in a variety of materials construction for immediate shipment.

in of

Fig. <=@9, Pac$aged Scru""er System


The "ig. M,+5 &ackaged )crubber system can achieve contaminant removal efficiencies as high as NN.NN7 in many applications. This package typically consists of a "ig. M,8, E1ector @enturi )crubber and "ig. M,55 &acked *olumn )crubber in series and is complete with a liquid )torage Tank and Becirculation &ump and piping, all mounted on a common baseplate. A fully integrated instrumentation and control pack

Principal o %peration
)crubbing liquid enters the *olumn through a nozzle and is sprayed uniformly across the top of the packing. :as enters near the bottom of the *olumn and passes through the support plate into the packed section. The flow of gas and liquid through the *olumn is counter current. As the gas stream moves up the *olumn, contaminants are transferred to the liquid. The *olumn is designed to provide even flow of liquid without channeling. The packing provides maximum gas to liquid contact at low pressure drop. &rior to exiting the *olumn, the clean gas passes through a mist eliminator near the top of the *olumn, which removes entrained liquid before the gas discharges from the *olumn. %epending on the scrubbing liquid utilized, this liquid can be recirculated to the top of the column or discharged to waste. )chutte J Koerting manufactures several types of 1et apparatus for heating liquids. )team 2et 'eaters utilize the principal to mix steam with a cold liquid uniformly. /peration is efficient because the heat in the steam is absorbed by the liquid being heated to approximately 8,7 of liquid saturation temperature. The 1et action produces agitation and circulation, eliminating the need for other equipment to accomplish these functions in most applications. 3asically, all of these 2et 'eaters have a nozzle or orifice arrangement, a diffuser, and body which in some cases consists only of bracing to hold nozzle and diffuser in position!. (n operation, 1et heaters use steam or steam and water under pressure! as the motive force to entrain, mix with, heat, and pump or circulate! the suction liquid.

Product 3ine
"igure >+, ? *ontinuous 'eater "igure >;, ? )implex 'eater

Simple! 2eater - Figure 58= Principle o %peration


)implex pipeline heaters combine liquid under pressure with steam at a higher pressure. &ressurized liquid enters the heater and flows through an in?line perforated combining tube concentric to the diffuser. )team enters the heaters and intimately mixes with the liquid in the tube J venturi. The steam complete condenses and heats the liquid. There is no pressure drop across the heater.

Sales Points
These units can eliminate resistance or bayonet heaters and containment vessels. The straight through in?line design minimizes clogging. "ig. >;, heaters have a low initial cost, no moving parts, are easy to install and require little or no maintenance.

:IME0SI%0S SIAE 8 8<+ + > * M 8<+ N 8<; # ; M<>+ 5 ><9 + + 8<; + 8<+ > M<9 : 8 8<+ + > E 8 8 8<+ +

8> 88<80 M ><;

*ontinuous 'eater ? "igure >+, Principle o %peration


The liquid under pressure attains a high velocity passing through the nozzle. )team enters through a series of nozzles in the combining tube and an intimate mixing of the liquid and steam occurs in the throat region. The liquid absorbs all of the heat of the steam. Inder normal conditions no loss in water pressure occurs. (n certain cases, this water can be operated against back pressures higher than either the supply water pressure or steam pressure.

Sales Points These heaters can eliminate mechanical pumps, resistance or bayonet heaters and containment vessels. These units have a low initial cost, limited moving parts and are easy to install and require little or no maintenance.

SIAE * 8<+ ><; 8 8, 5<9

60IT :IME0SI%0S # ; 5<9 + 5 8<; 0 M<80 M 5<9 : ><; 8 E 8 N<80 8 M<9 + 8<+ > 8<+ ; 8<9 ; ><;

+%00E+TI%0S

FB 8<+ ><; 8 8 8<; 8 8<+ + + 8<+ >

0ET 7T. 3#S. > 8<+ 5 8<+ N 8> 89 >; 5+ M5

8; 8<80 0 5<9 8M 8<8; 9 5<9

8 8<; + ><80

8 8<; +, M<80 8, 8<; 9 88<80 8 8<+ + > +N 5<9 85 ><; 88 5<9 + 8<; > ;+ ><; +> ><80 80 5<80 > 8<;

8 8<+ +> M<9 8+ ><80 N 85<80 8 ><; + 8><80 + 8<+ >M 8<9 8N 5<9 8; 8<+

B FEM*3E PIPE T*P

7ater 4et Eductors


.ater 1et eductors utilize the kinetic energy of one liquid to cause the flow of another. Eductors consist of a converging nozzle, a body and a diffuser and resemble syphons in appearance. (n operation, the pressure energy of the motive liquid is converted to velocity energy by the converging nozzle. The high velocity liquid flow then entrains the suction liquid. *omplete mixing of the motive and suction is performed in the body and diffuser section. The mixture of liquids is then converted back to an intermediate pressure after passing through the diffuser.

*d,antages

)EA"?&B(-(#: Eductors require no priming and can be used in either continuous or intermittent operation. )(-&AE A#% BEA(A3AE )ince the basic eductor has no moving parts to wear or break, only periodic inspection is required. */BB/)(/# A#% EB/)(/# BE)()TA#T 3ecause they can be made from most materials or coated with corrosion resistant materials, eductors can be made resistant to the corrosive effects of the liquids handled and the environment. These units are furnished in materials such as$ ductile iron, bronze, steel, stainless steel, aluminum, &@*, "B&, 'aveg, Teflon, Kynar, and polypropylene to name 1ust a few. AIT/-AT(* */#TB/A Inits can be adapted for automatic operation by means of a regulating spindle or a snap valve and float arrangement. #/#?EAE*TB(*AA Eductors can be used in hazardous locations where electrically operated alternatives would require expensive explosion?proofing. EA)L T/ (#)TAAA Either threaded or flanged connections are available. Inits are compact, relatively light and can be adapted to a variety of piping configurations. A/. */)T .ater 1et eductors are inexpensive in relation to the work they do.

*pplications
.ater 1et eductors have numerous uses in the plant such as lifting, pumping, mixing and agitation of liquids, granular solids and slurries. )ome specific applications include$

Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boilerfeed water 'andling granular solids

/ther applications include$ draining flooded areas, dewatering sand and coal barges, continuous blending, acidifying, causticizing of oils, pumping food products.

:ata 1equired or Sizing


The following data is required for sizing the .ater 2et Eductor. 8. +. >. ;. 5. -otive gas ? pressure J temperature )uction head or lift required Temperature of suction liquid %ischarge head required (f liquid to be handled is not water ? specific gravity, vapor pressure and viscosity 0. )uction capacity ? :&M. -aterial of *onstruction

Emptying tan$s and sumps

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

Pumping and mi!ing operations in oil treating systems

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

Introducing anti$noc$ agents and coloring additi,es into gasoline

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

Producing emulsions

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular s

Tan$ mi!ing

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

Introduce water treating compound into "oiler eed water

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

2andling granular solids

%ther *pplications Emptying tanks and sumps &umping and mixing operations in oil treating systems (ntroducing antiknock agents and coloring additives into gasoline &roducing emulsions Tank mixing (ntroduce water treating compound into boiler feed water 'andling granular solids

Steam 4et Syphons


2et )yphons use steam or other gas as the motive force to pump, heat and mix liquids and handle slurries and granular solids. (n some cases they can be made to operate with air to pump liquids. These units consist of an expanding nozzle, diffuser and body as shown on the illustration. )team issues from the nozzle and creates a suction on the body. The suction material is drawn up and entrained by the motive fluid and is discharged against a backpressure.

*d,antages

)EA"?&B(-(#: )yphons require no priming and can be used in either continuous or intermittent operation. )(-&AE A#% BEA(A3AE )ince the basic syphon has no moving parts to wear or break, only periodic inspection is required. */BB/)(/# A#% EB/)(/# BE)()TA#T 3ecause they can be made from most materials or coated with corrosion resistant materials, syphons can be made resistant to the corrosive effects of the liquids handled and the environment. These units are furnished in materials such as$ ductile iron, bronze, steel, stainless steel, aluminum, &@*, "B&, 'aveg, Teflon, Kynar, and polypropylene to name 1ust a few. AIT/-AT(* */#TB/A Inits can be adapted for automatic operation by means of a regulating spindle or a snap valve and float arrangement. #/#?EAE*TB(*AA )yphons can be used in hazardous locations where electrically operated alternatives would require expensive explosion?proofing. EA)L T/ (#)TAAA Either threaded or flanged connections are available. Inits are compact, relatively light and can be adapted to a variety of piping configurations. A/. */)T .ater 1et syphons are inexpensive in relation to the work they do. 'EAT(#: )yphons are well adapted to processes where heating is required as well as pumping, since the use of steam involves condensation in liquid with an increase in temperature resulting.

*pplications

(ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

/ther applications include$ extracting chemicals in reaction chambers, moving powdered material or material in powdered form, filling and emptying gas holder tanks, handling soap solutions in

textile plants, pumping sugar 1uice and various liquids in canning plants, pumping filtrate from vacuum vessels and condensate from surface condensers.

:ata 1equired or Sizing


The following data is required for sizing the )team 2et )yphon. 8. +. >. ;. 5. -otive gas ? pressure J temperature )uction head or lift required Temperature of suction liquid %ischarge head required (f liquid to be handled is not water ? specific gravity, vapor pressure and viscosity 0. )uction capacity ? :&M. -aterial of *onstruction

Intermittent pumping o liquids rom tan$s and pits

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits

)upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

Supplying heated water to the &ac$ets o stills and graining "owls

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

1emo,ing liquid rom pic$ling "aths

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

+ondensing and Mi!ing *mmonia

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

Pumping Sludge 7ithout +logging

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

Intermittent %peration

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

Pipeline 2eater

%ther *pplications (ntermittent pumping of liquids from tanks and pits )upplying heated water to the 1ackets of stills and graining bowls Bemoving liquid from pickling baths *ondensing and -ixing Ammonia &umping )ludge .ithout *logging (ntermittent /peration &ipeline 'eater

Thermo compressors

Thermo compressors, or 1et gas compressors, utilize a high pressure gas to entrain a low pressure gas and discharge the pressure to an intermediate pressure. These types of compressors have three main parts ? a nozzle, body and diffuser. The design of the nozzle follows thermodynamic laws. %esign of the diffuser is partially empirical. "or this reason, )JKFs long experience in designing, manufacturing and testing 1et compressors is extremely beneficial.

Theory
The motive gas, under pressure, enters the compressors and flows through the nozzle. The nozzle converts the high pressure gas into a high velocity 1et stream which creates a suction and causes the entrainment of the low pressure gas. The motive and suction gas are mixed in the body. The diffuser then converts the velocity head of the gas mixture to a static head so that proper discharge pressure can be obtained. 2et gas compressors can be divided into two categories based upon the type of performance. >. 0on-critical +ompressors refers to units whose absolute pressure at the compressor discharge is less than 8.9 times the absolute pressure at the suctions.

.hen the performance is noncritical, a constant pressure can be maintained at the suction of the compressor, at varying capacities, by controlling the motive flow. These types of units can be furnished with a spindle that can be controlled either manually or automatically. @. +ritical +ompressors refers to units whose absolute pressure at the discharge is equal to or greater than 8.9 times the absolute pressure of the suction. .hen performance is critical, control cannot be exerted by means of the motive fluid. (n order to control the suction pressure of such a unit at varying process loads, it is necessary to maintain a constant load on the compressors by addition of a secondary suction fluid, or to vary the suction pressure at the compressor by introducing an artificial pressure drop in the suction line.

Types o 6nits

Type ;+0 2et *ompressors Type ;>N 2et *ompressors Type ;+, 2et *ompressors

Type 8@C 4et +ompressors


Type ;+0 2et *ompressors have automatically?controlled spindles. They are used when pressure, suction, or discharge conditions vary and it is necessary to control discharge pressure or flow. These units are made in > thru +; inch sizes with flanged connections. The spindle can be operated with a diaphragm, piston, or motor actuator using any standard instrument signal ? electric or pneumatic. The control can be activated by temperature, pressure, flow or suction to motive gas ratio. Type ;+0 *ompressor spindles are designed to act as temporary valves and provide right shut?off. "or temperatures above ;,,", spindle and seat should be hard?faced to resist wear. These compressors are made in materials to fit operating conditions or as specified by customer. )tandard materials are steel body and diffuser with stainless steel nozzle and spindle. )tandard flange ratings are >,, lb. but other ratings can be furnished, as required.

Ta"le 8.)izes and %imensions ? Type ;+0 *ompressors +onnections (Inches) :imensions (Inches) Size 0o. in Inches Pressure %,erall %,erall (Suction) :ischarge Inlet 3enghtBB 7idthBB > 8 8<+ > 0; 8<80 80 ; + ; 0M 8><80 80 5 > 5 98 8<9 +8 8<9 0 ; 0 8,8 +8 8<9 9 5 9 889 8<80 +8 8<9 8, 5 8, 8+5 85<80 +8 8<9 8+ 0 8+ 8;5 8<+ +8 8<9 8; 9 8; 800 5<80 +8 8<9 80 8, 80 8M9 8<+ +8 8<9 ## Inclu$es $iap ragm % type spin$le controller&

7eight (Pounds) +,0 +5, >+; 580 0M9 N90 88M0 858, +>5,

Type 85D 4et +ompressors


The Type ;>N *ompressor is the threaded?connection version of the Type ;+0 *ompressor described above. All connections are threaded, otherwise, this unit is the same as the Type ;+0. The Type ;>N can be made in materials to fit conditions. )tandard materials include cast iron, bronze, and steel, with stainless steel nozzle and spindle.

Ta"le 9.)izes and %imensions ? Type ;>N *ompressors +onnections (Inches) :imensions (Inches) Size 0o. in Inches Pressure %,erall %,erall (Suction) :ischarge Inlet 3enghtBB 7idthBB ><; ><9 ><; +8 8<+ 88 8 ><9 8 ++ 5<9 88 8 8<+ 8<+ 8 8<+ >, M<9 8> ><; + ><; + >; ><; 85 M<9 + 8<+ 8 + 8<+ ;; ><; 85 M<9 > 8 8<; > 55 8M ><; ## Inclu$es $iap ragm%type spin$le controller& *pplication

7eight (Pounds) +9 >, >+ >0 ;5 59

/an$ee :ryers
A "ig ;+0 Thermocompressor is installed in parallel with diaphragm operated make up valve. Typically, a pressure controller is used for control and set for desired steam pressure and operates the spindles in sequence by split ranging the valve positioners. The Thermocompressor is sized to pass the steam required for heating the dryer under load. The make up valve is sized to provide additional steam required for warm up. @alve operators are arranged to close the steam valve in the event of failure of the control system by means of springs. This protects the dryer from over pressure. The Thermocompressor is designed to provide the necessary quantity of recirculated steam to GsweepG out the condensate and overcome the consequent pressure drop through the drainage system. (t is not necessary to control the pressure drop by means of a blow thru valve since the characteristics of the Thermocompressor are such that sufficient recirculation will be provided with the varying steam pressures. .hen Thermocompressors are not used, it is sometimes necessary to desuperheat the steam down stream of the dryer pressure control valve. .hen a Thermocompressor is used, the moisture in the steam entrained from the separator reduces the temperature of the steam supplied and eliminates the need for a desuperheater unless the motive steam contains high superheat.

:ryer #an$s
-any paper machines operate with several banks of dryers ; feet and larger in diameter depending on the number of dryers and the type of machine. These are manifolded with anywhere from +?+5 dryers operating at a given steam pressure. The problem of removing condensate is much simpler than in the Lankee %ryer due to the smaller diameter. )tandard practice has been to blow thru steam from one bank of dryers to the next bank ? operating at a lower pressure with each succeeding bank dropping in pressure. This continues to the wet end where either the first dryers condense the steam or it is discharged to a surface condenser before returning to the boiler. This type of system has been quite successful but limits the flexibility in ad1usting the dryer pressures. (t is possible to apply thermocompressors to any given bank of dryers either eliminating or reducing blow thru to subsequent banks and allowing complete flexibility in the dryer temperature. (n this type of application, the amount of blow thru required for condensate removal is low and only sufficient steam for good drainage is applied through the Thermocompressor. The remaining steam is added through the steam control valve. %ryer pressure is controlled by the main steam valve with the Thermocompressor allowed to run at the smaller flow. A diaphragm head may be utilized on the Thermocompressor which would normally remain wide open but will provide a fail safe feature should the control system fail. As a wide range of pressures is to be encountered on the same bank of dryers, it may be necessary to ad1ust the spindle position on the thermocompressor to obtain optimum drainage. Typically, the Thermocompressor would be wide open at high dryer pressures and partially throttled for extremely low dryer pressures. (t is necessary to provide this ad1ustment either by hand control by the operator or by means of automatic control, separate from the dryer pressure control.

:esuperheaters
)chutte J Koerting *ompany has provided desuperheaters for over M, years. %esuperheating, sometimes called attemperation or steam conditioning, is the reduction of gas temperature. (ts most common application is the reduction of temperature in a steam line through the direct contact and evaporation of water.

Principal o %peration
-ost incorporate the venturi design which uses the velocity of the steam to atomize the cooling water. (n addition, e1ector atomizing, attemperator, surface absorption and mechanical atomizing designs are available. (n most types, water pressure required is the same as the steam line pressure.

*d,antages

Efficient, evaporated cooling water adds to steam load @arious types, configurations and sizes #o moving parts #o special supports #o thermal liner required except for emergency dump application!

*pplications

&ulp and &aper *hemical &etrochemical Itility "ood &harmaceutical

%esuperheaters are found in many other industries as well. Essentially, they can be used in any plant location where steam is present.

Product 3ine

"ig. 0N,5 ? -echanical Atomizing %ump %esuperheater "ig. 0N8, ? )urface Absorption %esuperheater "ig. 0N;,, 0N;,- J 0N5, ? @enturi %esuperheater "ig. 0N5+ J 0N5> ? Attemperator %esuperheater "ig. 0NM, J 0NM+ ? )team E1ector Atomizing %esuperheater "ig. 0N95 ? Annular @enturi %esuperheater

"igure 0N,5
The "igure 0N,5 -echanical Atomizing %ump %esuperheater is designed to be an emergency desuperheater which protects main turbine condensers or similar types of equipment when steam dumps occur. The operating principle is that high pressure water <liquid is sent through radially located nozzles on a pipe carrying the gas to be cooled. The water is atomized and evaporated in the gas stream thus cooling the stream in amounts equal to the enthalpy change plus the vaporization value of the cooling medium.

"igure 0N8,
The "igure 0N8, )urface Absorption %esuperheater is a unique unit in a compact design that allows for almost infinite turndown large flow rate variation! and saturated characteristics on the discharge. The operating principle is that water is in1ected into the desuperheater onto a baffle plate which distributes water across the reaction rings. The reaction rings provide a large surface area over which the hot vapor is forced to pass. The hot gas is then cooled by absorption of the water when contacting the reaction rings. The saturated vapor flows out of the desuperheater outlet and excess water drains through the bottom and is removed through a trap. The reaction rings in the Type 0N8, unit extend the cooling water surface, a feature not available in other )J K manufactured units.

"igure 0N;,, 0N;,- J 0N5,


"igures 0N;, and 0N5, are venturi desuperheaters. .ater entering the desuperheater is preheated in the circulatory chamber around the water diffuser tube and is introduced in many small 1ets to assist final atomization by the steam flow through the center of the throat. .hen leaving the throat, the mixture of steam and water enters the reduced pressure venturi section for turbulent mixing prior to entering the main steam line in a fog?like condition without contacting the sidewalls. This provides maximum desuperheating effectiveness and a minimum of wear in the discharge piping. The "igure 0N;,- %esuperheater is a miniature version of the Type 0N;,. (t was developed to handle small quantity steam applications found in heating, air conditioning and process industries.

"igure 0N5+ J 0N5>


The "igure 0N5+ and 0N5> are attemperator partial venturi! desuperheaters. .ater entering the desuperheater is preheated in the circulatory chamber around the water diffuser tube and is introduced in many small 1ets to assist final atomization by the

steam flow through the center of the throat. .hen leaving the throat, the mixture of steam and water enters the reduced pressure venturi section for turbulent mixing prior to entering the main steam line in a fog?like condition without contacting the sidewalls which provides maximum desuperheating effectiveness and a minimum of water in the discharge piping.

"igure 0NM, J 0NM+


The "igure 0NM, J 0NM+ are e1ector?type steam atomizing desuperheaters utilizing steam at pressures higher than the line steam pressure to atomize water. The e1ector action of the 0NM, is used to entrain condensate from the pipeline. The 0NM, unit employs a recycle system to improve turndown performance to 5,$8. The 0NM+ unit does not include the recycle feature and thus allows for vertical installationC however, the turndown is considerably lower.

"igure 0N95
The "igure 0N95 is an annular venturi desuperheater. )uperheated steam is directed by the cone into the annular area between the cone and pipe wall, increasing both velocity and turbulence. *ooling water is introduced through a narrow slot or small 1ets in the 8G and 8 8<+ G sizes! in the cone at the point of maximum velocity. The combination of velocity and turbulence improves atomization and produces maximum desuperheater effectiveness. The water pressure required should equal the operating steam pressure.

Installation System

System >

System @

System 5

System 8

System 9