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Sargasso Sea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Sargasso Sea (disambiguation).

The Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic is bounded by the Gulf Stream on the west, the North Atlantic Current on the north, the Canary Current on the east, and the North Equatorial Current on the south. The Sargasso Sea is a region in the gyre in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf Stream; on the north, by the North Atlantic Current; on the east, by the Canary Current; and on the south, by the North Atlantic Equatorial Current. This system of ocean currents forms the North Atlantic Gyre. All the currents deposit the marine plants and refuse they carry into this sea. The Sargasso Sea is 1,100 km wide and 3,200 km long (700 statute miles wide and 2,000 statute miles long). It stretches from roughly 70 degrees west to 40 degrees west, and from 20 degrees north to 35 degrees north. Bermuda is near the western fringes of the sea. The ocean water in the Sargasso Sea is distinctive for its deep blue color and exceptional clarity, with underwater visibility of up to 200 feet (61 m).[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Ecology 3 Depictions in popular culture 4 References 5 External links

History
Portuguese sailors were among the first to discover this region in the 15th century, naming it after the Sargassum seaweed growing there (sargao / sargasso in Portuguese).[2] However, the sea may have been known to earlier mariners, as a poem by the late 4th century AD author, Rufus Festus Avienus, describes a portion of the Atlantic as being covered with seaweed, citing a now-lost account by the 5th-century BC Carthaginian explorer Himilco the Navigator. Christopher Columbus and his men also noted the Sargasso Sea, and brought reports of the masses of seaweed on the surface.[3]

Ecology
The Sargasso Sea is home to seaweed of the genus Sargassum, which floats en masse on the surface there. The sargassum is not a threat to shipping, and historic incidents of sailing ships being trapped there are due to the often calm winds of the horse latitudes.[4] The Sargasso Sea also plays a major role in the migration of the European eel and the American eel. The larvae of both species hatch there and go to Europe or the East Coast of North America. Later in life, they try to return to the Sargasso Sea to lay eggs. It is also believed that after hatching, young Loggerhead Sea Turtles use currents, such as the Gulf Stream to travel to the Sargasso Sea, where they use the Sargassum as cover from predation until they are mature.[5] The Sargasso Sea was the subject of a recent metagenomics effort called the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) survey by J. Craig Venter and others, to evaluate the diversity of microbial life there. The results have indicated that, contrary to previous theories, the area has a wide variety of prokaryotic life.[citation needed] Owing to surface currents, the Sargasso accumulates a high concentration of non-biodegradable plastic waste.[6] The huge North Atlantic Garbage Patch in the area is similar to another ocean phenomenon, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

Depictions in popular culture

Lines of sargassum in the Sargasso Sea The Sargasso Sea is often portrayed in literature and the media as an area of mystery.[7] In 1846 Edward Forbes hypothesized a post-Miocene land mass extending westward from Europe into the Atlantic. "If this land existed it did not extend to America (for the fossils of the Miocene of America are representative & not identical): where then was the edge or coastline of it, Atlantic-wards? Look at the form & constancy of the great fucus-bank & consider that it is a Sargassum bank". [8] The Sargasso Sea features in classic fantasy stories by William Hope Hodgson, such as his novel The Boats of the "Glen Carrig" (1907), Victor Appleton's Don Sturdy novel, Don Sturdy in the Port of Lost Ships: Or, Adrift in the Sargasso Sea, and several related short stories. Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea describes the Sargasso Sea and gives an account of its formation.[9] The 1912 poem "Portrait D'une Femme" by Ezra Pound alludes to the Sargasso Sea in the line "Your mind and you are our Sargasso Sea, London has swept about you this score years".[10] The 1923 silent film The Isle of Lost Ships, an atmospheric adventure from director Maurice Tourneur, takes place in the Sargasso Sea. The film was based on Crittenden Marriott's 1909 novel The Isle of Dead Ships. The Isle of Lost Ships is now a lost film. The Sargasso Sea was the venue for the Doc Savage adventure "The Sargasso Ogre" written by Lester Dent under the pseudonym Kenneth Robeson and published in the October 1933 issue of the Doc Savage pulp magazine.[11][12] The 1934 poem When Once the Twilight Locks No Longer, written by Dylan Thomas, refers to the Sargasso Sea.[13]

The 1955 science fiction novel Sargasso of Space by Andre Norton is the story of a planet full of derelict star ships. This the first in a series of novels about a young spacer named Dane Thorson and his adventures aboard an independent trading vessel called the "Solar Queen". In this novel the crew of the Solar Queen find themselves stranded on a planet that pulls in and forever traps star ships. ISBN 0-911682-22-8 The 1960-62 live action/marionette children's syndicated television show, Diver Dan contained at least two episodes set in the Sargasso Sea, Ep. 21 "Sargasso Sea"[14] and Ep. 22 "Lost in the Sargasso Sea".[15] For many children of the baby boomer generation, that was their first introduction to the existence and novelty of the Sargasso Sea. The first episode of Jonny Quest: Season 1, Episode 1 (18 Sep. 1964), The Mystery of the Lizard Men. A foreign power uses the Sargasso Sea to conduct laser experiments and employs "lizard men" to scare away potential interlopers.[16] Edwin Corley's novel, Sargasso, revolves around a fictional account of Apollo 19 splashing down in the Sargasso sea empty. In Marvel 1602, it is where the Fantastick Four gained their powers. Jean Rhys's 1966 novel Wide Sargasso Sea plays with the idea that a woman can become lost in her own society and thus driven out of her mind, la Charlotte Bront's mad woman in the attic. Fred Andrew's mystery novel Plato's Pond [17] features the fictitious land of Gaia, which is a continent in the middle of the Sargassum Sea. The 1968 movie The Lost Continent was set in a highly fictionalized Sargasso Sea where Spanish galleons, trapped for centuries in seaweed, are found in modern times, along with a society of descendants of Conquistadores and sea monsters. In the 1973 episode "The Time Trap" of Star Trek: The Animated Series, the USS Enterprise becomes trapped in "a pocket in the garment of time". Capt. Kirk makes the comment, "It's like a vast Saragasso Sea [sic]. A graveyard of ships from every civilization imaginable." [18] In the 1978 Anime television series, Space Pirate Captain Harlock, Captain Harlock went to the Sargasso Sea where crew would encounter false lost ships.[19] The self-titled debut album of guitarist Michael Lee Firkins from 1990 contains an instrumental song called "The Sargasso Sea". The 1994 album ST3 by Salt Tank contained a track entitled Sargasso Sea.[20] The 1999 video game Alpha Centauri features a special map tile called New Sargasso which contains a lot of native life, dangerous to the player if he is not prepared. The 2007 music video for the song Dashboard by indie group Modest Mouse features a sea captain telling the story of how he lost his hand to a giant fish while sailing in Sargasso Sea. The instrumental jam band Lotus released a double live album in May, 2007, titled "Escaping Sargasso Sea" (SCI Fidelity Records). It was nominated for a Jammy award by Guitar Player

magazine for "Best Live Album of 2007".[21] The album was described by Relix magazine as "sexy and sophisticated dance music, mature enough to be played in the club or the living room".[22] The 2009 album, Carving Desert Canyons by Scale the Summit features a song called Sargasso Sea.[23] The final track on the album Anastasis (2012), "All in Good Time", from the group Dead Can Dance opens with an allusion to the Sargasso Sea: "All your ships / Have left their moorings / Cast adrift / On the Sargasso Sea / Waiting for the wind / To set your sails free" The Yu-Gi-Oh! card "Ancient Battlefield of the Different Dimention - Sargasso" alludes to this sea.

References
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopdia Britannica article Sargasso Sea. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ^ "Sargasso Sea". World Book 15. Field Enterprises. 1958. ^ "Wide Sargasso Sea". Book Drum. ^ "The Sargasso Sea". BBC - Homepage. BBC. Retrieved 6 June 2011. ^ "Sargasso". Straight Dope. ^ "Turtles return home after UK stay". BBC News. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2010-05-23. ^ "The trash vortex". Greenpeace. Retrieved 2008-04-20. ^ Ruth Heller (2000). A Sea Within a Sea: Secrets of the Sargasso. Price Stern Sloan. ISBN 978-0-448-42417-0. 8. ^ Forbes' letter to Darwin 9. ^ Jules Verne (trans. by William Butcher) (1870/2001). 20,000 Leagues Under the Seas. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282839-8. 10. ^ Ezra Pound. "Portrait D'une Femme". Shmoop. Retrieved 2012-08-10. 11. ^ "The Sargasso Ogre". The Fantastic Adventures of Doc Savage. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 12. ^ Dent, Lester (2007). Doc Savage Reprint #7: The Lost Oasis and The Sargasso Ogre. Nostalgia Ventures. ISBN 1-932806-71-7. 13. ^ "When Once The Twilight Locks No Longer". Retrieved 2012-08-24. 14. ^ "Diver Dan: Ep 21 Sargasso Sea (1961)". Retrieved 2012-08-09. 15. ^ "Diver Dan: Ep 22 Lost in the Sargasso Sea (1961)". Retrieved 2012-08-09. 16. ^ "Jonny Quest: The Mystery of the Lizard Men". Retrieved 2012-08-09. 17. ^ Fred Andrews. "Kemper Conseil Publishing". Kemperconseil.nl. Retrieved 2012-0104. 18. ^ "Star Trek: The Animated Series - The Time Trap". CBS. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 19. ^ Space Pirate Captain Harlock#episodes|Episode 13, The Castle of Evil in the Sea of the Death. 20. ^ "ST3 on Discodogs". Retrieved 2012-10-24.

21. ^ "Jammy Awards Announce 7th Jammy Awards Nominations", Guitar Player 22. ^ Hect, Jared (2007) "Escaping Sargasso Sea" (review), Relix, 6 December 2007 23. ^ "Scale the Summit". Retrieved 2012-08-10.

External links

Sargasso Sea Alliance Skeptoid #132: The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Refuse Patch at Skeptoid What's the story on the Sargasso Sea? (The Straight Dope) Photos of organisms living in the Sargasso Sea [show]

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European Union
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "EU" redirects here. For other uses, see EU (disambiguation).

European Union[show]

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Motto: "United in diversity" [1][2][3] Anthem: Ode to Joy [2] (orchestral)

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Leaders - President of the European Herman Van Rompuy (EPP) Council - President of the Jos Manuel Barroso (EPP) Commission Legislature of the European Legislature Union Council of the European Upper house Union Lower house European Parliament Establishment Treaty of Paris Treaty of Rome Treaty of Maastricht 23 July 1952 1 January 1958 1 November 1993 Area 4,324,782 km2 (7tha) 1,669,807 sq mi 3.08 Population 2012 estimate Density 503,492,041[7] (3rda) 116.2/km2 300.9/sq mi 2011 estimate $15.821 trillion[8] (1sta) $31,607[8] (15tha) 2011 estimate $17.577 trillion[8] (1sta) $35,116[9] (14tha) 30.4[10] medium 0.876[11] very high 13th / 25tha Euro and others [show] (UTC+0 to +2) (UTC+1 to +3[a])

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see list .eu[b] Website europa.eu

a.

If considered as a single entity.

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[12][13] The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states.[14][15][16] Institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU's de facto capital is Brussels.[17] The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by the Inner Six countries in 1951 and 1958 respectively. In the intervening years the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in 1993.[18] The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area (which includes 22 EU and 4 non-EU states) passport controls have been abolished.[19] EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital,[20] enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade,[21] agriculture,[22] fisheries and regional development.[23] A monetary union, the eurozone, was established in 1999 and is composed of 17 member states. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. Permanent diplomatic missions have been established around the world. The EU is represented at the United Nations, the WTO, the G8 and the G-20. With a combined population of over 500 million inhabitants,[24] or 7.3% of the world population,[25] the EU, in 2012, generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of 16.584 trillion US dollars, representing approximately 20% of the global GDP when measured in terms of purchasing power parity, and represents the largest nominal GDP and GDP PPP in the world.[26] The EU was the recipient of the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize.[27]

Contents

1 History 2 Treaties 3 Geography o 3.1 Member states

4 Politics o 4.1 Constitutional nature of the European Union o 4.2 Governance o 4.3 Budget o 4.4 Competences o 4.5 Proposed transfer union 5 Legal system o 5.1 Courts of Justice o 5.2 Fundamental rights o 5.3 Acts 6 Justice and home affairs 7 Foreign relations o 7.1 Military o 7.2 Humanitarian aid 8 Economy o 8.1 Internal market o 8.2 Competition o 8.3 Monetary union o 8.4 Financial supervision o 8.5 Energy o 8.6 Infrastructure o 8.7 Agriculture o 8.8 Environment 9 Education and science 10 Health care 11 Demographics o 11.1 Languages o 11.2 Religion 12 Culture and sport 13 See also 14 Notes o 14.1 Footnotes o 14.2 Citations 15 References 16 External links

History
Main article: History of the European Union After World War II, moves towards European integration were seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism that had devastated the continent.[28] The 1948 Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, as it led to the creation of the European Movement International and also of the College of Europe, a place where Europe's future leaders would live and study together.[29] 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel

Community, which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe", starting with the aim of eliminating the possibility of further wars between its member states by means of pooling the national heavy industries.[30] The founding members of the Community were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The originators and supporters of the Community include Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman and Paul-Henri Spaak.[31]

The member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession. Only territories in and around Europe are shown. v.d.e.
Albania Austria Belarus Belgium B&H Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland

Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Mac. Malta Moldova Mont. Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

In 1957, the six countries signed the Treaty of Rome, which extended the earlier co-operation within the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and created the European Economic Community, (EEC) establishing a customs union. They also signed another treaty on the same day creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958.[31] The EEC and Euratom were created separately from ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and then tienne Hirsch. Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.[32][33] Throughout the 1960s tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power. However, in 1965 an agreement was reached and hence in 1967 the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels. It came into force on 1 July 1967 and created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities (EC), although commonly just as the European Community.[34][35] Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission).[36] In 1973 the Communities enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Community in 1985), Ireland, and the United Kingdom.[37] Norway had negotiated to join at the same time but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum and so Norway remained outside. In 1979, the first direct, democratic elections to the European Parliament were held.[38]

Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain in 1986.[39] In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way toward the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states.[40] In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the Community[41] and the Single European Act was signed. In 1990, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the former East Germany became part of the Community as part of a newly united Germany.[42] With enlargement towards European formerly communist countries as well as Cyprus and Malta on the agenda, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the European Union were agreed. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treatywhose main architects were Helmut Kohl and Franois Mitterrandcame into force on 1 November 1993,[18] and in 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the newly established EU. In 2002, euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 17 countries. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined the Union.[43] On 1 January 2007, Romania and Bulgaria became the EU's members. In the same year Slovenia adopted the euro,[43] followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, by Slovakia in 2009 and by Estonia in 2011. In June 2009, the 2009 Parliament elections were held leading to a renewal of Barroso's Commission Presidency, and in July 2009 Iceland formally applied for EU membership. On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with legal personality, and it created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which is Herman Van Rompuy, and a strengthened High Representative, Catherine Ashton.[44] On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the EU accession treaty.[45] The EU accession referendum was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012, with the majority voting for Croatia's accession to the European Union making it the 28th member state as of 1 July 2013.[46] The European Union received the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."[47][48]

Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950.

The Iron Curtain's fall in 1989 enabled further expansion of the EU. (Berlin Wall)

The introduction of the euro in 2002 replaced several national currencies.

Treaties
Main article: Treaties of the European Union
Signed 1948 195 In forc 1948 1 e Brus 195 Docu sels 2 ment Treat Pari y s Tre aty 1954 1957 1955 1958 Modif Rom ied e Bruss treat els ies Treat y 1965 1967 Mer ger Trea ty 1975 1985 N/A 1985 Europe Schen an gen Counci Treat l y conclus ion 1986 1987 Single European Act 1992 1993 Maastri cht Treaty 1997 1999 Amster dam Treaty 2001 2007 2003 2009 Nice Lisbon Treaty Tre aty

Three pillars of the European Union: European Communities: European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty expired in 2002 European Union (EU)

European Economic Community (EEC) Schengen Rules European Community (EC) Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)

TREVI

European Political Common Foreign and Cooperation Security Policy (CFSP) (EPC) Unconsolid ated bodies

Western European Union (WEU)

Treaty terminated in 2011


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Geography
Main article: Geography of the European Union

The EU's climate is influenced by its 65,993 km (41,006 mi) coastline (Cyprus).

Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the EU.

The EU's member states cover an area of 4,423,147 square kilometres (1,707,787 sq mi).[c] The EU's highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level.[49] The lowest point in the EU is Zuidplaspolder in the Netherlands, at 7 m (23 ft) below sea level. The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is 65,993 kilometres (41,006 mi) long. The combined member states share land borders with 19 non-member states for a total of 12,441 kilometres (7,730 mi).[15][50][51] Including the overseas territories of France which are located outside of the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic (North-East Europe) to tropical (French Guyana), rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate (North-Western Europe and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe).[52] The EU's population is highly urbanised, with some 75% of inhabitants (and growing, projected to be 90% in 7 states by 2020) living in urban areas. Cities are largely spread out across the EU, although with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. An increasing percentage of this is due to low density urban sprawl which is extending into natural areas. In some cases this urban growth has been due to the influx of EU funds into a region.[53]

Member states
Main article: Member state of the European Union See also: Special member state territories and the European Union, Enlargement of the European Union, Future enlargement of the European Union, and Withdrawal from the European Union

Member states Acceding: Croatia Candidates: Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey[54] Applicants: Albania

Potential candidates which have not yet applied for membership: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo (status disputed).[55] The European Union is composed of 27 sovereign member states.[56]

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus The Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta The Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden The United Kingdom

Day of Europe in Warsaw, Poland.In 2004, ten ex communist states entered into the European Union.

The Union's membership has grown from the original six founding statesBelgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlandsto the present-day 27 by successive enlargements as countries acceded to the treaties and by doing so, pooled their sovereignty in exchange for representation in the institutions.[57] To join the EU a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993 Copenhagen European Council. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council.[58] No member state has ever left the Union, although Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark) withdrew in 1985.[59] The Lisbon Treaty now provides a clause dealing with how a member leaves the EU.[60] Croatia will become the 28th member state of the EU on 1 July 2013 after a referendum on EU membership was approved by Croatian voters on 22 January 2012. The Croatian accession treaty still has to be ratified by all current EU member states.[61] There are five candidate countries: Iceland, Macedonia,[d] Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey.[62] Albania has submitted an application. Bosnia and Herzegovina is officially recognised as a potential candidate.[62] Kosovo is also listed as a potential candidate, however since their independence is not recognised by Serbia, or five out of 27 EU member states, the European Commission refers only to "Kosovo*"", with an asterisked footnote containing the text agreed to by the BelgradePristina negotiations: "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence." Four countries forming the EFTA (that are not EU members) have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland (a candidate country for EU membership), Liechtenstein and Norway, which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland, which has similar ties through bilateral treaties.[63][64] The relationships of the European microstates, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican include the use of the euro and other areas of co-operation.[65]

Politics
Main article: Politics of the European Union

Political system of the European Union The EU operates solely[citation needed] within those competencies conferred on it upon the treaties and according to the principle of subsidiarity (which dictates that action by the EU should only be taken where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states alone). Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Generally speaking they can be classified into two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures, and those which specifically require national implementation measures.[66]

Constitutional nature of the European Union


Further information: Constitution of the European Union

Eiffel Tower, Paris, France. The classification of the European Union in terms of international or constitutional law has been much debated, often in the light of the degree of integration that is perceived, desired, or expected. Historically, at least, the EU is an international organisation, and by some criteria, it

could be classified as a confederation; but it also has many attributes of a federation, so some would classify it as a (de facto) federation of states.[67][68][69] For this reason, the organisation has, in the past, been termed sui generis (incomparable, one of a kind), though it is also argued that this designation is no longer true.[70][71] The organisation itself has traditionally used the terms "community", and later "union". The difficulties of classification involve the difference between national law (where the subjects of the law include natural persons and corporations) and international law (where the subjects include sovereign states and international organisations); they can also be seen in the light of differing European and American constitutional traditions.[70] Especially in terms of the European constitutional tradition, the term federation is equated with a sovereign federal state in international law; so the EU cannot be called a federal state or federationat least, not without qualification. Though not, strictly, a federation, it is more than a free-trade association.[72] It is, however, described as being based on a federal model or federal in nature. Walter Hallstein, in the original German edition of Europe in the Making called it "an unfinished federal state".[73] The German Constitutional Court refers to the European Union as an association of sovereign states and affirms that making the EU a federation would require replacement of the German constitution.[74] Others claim that it will not develop into a federal state but has reached maturity as an international organisation.[75]

Governance
Main articles: Institutions of the European Union and Legislature of the European Union The European Union has seven institutions: the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Council, the European Central Bank, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Auditors. Competencies in scrutinising and amending legislation are divided between the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union while executive tasks are carried out by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council (not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union). The monetary policy of the eurozone is governed by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The EU budget is scrutinised by the European Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. Institutions of the European Union [76]

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European

European Council

Council of the

European

Parliament - Legislative (similar to lower house) - Sets impetus and direction -

European Union - Legislative (similar to upper house) -

Commission - Executive -

acts together with the Council as a legislature shares with the Council the budgetary power and decides in the last instance on the general budget of the EU exerts the democratic control over EU institutions including the European Commission and appoints the Commission members based and plenary sessions in

summit of the Heads of Government, chaired by the President of the European Council) gives the necessary impetus for the development and sets out general objectives and priorities will not legislate based in Brussels

acts together with the Parliament as a legislature exerts together with the Parliament the budgetary power ensures coordination of the broad economic and social policy and sets out guidelines for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) conclude international agreements based in Brussels

is the "government" submits proposals for new legislation to the Parliament and to the Council implements EU policy and administers the budget ensures compliance with EU law negotiates international treaties based in Brussels

Strasbourg, General Secretariat in Luxembourg, primarily meets in Brussels

Court of Justice of the European Union - Judiciary -

European Court of Auditors - Financial auditor -

European Central Bank - Monetary executive (central bank) -

ensure uniformity of interpretatio n of European law has the power to decide legal disputes between EU member states, EU

examines the proper use of revenue and expenditure of the EU institutions (see also Budget of the European Union) based in Luxembourg

forms together with the national central banks the European System of Central Banks and thereby determining the monetary policy of the

institutions, businesses and individuals based in Luxembourg

EU ensures price stability in the eurozone by controlling the money supply based in Frankfurt

European Union

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European Council

President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy The European Council gives direction to the EU, and convenes at least four times a year. It comprises the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state; either its head of state or head of government. The European Council has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority".[77] It is actively involved in the negotiation of the treaty changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a "collective head of state" and ratifies important documents (for example, international agreements and treaties).[78] On 19 November 2009, Herman Van Rompuy was chosen as the first permanent President of the European Council. On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force and he assumed office. Ensuring the external representation of the EU,[79] driving consensus and settling divergences among members are tasks for the President both during the convocations of the European Council and in the time periods between them. The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe, an international organisation independent from the EU. Commission

Commission President Jos Manuel Barroso The European Commission acts as the EU's executive arm and is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running of the EU. The Commission is also seen as the motor of European integration. It operates as a cabinet government, with 27 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 27 is the Commission President (currently Jos Manuel Duro Barroso) appointed by the European Council. After the President, the most prominent Commissioner is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who is ex-officio VicePresident of the Commission and is chosen by the European Council too.[80] The other 25 Commissioners are subsequently appointed by the Council of the European Union in agreement with the nominated President. The 27 Commissioners as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. Parliament

The European Parliament building in Strasbourg, France The European Parliament (EP) forms one half of the EU's legislature (the other half is the Council of the European Union, see below). The 736 (soon to be 751) Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years on the basis of proportional representation. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.[81]

The ordinary legislative procedure of the European Union. The Parliament and the Council of the European Union pass legislation jointly in nearly all areas under the ordinary legislative procedure. This also applies to the EU budget. Finally, the Commission is accountable to Parliament, requiring its approval to take office, having to report back to it and subject to motions of censure from it. The President of the European Parliament carries out the role of speaker in parliament and represents it externally. The EP President and Vice-Presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years.[82] Council The Council of the European Union (also called the "Council"[83] and sometimes referred to as the "Council of Ministers")[84] forms the other half of the EU's legislature. It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed. Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body.[85] In addition to its legislative functions, the Council also exercises executive functions in relations to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

Budget
Main article: Budget of the European Union

The 2011 EU budget (141.9 bn. in total; commitment appropriations):[86] Cohesion and competitiveness for growth and employment (45%) Citizenship, freedom, security and justice (1%) The EU as a global player (6%) Rural development (11%) Direct aids and market related expenditures (31%)

Administration (6%) The EU had an agreed budget of 120.7 billion for the year 2007 and 864.3 billion for the period 20072013,[87] representing 1.10% and 1.05% of the EU-27's GNI forecast for the respective periods. By comparison, the United Kingdom's expenditure for 2004 was estimated to be 759 billion, and France was estimated to have spent 801 billion. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP.[88] In the 2010 budget of 141.5 billion, the largest single expenditure item is "cohesion & competitiveness" with around 45% of the total budget.[89] Next comes "agriculture" with approximately 31% of the total.[89] "Rural development, environment and fisheries" takes up around 11%.[89] "Administration" accounts for around 6%.[89] The "EU as a global partner" and "citizenship, freedom, security and justice" bring up the rear with approximately 6% and 1% respectively.[89] The Court of Auditors aims to ensure that the budget of the European Union has been properly accounted for. The court provides an audit report for each financial year to the Council and the European Parliament. The Parliament uses this to decide whether to approve the Commission's handling of the budget. The Court also gives opinions and proposals on financial legislation and anti-fraud actions.[90] The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".[91] The Court has refused to do so every year since 1993, qualifying their report of the Union's accounts every year since then.[92] In their report on 2009 the auditors found that five areas of Union expenditure, agriculture and the cohesion fund, were materially affected by error.[93] The European Commission estimated that the financial impact of irregularities was 1,863 million.[94]

Competences
EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.[95] That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:

As outlined in Part I, Title I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union:

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"Member States cannot exercise competence in "The Union has exclusive competence to areas where the Union has done so." make directives and conclude international the internal agreements when market provided for in a Union social policy, legislative act." for the aspects the customs defined in this union Treaty the establishing economic, of the social and competition territorial rules necessary cohesion for the agriculture and functioning of fisheries, the internal excluding the market conservation of monetary policy marine for the Member biological States whose resources currency is the environment euro consumer the conservation protection of marine transport biological trans-European resources under networks the common energy fisheries policy the area of common freedom, commercial security and policy justice conclusion of common safety certain concerns in international public health agreements matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty

Exclusive competence:

Shared competence:

"Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States "The Union can carry out actions to support, being prevented from coordinate or supplement exercising theirs in:" Member States' actions research, in:" technological the protection and development improvement of and space human health development industry cooperation, culture humanitarian aid tourism education, youth, sport and "The Union coordinates vocational Member States policies training or implements civil protection supplemental to theirs (disaster common policies, not prevention) covered elsewhere" administrative coordination of cooperation economic, employment and social policies common foreign, security and defence policies

Supporting competence:

Proposed transfer union


One of the outgrowths of the European sovereign debt crisis of 2008 on and strains on the Euro have been, first, increased reliance on the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF for managing intra-Union financial imbalances; second, a move toward European common banking regulation; and third, proposals for greater common political and budgetary policy for the Union. One form for common budgetary policy would involve a transfer union wherein direct payments within the Union would help equalise between economies.[96] At the beginning of 2013, the debate played out in Germany, the largest and strongest single economy in the Union. While Jens Weidmann, president of the German Bundesbank expressed reservations about the so-called outright monetary transactions program (OMT) in mid-year 2012, "some predict that Chancellor Angela Merkel is simply waiting for victory in the September election [in 2013] to declare support for a full-scale European transfer union", per commentator David Marsh.[97]

Legal system
Further information: European Union law, Treaties of the European Union, and Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.[98] These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals. These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation[e] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants.[f] The EU has legal personality, with the right to sign agreements and international treaties.[99] Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions.[g]

Courts of Justice
The judicial branch of the EUformally called the Court of Justice of the European Union consists of three courts: the Court of Justice, the General Court, and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal. Together they interpret and apply the treaties and the law of the EU.[100] The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and cases referred to it by the courts of member states.[101] The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts,[102] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and its civil service.[103] Decisions from the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law.[104]

Fundamental rights

The last amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU came into force in 2009 and was the Lisbon Treaty. The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail."[105] In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty gave legal effect to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged. It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states."[106] The Court of Justice has long recognised fundamental rights and has, on occasion, invalidated EU legislation based on its failure to adhere to those fundamental rights.[107] The Charter of Fundamental Rights was drawn up in 2000. Although originally not legally binding the Charter was frequently cited by the EU's courts as encapsulating rights which the courts had long recognised as the fundamental principles of EU law. Although signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership,[h] previously, the EU itself could not accede to the Convention as it is neither a state[i] nor had the competence to accede.[j] The Lisbon Treaty and Protocol 14 to the ECHR have changed this: the former binds the EU to accede to the Convention while the latter formally permits it. Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on rule of law, human rights and democracy. Further European Convention on Human Rights and European Social Charter, the source of law of Charter of Fundamental Rights are created by Council of Europe. The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition.[108] Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership.[109]

Acts
The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations, directives, and decisions. Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures,[k] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.[e] Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states.[l] When the time limit for implementing directives passes, they may, under certain conditions, have direct effect in national law against member states.

Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law, or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions. Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy.[110]

Justice and home affairs


Further information: Area of freedom, security and justice

The Schengen Area comprises most member states ensuring open borders. Since the creation of the EU in 1993, it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs, initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism. To this end, agencies have been established that co-ordinate associated actions: Europol for co-operation of police forces,[111] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,[112] and Frontex for cooperation between border control authorities.[113] The EU also operates the Schengen Information System[19] which provides a common database for police and immigration authorities. This cooperation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime. Furthermore, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition,[114] family law,[115] asylum law,[116] and criminal justice.[117] Prohibitions against sexual and nationality discrimination have a long standing in the treaties.[m] In more recent years, these have been supplemented by powers to legislate against discrimination based on race, religion, disability, age, and sexual orientation.[n] By virtue of these powers, the EU has enacted legislation on sexual discrimination in the work-place, age discrimination, and racial discrimination.[o]

Foreign relations
Main articles: Foreign relations of the European Union, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and European External Action Service

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton. Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in 1957, when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the Common Commercial Policy.[118] Steps for a more wide ranging co-ordination in foreign relations began in 1970 with the establishment of European Political Cooperation which created an informal consultation process between member states with the aim of forming common foreign policies. It was not, however, until 1987 when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. EPC was renamed as the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty.[119] The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.[120] The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue. The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP makes disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq,[121] not uncommon.[citation needed]

The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. (G20 summit in Seoul) The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (currently Catherine Ashton) who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment. The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service (EEAS), a unique EU department[122] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December 2010 on

the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.[123] The EEAS will serve as a foreign ministry and diplomatic corps for the European Union.[124] Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries.[125] This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".[126]

Military
Main article: Military of the European Union

The Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger are built by consortiums of companies based in EU member states. The European Union does not have one unified military. The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a strong military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.[127] 21 EU members are members of NATO[128] while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality.[129] The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU.[130] According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), France spent more than 44 billion ($59bn) on defence in 2010, placing it third in the world after the US and China, while the United Kingdom spent almost 38 billion ($58bn), the fourth largest.[131] Together, France and the United Kingdom account for 45 per cent of Europe's defence budget, 50 per cent of its military capacity and 70 per cent of all spending in military research and development.[132] Britain and France are also officially recognised nuclear weapon states and are the only two European nations to hold permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. In 2000, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany accounted for 97% of the total military research budget of the then 15 EU member states.[133] Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete

result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel.[134] EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East.[135] EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff.[136] In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defence cooperation is increasingly relying on great power co-operation.[137]

Humanitarian aid
Further information: ECHO (European Commission)

The EU is a large contributor of foreign aid The European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2006 its budget amounted to 671 million, 48% of which went to the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.[138] Humanitarian aid is financed directly by the budget (70%) as part of the financial instruments for external action and also by the European Development Fund (30%).[139] The EU's external action financing is divided into 'geographic' instruments and 'thematic' instruments.[139] The 'geographic' instruments provide aid through the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI, 16.9 billion, 20072013), which must spend 95% of its budget on overseas development assistance (ODA), and from the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which contains some relevant programmes.[139] The European Development Fund (EDF, 22.7 bn, 20082013) is made up of voluntary contributions by member states, but there is pressure to merge the EDF into the budget-financed instruments to encourage increased contributions to match the 0.7% target and allow the European Parliament greater oversight.[139] The EU's aid has previously been criticised by the think-tank Open Europe for being inefficient, mis-targeted and linked to economic objectives.[140] Clare Short, former British International Development Secretary said the European Commission ran 'the worst development agency in the world' and branded its operations 'an outrage and a disgrace'.[141] Furthermore, some charities such as ActionAid have claimed European governments have inflated the amount they have spent on aid by incorrectly including money spent on debt relief, foreign students, and refugees. Under the de-inflated figures, the EU as a whole did not reach its internal aid target in 2006[142]

and is expected not to reach the international target of 0.7% of gross national income until 2015.[143] However, four countries have reached the 0.7% target: Sweden, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Denmark.[144] In 2005 EU aid was 0.34% of the GNP which was higher than that of either the United States or Japan.[145] The previous Commissioner for Aid, Louis Michel, has called for aid to be delivered more rapidly, to greater effect, and on humanitarian principles.[146]

Economy
Main articles: Economy of the European Union and Regional policy of the European Union Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant, in purchasing power standard (PPS) in EU regions in 2009 The EU has established a single market across the territory of all its members. A monetary union, the eurozone, using a single currency comprises 17 member states.[147] In 2012 the EU had a combined GDP of 16.073 trillions international dollars, a 20% share of the global gross domestic product (in terms of purchasing power parity).[26] According to Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report 2012 (September) EU owns the largest net wealth in the world estimated in the 30% of the 223 trillions $ global wealth. Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500 in 2010), 161 have their headquarters in the EU.[148] In 2007, unemployment in the EU stood at 7%[149] while investment was at 21.4% of GDP, inflation at 2.2%, and current account balance at 0.9% of GDP (i.e., slightly more import than export). In 2012, unemployment in the EU stood, per August 2012, at 11.4%[149] There is a significant variance for GDP (PPP) per capita within individual EU states, these range from 11,300 to 69,800 (about US$15,700 to US$97,000).[150] The difference between the richest and poorest regions (271 NUTS-2 regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) ranged, in 2009, from 27% of the EU27 average in the region of Severozapaden in Bulgaria, to 332% of the average in Inner London in the United Kingdom. On the high end, Inner London has 78,000 PPP per capita, Luxembourg 62,500, and Bruxelles-Cap 52,500, while the poorest regions, are Severozapaden with 6,400 PPP per capita, Nord-Est with 6,900 PPP per capita, Severen tsentralen with 6,900 and Yuzhen tsentralen with 7,200.[150] Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe.[151][152] Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, ISPA, and SAPARD), and support to the former USSR Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS). TACIS has now become part of the worldwide EuropeAid programme. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area.[153]

Internal market
Main article: Internal market

EU member states have a standardised passport design with the name of the member state, the national arms, and the words "European Union" given in their official language(s). (Irish model) Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently renamed the single market, and a customs union between its member states. The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people and services within the EU,[147] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. The non-EU member states of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.[63] Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU.[154] Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.[155] Until the drive towards economic and monetary union the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states. The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.[156] The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. While services account for 6070% of GDP, legislation in the area is not as developed as in other areas. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.[157] According to the Treaty the provision of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised.

Competition
Further information: European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.[p] The Commission as the competition regulator for the single market is responsible for antitrust issues, approving mergers, breaking up cartels, working for economic liberalisation and preventing state aid.[158] The Competition Commissioner, currently Joaqun Almunia, is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of transnational corporations.[159] For example, in 2001 the Commission for the first time prevented a merger between two companies based in the United States (GE and Honeywell) which had already been approved by their national authority.[160] Another high-profile case against Microsoft, resulted in the Commission fining Microsoft over 777 million following nine years of legal action.[161]

Monetary union
Main articles: Eurozone and Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union

The eurozone (in darker blue) is constituted by 17 member states adopting the euro as legal tender.

The European Central Bank in Frankfurt governs the monetary policy.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969. However, it was only with the advent of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that member states were legally bound to start the monetary union no later than 1 January 1999. On this date the euro was duly launched by eleven of the then 15 member states of the EU. It remained an accounting currency until 1 January 2002, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro) has since grown to 17 countries, the most recent being Estonia which joined on 1 January 2011. All other EU member states, except Denmark and the United Kingdom, are legally bound to join the euro[162] when the convergence criteria are met, however only a few countries have set target dates for accession. Sweden has circumvented the requirement to join the euro by not meeting the membership criteria.[q] The euro is designed to help build a single market by, for example: easing travel of citizens and goods, eliminating exchange rate problems, providing price transparency, creating a single financial market, price stability and low interest rates, and providing a currency used internationally and protected against shocks by the large amount of internal trade within the eurozone. It is also intended as a political symbol of integration and stimulus for more.[163] Since its launch the euro has become the second reserve currency in the world with a quarter of foreign exchanges reserves being in euro.[164] The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it in agreement with the EU, are under the control of the European Central Bank (ECB).[165] The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks, which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the VicePresident of the ECB, and the governors of the national central banks of all 27 EU member states.[166] The monetary union has been shaken by the European sovereign-debt crisis since 2009.

Financial supervision

City of London.

The European System of Financial Supervisors is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority. To complement this framework, there is also a European Systemic Risk Board under the responsibility of the ECB. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.[167]

Energy
Main article: Energy policy of the European Union
EU energy production 46% of total EU primary energy use Nuclear energy[r] 29.3% Coal & lignite 21.9% Gas 19.4% Renewable energy 14.6% Oil 13.4% Other 1.4% Net imports of energy 54% of total primary EU energy use Oil & petroleum products 60.2% Gas 26.4% Other 13.4%

In 2006, the 27 member states of the EU had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe).[168] Around 46% of the energy consumed was produced within the member states while 54% was imported.[168] In these statistics, nuclear energy is treated as primary energy produced in the EU, regardless of the source of the uranium, of which less than 3% is produced in the EU.[169] The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October 2005, and the first draft policy was published in January 2007.[170] The EU has five key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market, encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia[171] and North Africa; use existing energy supplies more efficiently while increasing renewable energy commercialisation; and finally increase funding for new energy technologies.[170]

The EU currently imports 82% of its oil, 57% of its natural gas[172] and 97.48% of its uranium[169] demands. There are concerns that Europe's dependence on Russian energy is endangering the Union and its member countries. The EU is attempting to diversify its energy supply.[173]

Infrastructure
Further information: European Commissioner for Transport, European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship, and European Investment Bank

The resund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is part of the Trans-European Networks. The EU is working to improve cross-border infrastructure within the EU, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Frjus Rail Tunnel, the resund Bridge, the Brenner Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. In 2001 it was estimated that by 2010 the network would cover: 75,200 kilometres (46,700 mi) of roads; 78,000 kilometres (48,000 mi) of railways; 330 airports; 270 maritime harbours; and 210 internal harbours.[174][175] The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.[176] The Polish road network in particular was in poor condition: at Poland's accession to the EU, a number of roads needed to be upgraded, particularly the A4 autostrada, requiring approximately 13 billion.[177][178] The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. Galileo is a proposed Satellite navigation system, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), and is to be operational by 2012. The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System, but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for far greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.[179] It has been criticised by some due to costs, delays, and their perception of redundancy given the existence of the GPS system.[180]

Agriculture
Main article: Common Agricultural Policy

EU farms are supported by the CAP, the largest budgetary expenditure. (Vineyard in Spain) The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the oldest policies of the European Community, and was one of its core aims.[181] The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stabilising markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers.[s] It was, until recently, operated by a system of subsidies and market intervention. Until the 1990s, the policy accounted for over 60% of the then European Community's annual budget, and still accounts for around 34%.[182] The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction, resulting in so-called butter mountains and wine lakes. These were intervention stores of produce bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies (amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices) to export their produce outside the Community. This system has been criticised for undercutting farmers outside of Europe, especially those in the developing world.[183] The overproduction has also been criticised for encouraging environmentally unfriendly intensive farming methods.[183] Supporters of CAP say that the economic support which it gives to farmers provides them with a reasonable standard of living, in what would otherwise be an economically unviable way of life. However, the EU's small farmers receive only 8% of CAP's available subsidies.[183] Since the beginning of the 1990s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in 1988, where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas (by the McSharry reforms in 1992) and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' (or disassociation) of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce (by the Fischler reforms in 2004). Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size. This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels, while maintaining agricultural income levels.[181] One of these reforms entailed the abolition of the EU's sugar regime, which previously divided the sugar market between member states and certain AfricanCaribbean nations with a privileged relationship with the EU.[150]

Environment

Further information: European Commissioner for the Environment and European Climate Change Programme

Danube Delta, Romania. In 1957 when the EU was founded, it had no environmental policy, no environmental bureaucracy, and no environmental laws.[184] Today, the EU has some of the most progressive environmental policies of any state in the world. The environmental policy of the EU has therefore developed in remarkable fashion in the past four decades. An increasingly dense network of legislation has emerged, which now extends to all areas of environmental protection, including: air pollution control; water protection; waste management; nature conservation; and the control of chemicals, biotechnology and other industrial risks.[185] The Institute for European Environmental Policy estimates the body of EU environmental law amounts to well over 500 Directives, Regulations and Decisions.[186] Environmental policy has thus become a core area of European politics.

Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland. Such dynamic developments are surprising in light of the legal and institutional conditions which existed in the late 1950s and 60s.[187] Acting without any legislative authority, European policymakers initially increased the EU's capacity to act by defining environmental policy as a trade problem. The most important reason for the introduction of a common environmental policy was the fear that trade barriers and competitive distortions in the Common Market could emerge due to the different environmental standards.[188] However, in the course of time, EU environmental policy emerged as a formal policy area, with its own policy actors, policy principles and

procedures. The legal basis of EU environmental policy was not more explicitly established until the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987.[186]

A wisent in the Biaowiea Forest, Poland. Initially, EU environmental policy was rather inward looking. More recently, however, the Union has demonstrated a growing leadership in global environmental governance. The role of the EU in securing the ratification and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in the face of US opposition is an example in this regard. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, which recognises that its strategic objectives can only be achieved if a series of key international environmental agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at an EU level and worldwide. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty further strengthens the EU's global environmental leadership ambitions.[189] The vast body of EU environmental law which now exists has played a vital role in improving habitat and species protection in Europe as well as contributed to improvements in air and water quality and waste management.[190] However, significant challenges remain, both to meet existing EU targets and aspirations and to agree new targets and actions that will further improve the environment and the quality of life in Europe and beyond. One of the top priorities of EU environmental policy is combatting climate change. In 2007, member states agreed that the EU is to use 20% renewable energy in the future and that it has to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels.[191] This includes measures that in 2020, 10% of the overall fuel quantity used by cars and trucks in EU 27 should be running on renewable energy such as biofuels. This is considered to be one of the most ambitious moves of an important industrialised region to fight climate change.[192]

Education and science


Main articles: Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union and Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

Renewable energy is one priority in transnational research activities such as the seventh framework programme Education and science are areas where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In education, the policy was mainly developed in the 1980s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. In its first 20 years it has supported international exchange opportunities for well over 1.5 million university and college students and has become a symbol of European student life.[193] There are now similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 20072013. These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.[194] Through its support of the Bologna process the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe. Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes, the first of which started in 1984. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects.[195] EU research and technological framework programmes deal in a number of areas, for example energy where it aims to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy for the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels.[196]

Health care
Further information: Healthcare in Europe

European Health Insurance Card. (French version pictured) Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". All the member states have either publicly sponsored and regulated universal health care or publicly provided universal health care. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products.[197][198][199] Health care in the EU is provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level. The systems are primarily publicly funded through taxation (universal health care). Private funding for health care may represent personal contributions towards meeting the non-taxpayer refunded portion of health care or may reflect totally private (non-subsidised) health care either paid out of pocket or met by some form of personal or employer funded insurance. All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.[200] A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients.[201][202][203]

Demographics
Main articles: Demographics of the European Union and Largest population centres in the European Union The combined population of all 27 member states was forecast at 503,679,730 as of 1 January 2012.[7]

v t e

Largest population centres of European Union


Larger Urban Zones, according to Eurostat[204][205] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 City name London Paris Madrid Ruhr Area Berlin State United Kingdom France Spain Germany Germany Pop. 11,905,500 11,532,409 5,804,829 5,302,179 4,971,331

London

Madrid

6 7 8 9 10 Paris

Barcelona Athens Rome Hamburg Milan

Spain Greece Italy Germany Italy

4,440,629 4,013,368 3,457,690 3,134,620 Ruhr Area 3,076,643

The EU contains 16 cities with populations of over one million, the largest being London. Besides many large cities, the EU also includes several densely populated regions that have no single core but have emerged from the connection of several cites and now encompass large metropolitan areas. The largest are Rhine-Ruhr having approximately 11.5 million inhabitants (Cologne, Dortmund, Dsseldorf et al.), Randstad approx. 7 million (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region approx. 5.8 million (Frankfurt, Wiesbaden et al.), the Flemish diamond approx. 5.5 million (urban area in between Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven and Ghent), Katowice and its Upper Silesian metropolitan area approx. 5.3 million and the resund Region approx. 3.7 million (Copenhagen, Denmark and Malm, Sweden).[206] In 2010, 47.3 million people lived in the EU, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[207]

Languages
Main article: Languages of the European Union European official languages report (EU-27) Native Language Total Speakers English 13% 51% German 27% 16% French 12% 24% Italian 13% 16% Spanish 8% 15% Polish 8% 9% Romanian 5% 5% Dutch 4% 5%

European official languages report (EU-27) Native Language Total Speakers Hungarian 3% 3% Portuguese 2% 3% Czech 2% 3% Swedish 2% 3% Greek 2% 2% Bulgarian 2% 2% Slovak 1% 2% Danish 1% 1% Finnish 1% 1% Lithuanian 1% 1% Slovenian <1% <1% Estonian <1% <1% Irish <1% <1% Latvian <1% <1% Maltese <1% <1%
Published in June 2012.[208] Survey conducted in February March 2012. Native: Native language[209] Total: EU citizens able to hold a conversation in this language[210]

Among the many languages and dialects used in the EU, it has 23 official and working languages: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.[211][212] Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language. The European Parliament provides translation into all languages for documents and its plenary sessions.[213] Some institutions use only a handful of languages as internal working languages.[214] Catalan, Galician, Basque, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh are not official languages of the EU but have semi-official status in that official translations of the treaties are made into them and citizens of the EU have the right to correspond with the institutions using them. Language policy is the responsibility of member states, but EU institutions promote the learning of other languages.[t][215] English is the most spoken language in the EU, it is spoken by 51% of the EU population when counting both native and non-native speakers.[216] German is the most widely spoken mother tongue (about 88.7 million people as of 2006). 56% of EU citizens are able to engage in a conversation in a language other than their mother tongue.[217] Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, except Estonian, Finnish, and Hungarian, which belong to the Uralic language family, and Maltese, which is an Afroasiatic

language. Most EU official languages are written in the Latin alphabet except Bulgarian, written in Cyrillic, and Greek, written in the Greek alphabet.[218] Besides the 23 official languages, there are about 150 regional and minority languages, spoken by up to 50 million people.[218] Of these, only the Spanish regional languages (that is, Catalan, Galician, and Basque), Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh[219] can be used by citizens in communication with the main European institutions.[220] Although EU programmes can support regional and minority languages, the protection of linguistic rights is a matter for the individual member states. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ratified by most EU states provides general guidelines that states can follow to protect their linguistic heritage.

Religion
Main article: Religion in the European Union

The percentage of Europeans in each member state who believe in God, according to Eurobarometer poll in 2005.[221] The EU is a secular body with no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations".[222] The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe".[222] Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity or God or both, in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was dropped.[223] Christians in the EU are divided among followers of Roman Catholicism, numerous Protestant denominations, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Other world religions are also represented in the EU population. As of 2009, the EU had an estimated Muslim population of 13 million,[224] and an estimated Jewish population of over a million.[225] Eurostat's Eurobarometer opinion polls showed in 2005 that 52% of EU citizens believed in a God, 27% in "some sort of spirit or life force", and 18% had no form of belief.[221] Many

countries have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years.[226] The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were Estonia (16%) and the Czech Republic (19%).[221] The most religious countries are Malta (95%; predominantly Roman Catholic), and Cyprus and Romania both with about 90% of the citizens believing in God (both predominantly Orthodox). Across the EU, belief was higher among women, increased with age, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 with a basic education, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale (57%)."[221]

Culture and sport


Main articles: Art of Europe, Cultural policies of the European Union, and Sport policies of the European Union

Marseille in France (left) and Koice in Slovakia (right) are the European Capitals of Culture in 2013. Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.[227] Actions taken in the cultural area by the EU include the Culture 2000 7-year programme,[227] the European Cultural Month event,[228] the Media Plus programme,[229] orchestras such as the European Union Youth Orchestra[230] and the European Capital of Culture programme where one or more cities in the EU are selected for one year to assist the cultural development of that city.[231] Sport is mainly the responsibility of an individual member states or other international organisations rather than that of the EU. However, there are some EU policies that have had an impact on sport, such as the free movement of workers which was at the core of the Bosman ruling, which prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with

European citizenship.[232] The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity.[233] This followed lobbying by governing organisations such as the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, due to objections over the applications of free market principles to sport which led to an increasing gap between rich and poor clubs.[234] The EU does fund a program for Israeli, Jordanian, Irish and British football coaches, as part of the Football 4 Peace project.[235]

See also
Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal

Outline of the European Union European Union at Wikipedia books Council of Europe European Free Trade Association Statue of Europe Presseurop (news service)

Notes
Footnotes
1. ^ Not including overseas territories 2. ^ .eu is representative of the whole of the EU; member states also have their own TLDs. 3. ^ This figure includes the extra-European territories of member states which are part of the European Union and excludes the European territories of member states which are not part of the Union. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. 4. ^ Referred to by the EU as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". 5. ^ a b See Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu 6. ^ According to the principle of Direct Effect first invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen, Eur-Lex (European Court of Justice 1963). See: Craig and de Brca, ch. 5. 7. ^ According to the principle of Supremacy as established by the ECJ in Case 6/64, Falminio Costa v. ENEL [1964] ECR 585. See Craig and de Brca, ch. 7. See also: Factortame litigation: Factortame Ltd. v. Secretary of State for Transport (No. 2) [1991] 1 AC 603, Solange II (Re Wuensche Handelsgesellschaft, BVerfG decision of 22 October 1986 [1987] 3 CMLR 225,265) and Frontini v. Ministero delle Finanze [1974] 2 CMLR 372; Raoul George Nicolo [1990] 1 CMLR 173.

8. ^ It is effectively treated as one of the Copenhagen criteria, Assembly.coe.int. It should be noted that this is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. 9. ^ The European Convention on Human Rights was previously only open to members of the Council of Europe (Article 59.1 of the Convention), and even now only states may become member of the Council of Europe (Article 4 of the Statute of the Council of Europe). 10. ^ Opinion (2/92) of the European Court of Justice on "Accession by the Community to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms" 1996 E.C.R. I-1759 (in French), ruled that the European Community did not have the competence to accede to the ECHR. 11. ^ See: Case 34/73, Variola v. Amministrazione delle Finanze [1973] ECR 981. 12. ^ To do otherwise would require the drafting of legislation which would have to cope with the frequently divergent legal systems and administrative systems of all of the now 27 member states. See Craig and de Brca, p. 115 13. ^ See Articles 157 (ex Article 141) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu 14. ^ See Article 2(7) of the Amsterdam Treaty on eur-lex.europa.eu 15. ^ Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin (OJ L 180, 19 July 2000, p. 2226); Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ L 303, 2.12.2000, p. 1622). 16. ^ Article 3(1)(g) of the Treaty of Rome 17. ^ In order to meet the euro convergence criteria it is necessary first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, something Sweden has declined to do: "ERM II". Danish Finance Ministry. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 18. ^ Note that although almost all Uranium is imported, Nuclear Power is considered primary energy produced in the EU 19. ^ Article 39 (ex Article 33) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu 20. ^ See Articles 165 and 166 (ex Articles 149 and 150) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu

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129. ^ Laursen, Finn (29 May 1 June 1997). "The EU 'neutrals,' the CFSP and defence policy". Biennial Conference of the European Union Studies Association. Seattle, WA.: University of Pittsburgh. p. 27. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 130. ^ Statement of the Presidency of the Permanent Council of the WEU on behalf of the High Contracting Parties to the Modified Brussels Treaty Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom Western European Union 31 March 2010. 131. ^ The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database 132. ^ "Britain and France to work together" By Catherine Field 4 November 2010 nzherald.co.nz According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Britain spent more than US$69 billion on defence last year, placing it third in the world after the United States and China, while France spent US$67.31 billion, the fourth largest. Together, Britain and France account for 45 per cent of Europe's defence budget, 50 per cent of its military capacity and 70 per cent of all spending in military research and development. Copyright 2010, APN Holdings NZ Limited. 133. ^ European civil research did not benefit from the decline in military research budgets PDF 134. ^ Council of the European Union. "Military Capabilities". Europa web portal. Retrieved 9 October 2007. 135. ^ Council of the European Union. "EU security and defence Operations". Europa web portal. Retrieved 26 June 2007. 136. ^ Council of the European Union. "ESPD Structures". Europa web portal. Retrieved 26 June 2007. 137. ^ "The Russo-Georgian War and Beyond: towards a European Great Power Concert, Danish Institute of International Studies". Diis.dk. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 138. ^ European Commission (2006). "DG for humanitarian aid ECHO, financial report 2006". Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 139. ^ a b c d Mikaela Gavas 2010. Financing European development cooperation: the Financial Perspectives 20142020. London: Overseas Development Institute 140. ^ Mulvey, Stephen (30 May 2007). "EU attacked for 'inefficient' aid". BBC News. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 141. ^ How your money is squandered on foreign aid 142. ^ Taylor, Jerome (11 May 2007). "EU accused of artificially inflating its aid figures". The Independent (London). Retrieved 13 August 2007.[dead link] 143. ^ OECD (3 April 2007). "Development aid from OECD countries fell 5.1% in 2006". Retrieved 6 April 2009. 144. ^ German Foundation for World Population (29 September 2008). "Euromapping 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2009. 145. ^ European Commission. "Overviews of the European Union activities: Development". Europa web portal. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 146. ^ European Commission (13 June 2007). "Commission calls for a European consensus to boost impact of humanitarian aid". Europa web portal. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 147. ^ a b "The Single Market". Europa web portal. Retrieved 27 June 2007.

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seagoing ships of all flags) ... A tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a standardised unit defined on the basis of one tonne of oil having a net calorific value of 41.868 Gigajoules." 169. ^ a b "EU supply and demand for nuclear fuels" (PDF). Euratom Supply Agency Annual Report 2007. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2008. p. 22. ISBN 978-92-79-09437-8. Retrieved 1 March 2009. "European uranium mining supplied just below 3% of the total EU needs, coming from the Czech Republic and Romania (a total of 526 tU)." Nuclear energy and renewable energy are treated differently from oil, gas , and coal in this respect. 170. ^ a b "Q&A: EU energy plans". BBC. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 171. ^ Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff (November 2008). Kazakhstan's Gas: Export Markets and Export Routes (PDF). Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 172. ^ "'Low-carbon economy' proposed for Europe". MSNBC. Retrieved 24 January 2007. 173. ^ European Parliament. "Ukraine-Russia gas disputecall for stronger EU energy policy". Europa web portal. Retrieved 27 February 2008. 174. ^ "The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules" (PDF). Europa web portal. European Commission. 1 October 2003. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 175. ^ Mirea, Silvia. "The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules". The Railway Journal. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 176. ^ "White Paper on Transport". Euractiv. 22 September 2004. Retrieved 15 August 2007. 177. ^ "EUR 650 million for the Polish Road Network". Retrieved Nov 2010. 178. ^ "EU regional policy: Poland en route for growth". Retrieved July 2012. 179. ^ Barrot, Jacques. "Jacques Barrot Home Page, Commission vice president for transport". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. 180. ^ McKie, Robin (15 July 2007). "Sat-nav rival could crash and burn". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 August 2007. 181. ^ a b Stead, David; Robert Whaples (eds) (22 June 2007). "Common Agricultural Policy". EH.Net Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2007. 182. ^ "Agriculture: Meeting the needs of farmers and consumers". Europa: Gateway to the European Union. European Commission. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "... the common agricultural policy is the most integrated of all EU policies and consequently takes a large share of the EU budget. Nevertheless, its portion of the EU budget has dropped from a peak of nearly 70% in the 1970s to 34% over the 20072013 period." 183. ^ a b c Jeffery, Simon (26 June 2007). "The EU common agricultural policy". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 30 August 2007. 184. ^ Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds)(2012) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA. 185. ^ Knill, C. and Liefferink, D.(2012) The establishment of EU environmental policy, In: Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.

186. ^ a b Institute for European Environmental Policy (2012) Manual of European Environmental Policy, Earthscan, London. 187. ^ Knill, C. and Liefferink, D.(2012) The etsbalishment of EU environmental policy, In: Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA. 188. ^ Johnson, S.P. and Corcelle, G. (1989) The Environmental Policy of the European Communities, Graham & Trotman, London 189. ^ Benson, D. and Adelle, C. (2012) European Union environmental policy after the Lisbon Treaty, In: Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA. 190. ^ Institute for European Environmental Policy (2012) Manual of European Environmental Policy, Earthscan, London 191. ^ Aldred, Jessica (23 January 2008). "EU sets 20% target for carbon cuts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 February 2008. 192. ^ "how the eu plans to fight climate change". Retrieved Nov 2010. 193. ^ European Commission. "The Erasmus programme celebrates its 20th anniversary". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007.; Jean-Sbastien, Lefebvre (22 January 2007). "Erasmus turns 20 time to grow up?". Caf Babel. Retrieved 10 August 2007. 194. ^ EACEA. "About the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007.; European Commission. "Lifelong Learning Programme". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. 195. ^ European Research Council. "What is the ERC?". Europa web portal. Retrieved 21 July 2007. 196. ^ European Commission. "Energy". Europa web portal. Retrieved 12 November 2007. 197. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 26 November 2010. 198. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 26 November 2010. 199. ^ "Europa web portal". Europa (web portal). 18 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 200. ^ "info about health care and EHIC". Nhs.uk. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 201. ^ Consilium.europa.eu 202. ^ Eur-lex.europa.eu 203. ^ NHSconfed.org 204. ^ Total population in Urban Audit cities, Larger Urban Zones - Eurostat 205. ^ CityProfiles - Eurostat 206. ^ Eurostat. "Indicators for larger urban zones 19992003". Europa web portal. Retrieved 25 January 2007. 207. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011. 208. ^ Europeans and Their Languages, 2012 Report 209. ^ European Commission (2012). "Europeans and their Languages". Special Eurobarometer 386. europa.eu. pp. 5459. Retrieved 16 December 2012

210. ^ European Commission (2012). "Europeans and their Languages". Special Eurobarometer 386. europa.eu. pp. 7883. Retrieved 16 December 2012 211. ^ EUR-Lex (12 December 2006). "Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006". Official Journal of the European Union. Europa web portal. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 212. ^ "Languages in Europe Official EU Languages". EUROPA web portal. Retrieved 12 October 2009. 213. ^ europarltv, official webtv of the European Parliament, is also available in all EU languages [3] 214. ^ "Languages and Europe. FAQ: Is every document generated by the EU translated into all the official languages?". Europa web portal. 2004. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 215. ^ European Parliament (2004). "European Parliament Fact Sheets: 4.16.3. Language policy". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 216. ^ European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)" (PDF). Europa web portal. p. 4. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "English is the most commonly known language in the EU with over a half of the respondents (51%) speaking it either as their mother tongue or as a foreign language." 217. ^ European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)" (PDF). Europa web portal. p. 3. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "56% of citizens in the EU Member States are able to hold a conversation in one language apart from their mother tongue." 218. ^ a b European Commission (2004). "Many tongues, one family. Languages in the European Union" (PDF). Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 219. ^ Rory Watson (5 July 2008). "Welsh and Gaelic are official EU tongues". The Times (London). Retrieved 13 March 2009 220. ^ "Mercator Newsletter n. 29". Mercator Central. 2006. Retrieved 1 February [dead link] 2007. 221. ^ a b c d Eurostat (2005). "Social values, Science and Technology". Special Eurobarometer 225 (Europa, web portal): 9. Retrieved 11 June 2009 222. ^ a b Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union. 223. ^ Castle, Stephen (21 March 2007). "EU celebrates 50th birthday-with a row about religion". The Independent (London). Retrieved 4 March 2008.[dead link] 224. ^ "Muslim Population". europa web portal. Retrieved November 2010. 225. ^ Jewish population figures may be unreliable. Sergio DellaPergola. "World Jewish Population (2002)". American Jewish Year Book. The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 3 May 2007. 226. ^ Ford, Peter (22 February 2005). "What place for God in Europe". USA Today. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 227. ^ a b Bozoki, Andras. "Cultural Policy and Politics in the European Union" (PDF). IECOB, Institute for Central Eastern and Balkan Europe. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 228. ^ European Commission. "European Culture Month". Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008. 229. ^ European Commission (5 July 2007). "Media programme". Europa web portal. Retrieved 13 July 2007.

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References

Bindi, Federiga, ed. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World (Brookings Institution Press; 2010). The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its neighbours. Bomberg, Elizabeth, Peterson, John, and Richard Corbett, eds. The European Union: How Does it Work? (3rd ed) (2012, Oxford University Press). ISBN 978-0-19-957080-5 and ISBN 0-19-957080-9. Corbett, Richard; Jacobs, Francis; Shackleton, Michael (2011). The European Parliament (8th ed.). London: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9564508-5-2. Craig, Paul; de Brca, Grinne (2007). EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8. Jordan, A.J. and Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA. Kaiser, Wolfram. Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union (2007) McCormick, John (2007). The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-4202-3. Pinder, John, and Simon Usherwood. The European Union: A Very Short Introduction (2008) excerpt and text search Rifkin, Jeremy (2004). The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream. Jeremy P. Tarcher. ISBN 978-1-58542-345-3. Smith, Charles (2007). International Trade and Globalisation (3rd ed.). Stocksfield: Anforme. ISBN 1-905504-10-1. Staab, Andreas. The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact (2008) excerpt and text search Steiner, Josephine; Woods, Lorna; Twigg-Flesner, Christian (2006). EU Law (9th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927959-3. Yesilada, Birol A. and David M. Wood. The Emerging European Union (5th ed. 2009) Piris, Jean-Claude (2010). Lisbon Treaty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-521-19792-2.

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