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Pathophysiology of BronchioPneumonia

Pathophysiology: Inoculation of the respiratory tract by infectious organisms leads to

an acute inflammatory response in the host that is typically 1-2 weeks in duration.
This inflammatory response differs according to the type of infectious agent present.

Viral infections

These are characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear cells in the submucosa

and perivascular space, resulting in partial obstruction of the airway. They clinically
manifest as wheezing and crackles.

Disease progresses when the alveolar type II cells lose their structural integrity and
surfactant production is diminished, a hyaline membrane forms, and pulmonary
edema develops.

Bacterial infections

The alveoli fill with proteinaceous fluid, which triggers a brisk influx of red blood
cells and polymorphonuclear cells (red hepatization) followed by the deposition of
fibrin and the degradation of inflammatory cells (gray hepatization).

During resolution, intra-alveolar debris is ingested and removed by the alveolar

macrophages. This consolidation leads to decreased air entry and dullness to
percussion. Inflammation in the small airways leads to crackles. Wheezing is less
common than in viral infections.

Inflammation and pulmonary edema resulting from these infections causes the lungs
to become stiff and less distensible, thereby decreasing tidal volume. The patient must
increase his respiratory rate to maintain adequate ventilation.
I. Introduction

Patient’s Profile

Our patient was Jaslyn Salvador Palad, female, 1 month old with an admitting
diagnosis of Bronchopneumonia. She is from Sampaga, Balayan. Her parents
were Bienbenido Palad and Nenita Salvador. According to her mother, she was
suffering difficult of breathing for 2 days. Her attending physician was Dra.
Phibby Macanlalay.
Part Assessed Method Findings Remarks due to
Face Inspection Facial discomfort Pair/condition
Client’s mood Inspection Irritable Clients condition
Skin color Inspection Normal Ruddy pink to light pink
Skin temperature Palpation Normal Dehydration
Hair Inspection Normal Thick hair
Ear Inspection Normal Color same as facial
Nose Inspection Normal No discharge or flaring
Hands Inspection Normal Skin color pink
feet Inspection Normal Skin color pink

III. Anatomy and Physiology of lungs

The paired lungs are fairly organs. They occupy the entire thoracic cavity
except for the most central area, the mediastisium which houses the heart, the
great blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus and other organs. The narrow superior
portion of each lung the apex is located just deep to the clavicle. The brood lung
area resting on the diaphragm is the bass. Each lung is divided into lobes by
fissures; the left lung has two lobes and the right lung has three.