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1 2 Block diagram Overall diagram



The main objective of this concept is used to apply the gear by using pneumatic system in automobile vehicles. This is the new innovative model mainly used for the vehicles to control the vehicle. Here we are concentrating to design the gear changing mechanism in two wheeler vehicles by using the pneumatic devices, tape motor and u-slot sensor. By using this we can easily control the vehicle and improve the performance of the vehicle also we can avoid the wear and tear of the gear.



A motorcycle (also called a motor bicycle, motorbi e, bi e, or cycle! is a single-trac , two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. "otorcycles vary considerably depending on the tas for

which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. #n many parts of the world, motorcycles are among the least e$pensive and most widespread forms of motori%ed transport. #n these vehicles the gear shifting mechanism is done manually. To avoid such



The word &pneuma' comes from (ree and means wind. The word pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a wor ing medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and e)uipment. *neumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out the simplest mechanical tas s in more recent times has *layed a more important role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation. *neumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient )uantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. +hen the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the )uestion of compressed air supply.

The ey part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that ta es in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. ,ompressor capacity is the actual )uantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume e$pressed is that of that of the air at inta e conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. The compressibility of the air was first investigated by -obot Boyle in ./01 and that found that the product of pressure and volumes of particular )uantity of gas. The usual written as *2 3, (or! *i2i 3*121

#n this e)uation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about .4.5*si and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 67 inches high in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly used system now a days.

89:9,T#;< ;= *<9>"AT#,8? "echani%ation is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. *neumatic is an attractive medium for low ,ost mechani%ation particularly for se)uential (or! repetitive operations. "any factories and plants already have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing the power (or! energy re)uirements and control system (although e)ually pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power!. The main advantages of an all pneumatic system are usually 9conomic and simplicity the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. #t can have out standing advantages in terms of safety.

*<9>"AT#, *;+9-? *neumatic systems use pressuri%ed gases to transmit and control power. *neumatic systems typically use air as the fluid medium because air is safe, low cost and readily available.

TH9 A@2A<TA(98 ;= *<9>"AT#,8? Air used in pneumatic systems can be directly e$hausted bac #n to the surrounding environment and hence the need of special reservoirs and no-lea system designs are eliminated. 1. *neumatic systems are simple and economical 6. ,ontrol of pneumatic systems is easier

TH9 @#8A@2A<TA(98 ;= *<9>"AT#,8? .. *neumatic systems e$hibit spongy characteristics due to compressibility of air. 1. *neumatic pressures are )uite low due to compressor design limitations(less that 1A7 psi!.

*-;@>,T#;< ;= ,;"*-9889@ A#*neumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be made available. #n sufficient )uantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. +hen pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the )uestion of compressed air supply.

The ey part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that ta es in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure. ,ompressor capacity is the actual )uantity of air compressed and delivered and the volume e$pressed is that of the air At inta e conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. ,lean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life of a compressor. +arm and moist suction air will result increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air.

,ompressor may be classified in two general types. .. *ositive displacement compressor 1. Turbo compressor *ositive displacement compressors are most fre)uently employed for ,ompressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply air for pneumatic control application. The types of positive compressor .. -eciprocating type compressor 1. -otary type compressor

Turbo compressors are employed where large of air re)uired at low discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.

-9,#*-;,AT#<( ,;"*-988;-8? Built for either stationary (or! portable service the reciprocating compressor is by far the most common type. -eciprocating compressors lap be had is si%es from the smallest capacities to deliver more than A77m6Bmin.#n single stage compressor, the air pressure may be of 0 bar machines discharge of pressure is up to .Abars.@ischarge pressure in the range of 1A7bars can be obtained with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three C four stages. 8ingle stage and .177 stage models are particularly suitable =or applications, with preference going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge pressure e$ceeds 0 bars, because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range.



All the strange names and terms around pneumatics have evolved through about .77 years of their use in manufacturing. @ouble acting, four way, )uic connect are all terms that were

invented to describe (as best as could be! the difference between the parts. @onDt let the names discourage you. TheyDre just names. #Dve used )uite colorful terms myself when wor ing with pneumatics, most of which i wonDt use here... The first thing to remember is? *neumatics are easy... reallyE #ts all the different names and parts that seem to be overwhelming. But enough about that... on to the fun stuff. Note: This isnDt the place to discuss every different ind of part thatDs

available - it would ta e hundreds of pages. But what #Dd li e to cover is the basic things for a haunter to eep in mind when DplayingD with pneumatics.

There are only two main inds of air cylinders? @ouble acting, and single acting. They come in all variations, shapes and si%es. Both inds are useful for haunt wor . @ouble acting cylinders are useful when you need to push in both directions, and single acting cylinders are useful when only a push in one direction is needed. And, sometimes Din a pinchD, you can adapt a double to act as a single, and a single to act as a double. Air cylinders are measured by three main values? Fpressure ratingF, the FboreF, and Fstro eF This is the ma$imum pressure the air cylinder *ressure Bore 8tro e can safely handle. The interior diameter of the cylinder. The range of movement of the air cylinderDs rod.

There are lots of calculations to accurately figure the power of a cylinder, but most haunt pop-up applications can be handled by air cylinders in the range of 6B4F to .-.B1F bore, and 6F to GF stro e. *ower measurements primarily ta e into account the air pressure (the higher the pressure, the more power!H and the bore (the larger the bore - the more power!. The power ratings are usually only

)uoted at ma$imum pressure. 8o if a cylinder produces.G7 pounds of DpushD, it will only deliver that at the ma$imum pressure (usually 1A7 psi for commerical cylinders!.

Haunters should wor

their props to wor

and much, much

lower pressures. A good goal is not to e$ceed 07-57psi for wor ing props. (oing much higher causes more stress on the prop and all parts in the air system, and ma e your compressor run more often. 9ven at lower pressures, air cylinders can still move very fast and deliver )uite a lot push, so always be very careful around pneumaticsE Dou !e A"t#$% means the air cylinder rod is DpushedD out, and DpushedD in.

A typical double acting air cylinder

9very double acting air cylinder has these basic parts. A cylinder to hold everything together, a DplungerD that the air pushes against, two connections to get the air in and out, and a rod that goes in and out. ThatDs it. HereDs a simple animation to illustrate the motion... As air is sent into the left connection (pressure is shown in yellow!, it pushes against the plunger and the rod goes out. At the same time, air is released out of the right connection. To reverse the motion, air is sent into the right connection, pushing against the plunger on the other side and the rod is forced bac in. The tric to the double acting cylinder is that you have to let air ;>T of the other sideE This is an important feature of the double acting cylinder, and an advantage that gives you great control over the motion of the rod (but, more on that laterE!. T#*? the most useful double acting cylinder #Dve found is one with .B4F connections, 0F-GF stro e, .F bore, and end clevis mounts. ;f course, most any cylinder can be adapted for haunt useE


8ingle Acting means the air cylinder rod is ;<:I pushed in a single direction, either out or in. There is only one connection for air, and a little hole in the other end to let air in and out. A spring is used to push the rod in the opposite direction after air pressure is removed.

8ingle Acting Air ,ylinder, with the rod normally out without pressure

8ingle Acting Air ,ylinder, with the rod normally in without pressure As air is pushed into the connection, the plunger begins to move and compress the spring. 9$haust air e$its out the e$haust hole on the other end. +hen air is released, it e$its out the connection, and air is suc ed into the e$haust hole as the spring pushes the plunger bac to its resting position. Basically, the spring is DpushD

needed to return the plunger and rod bac to their starting position. +hen selecting a cylinder for an application, remember that a double acting cylinder pushes in both directions, while a single acting cylinder only pushes in one direction.

MOUNTIN& There are about as many ways to mount an air cylinder as there are different types of air cylinders. Again, this is because of all the uses. "y personal favorite is the clevis mount. (see photo below! ,levis mounts give the greatest amount of movement, fle$ibility, and ease of mounting over other mounts.


HereDs the most confusing part of dealing with pneumatics solenoids. Just li e air cylinders, they come in all si%es, styles, shapes, si%es, and combinations. ThereDs literally something for everyone when it comes to solenoids. T#*? @onDt worry about what the solenoid loo s li e, just what it can do. The whole Dfour portD, Dfive portD, Dtwo wayD, Dthree wayD, naming came from the action of the air as it moves through the solenoid. Again, the names arenDt as important as what it does. The best

combination of fle$ibility and use for double acting cylinders is whatDs called a Ffive port, four wayF solenoid (theyDre also called DvalvesD!. FIVE PORT' FOUR WAY SOLENOID

F#(e )o*t' +ou* ,-. /o!e$o#0 A five port solenoid has just that - five connections called ports. >sually, they are labeled A, B, 9., 91, and #n. There are variations of this too. #n most cases, any pair of ports that have a label that has an DA C BD, D. C 1D, DA. C A1D - thatDs the ports that connect to the air cylinder. 9$haust ports almost always have an D9D in the name. There is almost always a single D#nD. <otice he phrase Dalmost alwaysD - thatDs because there are cases where solenoids have several sets of inDs and outDs to fill a particular application. ; , thatDs the Dfive portD part... The Dfour wayD term describes the paths that air can ta e when the solenoid is in operation. >se the drawing to follow this description. +hen a four way solenoid is DoffD or Dde-energi%edD, air will flow through

from the #n to the A port (thatDs one way!, and also let out of port B through port 9. (two ways!. 8o air goes in through the #n port, and out the A port to push the cylinder, and it lets air out of port B (through 9.!. And when the solenoid is DonD, (energi%ed!, air pressure from the #n port flows to the B port (the third way!, and e$haust air is let out of port A through port 91 (the fourth way!. An important characteristic of the A port, 4way solenoid is called ForificeF si%e. This is the si%e of the internal air paths through the solenoid. #ts usually )uoted is diameter. An orifice of at least .BGF is recommended, with a si%e of .B4F preferred. The orifice si%e directly affect the solenoids air flow. The more air it can move, the faster an air cylinder can move. -9"9"B9-? -emember that in a A port, 4 way solenoid, full pressure air is always being sent out of one of the two air cylinder ports. There isnDt a position where the air cylinder does not have air going to it. 8o be sure everythingDs connected before applying air. T#*? The most fle$ible solenoid for double acting cylinders is a A port, 4 way solenoid with a .B4F orifice. 8olenoids come with different voltage ratings also. The most popular voltage is 14 volt @, because

thatDs what most manufacturing plants use, so youDll see lots of them on the surplus mar et. A 14 volt plug in power supply will easily drive several solenoids. =our *ort, =our +ayA variation of the five port, four way combines the two e$haust ports into one single e$haust. 8o its called a four port.

How #t ,onnects The DplumbingD is fairly straightforward. The air compressor supplies the air pressure. The solenoid directs which side of the air cylinder gets the air pressure. The air cylinder moves the rod. HereDs a couple of e$amples?

@ouble acting air cylinder connected to A *ort, 4 +ay solenoid

F#tt#$%/ There are two very useful fittings? *ush-in (or *ush-on!, and )uic connect. The )uic -connect are the standard fittings seen mostly at a gas station. They are e$tremely useful to D)uic lyD connect and disconnect air to props. The *ush-in connectors are very useful to connect solenoids to air cylinders. Both of these connector types are highly recommended. Re%u!-to*/ -$0 +#!te*/ "ost air systems include air regulators, particle filters, water filters, and manual valves to deliver DgoodD air to the solenoids and air cylinders. The most important of these is the air regulator. This unit sets the overall pressure for your air system. A good starting pressure to run a few popups is 07 psi or less. #f youDre supporting a large air system with lots of popups and long air lines, 57-G7 psi is not e$cessive. However, pressures beyond G7 psi will begin to DstressD the entire system, and show itself in small lea s around fittings, wear and tear of popup mechanisms, and long running times for the compressor. Iou may also consider having several regulators in your air system. This gives you the option of optimi%ing just the right amount of air to

each place. =or e$ample, a jumper popup may only need 67psi to wor . -unning it on your 07 psi system will eventually wear it out. *lacing a regulator just before the jumperDs solenoid lets you reduce air pressure and just give the jumper what it needs to run. *article and water filters are useful items to use to eep your air lines free from debris and moisture. @ebris will clog air lines, solenoids and cause erratic or intermittent operation. "oisture in the air line will cause rust to form. There are also lubricators that add a small amount of oil to the air to eep the mechanics wor ing smoothly. #f you decide on any of these filters, please ta e some time to read up on them, because just li e all the other air parts, there are hundreds of different indsE >se your judgment here, and always lean towards safetyE

3.1 SPRIN&

The automobile chassis is mounted on the a$les not direct but through some form of springs. This is done to isolate the vehicle body from the road shoc s which may be in the form of bounce, pitch, roll or sway.these tendencies give rise to an uncomfortable ride and also cause additional stress in the automobile frame and body. All the parts which perform the function of isolating the automobile from the road shoc s are collectively. A 8pringing device must be a compromise between fle$ibility and stiffness. #f it is more rigid, it will not absorb road shoc s efficiently and if it is more fle$ible it will continue to vibrate even after the bump has passed so we must have sufficient damping of the spring to prevent e$cessive fle$ing.

-9T>-< 8*-#<( A spring is a fle$ible elastic object used to store mechanical

energy. 8prings are usually made out of hardened steel. 8mall springs

can be wound from pre-hardened stoc , while larger ones. A spring is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store energy and subse)uently release it, to absorb shoc , or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of an elastic material

formed into the shape of a heli$ which returns to its natural length when unloaded this is called return spring. 8prings are placed between the road wheels and the vehicle body. +hen the wheel comes across a bump on the road, it rises and deflects the spring, thereby storing energy therein. ;n releasing, due to the elasticity of the spring, material, it rebounds thereby e$pending the stored energy. #n this way the spring starts vibrating, with amplitude decreasing gradually on internal friction of the spring material and friction of the suspension joints till vibrations die down.


An audio t-)e *e"o*0e*, t-)e 0e"3, *ee!-to-*ee! t-)e 0e"3, "-//ette 0e"3 or t-)e 4-"5#$e is an audio storage device that records and plays bac sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape, either wound on a reel or in a cassette, for storage. #t its present day form, it records a fluctuating signal by moving the tape across a tape head that polari%es the magnetic domains in the tape in proportion to the audio signal.

E!e"t*#"-! 9lectric current flowing in the coils of the tape head creates a fluctuating magnetic field. This causes the magnetic material on the tape, which is moving past and in contact with the head, to align in a manner proportional to the original signal. The signal can be reproduced by running the tape bac across the tape head, where the reverse process occurs K the magnetic imprint on the tape induces a small current in the read head which appro$imates the original signal and is then amplified for playbac . "any tape recorders are capable of recording and playing bac at once by means of separate record and playbac heads in line or combined in one unit.

Me"5-$#"-! "odern professional recorders usually use a three-motor scheme. ;ne motor with a constant rotation speed drives the capstan. This, usually combined with a rubber pinch roller, ensures that the tape speed does not fluctuate. ;f the other two motors, one applies a very light tor)ue to the supply reel, and the other a greater tor)ue to the ta e-up reel, to maintain the tapeDs tension. @uring fast winding operation the pinch roller is disengaged and the reel motors

provide the necessary power. The cheapest models use a single motor for all re)uired functionsH the motor drives the capstan directly and the supply and ta e-up reels are loosely coupled to the capstan motor with slipping belts or clutches. There are also variants with two motors, in which one motor is used for rewinding only.

8pecifications ..High )uality,low price. 1.:ong life, low noise 6.;9",new design 4.8mooth and )uiet operation. Typical applications? .! ,assette Tape recorder 1! Audio 6! ;ther industrial e)uipment

*ac ing? 177pcsBcarton 2olume? 7.71/cbm

<.+.? .A.A g (.+.? .0.7 g

S)e"#+#"-t#o$/: Technical ,haracteristic(only for reference,we are capable of meeting the sourcing needs of diverse buyer!. -ated -ated -ated +or ing -ated 8pee :oad "odel 2oltage 2oltage :oad d g.c m<. 2 @L/ A67AA @L.1 G.4-.A.0 .7.7 7./G 0.6-...5 .7.7 7./G 2 m m 1777 7..1G 4777 7..4 1777 7.7// 4777 7..7G rBmin A m ..A 4.7 ..A 4.7 AA A.6/ m A7 4./ ,urrent rBminBg.c g.c m<.m ,urrent Tor)ue :oad 8tarting

A67AB >nit ,onversion? .g.cmM7.7/Gm< .mm37.76/in .g37.76Ao%


This circuit is designed to monitor the speed of the motor. The holes type pulley is attached in the motor shaft. The pulley is rotated across the >8:;T. The >8:;T consists of #- transmitter and receiver. #nfrared transmitter is one type of :9@ which emits infrared rays generally called as #- Transmitter. 8imilarly #- -eceiver is used to receive the #- rays transmitted by the #- transmitter. ;ne important

point is both #- transmitter and receiver should be placed straight line to each other. +hen supply is ;<, the #- transmitter :9@ is conducting it passes the #- rays to the receiver. The #- receiver is connected to base of the B, A45 switching transistor through resistors. +hen motor is not rotating the #- transmitter passes the rays to the receiver. The #- receiver :9@ is conducting due to that less than 7.52 is given to transistor base so that transistor is not conducting. <ow the 2,, NA2 is given to the input of the inverter (#,5474! and %ero ta en as output. +hen motor is rotating, the pulley attached in the shaft also rotating, so it interprets the #- rays between transmitter and receiver. Hence #- receiver :9@ is not conducting due to that more than 7.52 is given to base of the transistor. <ow the transistor is conducting so it shorts the collector and emitter terminal. The %ero voltage is given to inverter input and NAv is ta en in the output. Hence depends on the motor speed the %ero to Av s)uare pulse is generating at the output which is given to micro controller in order to count the pulse. This pulse rate is e)ual to the speed of the motor. The slot sensors are >-shaped and the active face is located between the two arms. The sensor is actuated when an object

passes the slot. 8lot sensors detect laterally approaching targets reliably, regardless of their distance to the active face. 8lot sensors, sometimes called optical for sensors because of their Ffor edF shape, detect objects that pass between the two armsO one with the emitter, the other with the receiver. The fi$ed slot width provides reliable opposed-mode sensing of objects as small as 7.67 mm. The ultra-small *" series of u-shaped photoelectric sensors provides a wide range of 1/ different models to suit any of your application needs. +ith the industryDs smallest si%e, the *" series plays a ey role in the miniaturi%ation of your e)uipment. All models are e)uipped with two outputs, one for Light-ON and the other for Dark-ON sensing. This increases the versatility of the sensor for use in e$isting applications. The series is also available in a connector type to ma$imi%e ease of installation and allow for wire replacement if the cable is severed. The *" series conforms to the 9uropean 9", @irective and carries >: -ecognition.

B(: 8eries

The B(: series of photoelectric slot sensors offer laser-li e accuracy with highly visible red :9@ or ,lass ## laser emission for resolutions down to 7.6mm. These self-contained thru beam sensors, configured in a simple P>Q shaped housing, save mounting and machine setup time. Typical thru-beam fiber optic applications can be solved using B(: slot sensors, saving installation time and cost. 8ince the B(: slot sensor is completely self-contained, it replaces the two thru-beam cables and the fiber optic amplifier, eliminating the need for special mounting brac ets.

=9AT>-98 K Highly visible emission K 9$tremely rugged single piece metal housing K High resolution K :ightB@ar operation selectable K High switching fre)uency K Adjustable sensitivity K "G connection with 6077 :9@ indicator


K *arts sensing on conveyer rails and conveying belts K :abel discrimination with transparent substrates K *arts dimension verification K *arts counting in assembly lines K Tool brea monitoring K *osition verification K =eed verification on automatic assembly e)uipment K ,hec ing for complete count K :evel monitoring in tan s K Handling and assembly technology

+ith opposed mode sensing pairs in >-shaped housings Banner 8:.7 C 8:67 8eries 8lot 8ensors are ideal for sensing of color mar s on clear film.

Holds easy-to-use opposed mode sensor pairs in rugged >shaped housing

Available with .7 mm sensing slot (8:.7 models! or 67 mm sensing slot (8:67 models!

#deal for detecting registration mar s, holes or gear teethH edge guidingH and counting

=eatures molded-in beam guides to simplify installation and alignment

;ffers fi$ed sensitivity, 4-turn manual sensitivity adjustment or push-button programming, depending on model

>ses either visible red or infrared sensing beam, depending on model

#f you are loo ing for Banner 8lot 8ensors, please call us on (G77! G/4 - 74.1 or email us at we will do our best to help you find the Banner 8:" 8eries 8ensor that you are loo ing for at the most competitive prices possible. #f you are searching for Banner ,(A(9 :abel 8ensors technical information (data-sheets! please use the Banner @atasheets ;- *roduct 8election (uide page lin s.

The 8-6. series is composed of slot sensors with infrared :9@ emission, distinguished by an elevated .7 H% switching fre)uency and by a sturdy and compact metal housing. The detection sensitivity is adjusted by means of a trimmer. The dar Blight operating mode is configured according to the connection. The series includes "G

connector versions with <*< output, or *<* outputH cable versions present both <*<B*<* outputs. The 8-6. sensors have a 67 mm wide and 41 mm deep slot. These sensors are suitable for detecting opa)ue labels on a transparent support, to control material presence and continuity, to detect synchronism pulses on toothed or holed wheels, or as on-off edge guide.

#nfrared :9@ emission 8ensitivity trimmer adjustment 9levated switching fre)uency "etal housing with wide slot

A relay is an electrically operated switch. ,urrent flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off. 8o relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover! switches. -elays allow one circuit to switch a second

circuit which can be completely separate from the first. The lin is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 67mA for a .12 relay, but it can be as much as .77mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. "ost #,s (chips! cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small #, current to the larger value re)uired for the relay coil. The ma$imum output current for the popular AAA timer #, is 177mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. -elays are usually 8*@T or @*@T but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for e$ample relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. "ost relays are designed for *,B mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you ta e care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The animated picture shows a wor ing relay with its coil and switch contacts. Iou can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (8*@T! in the foreground and another behind them, ma ing the relay @*@T.


"#,-;,;<T-;::9-? #<T-;@>,T#;<? "icrocontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important role in revolutioni%ing various industries and influencing our day to day life more strongly than one can imagine. 8ince its emergence in the early ./G7Ds the microcontroller has been recogni%ed as a general purpose building bloc for intelligent digital systems. #t is

finding using diverse area, starting from simple childrenDs toys to highly comple$ spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable directions, ma ing it ubi)uitous. As a conse)uence, it has generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute education need for imparting the nowledge of microcontroller based system design and

development. #t identifies the vital features responsible for their tremendous impact, the acute educational need created by them and provides a glimpse of the major application area.

"#,-;,;<T-;::9-? A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on a single #,. "icrocontrollers were developed to meet a need for microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the cost of building simple products, which use the microprocessorDs power to implement their function, because the microprocessor is a natural way to implement many products. This means the idea of using a microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the typical G-bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a LG7 and G7GA is e$pensive. Both G7GA and LG7 system need some additional circuits to ma e a microprocessor system. 9ach part carries costs of money. 9ven though a product design may re)uires only very simple system, the parts needed to ma e this system as a low cost product. To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented with a single chip microcontroller. This could be called

microcomputer, as all the major parts are in the #,. "ost fre)uently

they are called microcontroller because they are used they are used to perform control functions. The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard "#,-;*-;,988;-, -;", -A", #B7, ,:;,S, T#"9-8, and also 89-#A: *;-T8. "icrocontroller also called Fsystem on a chipF or Fsingle chip microprocessor systemF or Fcomputer on a chipF. A microcontroller is a ,omputer-;n-A-,hip, or, if you prefer, a single-chip computer. "icro suggests that the device is small, and controller tells you that the deviceD might be used to control objects, processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control. Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety of intelligent products. =or e$ample most personal computers eyboards and implemented with a microcontroller. #t replaces 8canning, @ebounce, "atri$ @ecoding, and 8erial transmission circuits. "any low cost products, such as Toys, 9lectric @rills, "icrowave ;vens, 2,- and a host of other consumer and industrial products are based on microcontrollers.

"icrocontroller is a general purpose device, which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system on to single chip. #t has inbuilt ,*>, memory and peripherals to ma e it as a mini computer. A microcontroller combines on to the same microchip?

The ,*> core "emory(both -;" and -A"! 8ome parallel digital iBo

M#"*o"o$t*o!!e*/ ,#!! "o4 #$e ot5e* 0e(#"e/ /u"5 -/: A timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform tas s for certain time periods. A serial iBo port to allow data to flow between the controller and other devices such as a *#, or another microcontroller. An A@, to allow the microcontroller to accept analogue input data for processing.

M#"*o"o$t*o!!e*/ -*e:

8maller in si%e ,onsumes less power #ne$pensive

"icro controller is a stand alone unit, which can perform functions on its own without any re)uirement for additional hardware li e iBo ports and e$ternal memory. The heart of the microcontroller is the ,*> core. #n the past, this has traditionally been based on a G-bit microprocessor unit. =or e$ample "otorola uses a basic 0G77 microprocessor core in their 0G7AB0G7G microcontroller devices. #n the recent years, microcontrollers have been developed around specifically designed ,*> cores, for e$ample the microchip *#, range of microcontrollers.




1.1 MACHIME COMPONENTS: The automatic gear changer in two wheelers- pneumatic model consists of the following components to full fill the re)uirements of complete operation of the machine.

.. @ouble acting pneumatic cylinder 1. 8olenoid vale 6. Air compressor 4. 8pring A. Tape motor 0. >-slot sensor 5. *edal G. ,lutch plate /. -elay .7. ,ontrol unit


1.2 9LOC: DIA&RAM:




Here we have two pneumatic cylinders arrangements which are arranged on either side of the vehicle pedal rest for applying the gear with the help of another lever or plate. The pneumatic cylinder is fi$ed at the end of the metal plate to apply gear. The plate rest has pivot at the center. The cylinders are operated with the help of pneumatic supply and it is controlled by the control unit. ;ne of the cylinders is used to apply the gear and another one for reducing the gears. The gears are applied on the vehicle depending up on the speed of the vehicle. @epending up on the signal the clutch and gears are applied automatically with the help of control unit. +hen the vehicle speed increases the clutch and the gear will change automatically. The third cylinder is used to apply the clutch automatically. The air supply for the cylinders can be utili%ed form the compressor. The solenoid valve is used to control the direction of the air supply to the cylinder. The

speed is sensed by the u slot sensor and the tape motor. The arrangement is clearly shown in the below diagram.



Automatic method 8ystem is helpful for the drivers Tuic response is achieved 8imple in construction 9asy to maintain and repair ,ost of the unit is less ,ontinuous operation is possible without stopping



#t is applicable in all types of two wheeler vehicles



The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. 1. P*o)e*t#e/: The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various re)uirements to be satisfied ,an be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attac from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.

The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection a. *hysical b. "echanical c. =rom manufacturing point of view d. ,hemical The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal

,onductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal e$pansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc. The various "echanical properties ,oncerned are strength in tensile, ,ompressive shear, bending, torsional and buc ling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are, ,ast ability +eld ability 8urface properties 8hrin age @eep drawing etc.

2. M-$u+-"tu*#$% "-/e: 8ometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface )ualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials.

3. Qu-!#t. Re;u#*e0: This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. =or e$ample, it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel.

1. A(-#!- #!#t. o+ M-te*#-!: 8ome materials may be scarce or in short supply. #t then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be ept in mind.

2. S)-"e "o$/#0e*-t#o$: 8ometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there.

6. Co/t: As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored.

8ome times factors li e scrap utili%ation, appearance, and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.



1. LA9OUR COST: :athe, drilling, welding, grinding, power hac saw, gas cutting cost 2. OVER&HEAD CHAR&ES: The overhead charges are arrived byQmanufacturing costQ "anufacturing ,ost 3 3 ;verhead ,harges 317Uof the manufacturing cost 3 3. TOTAL COST: Total cost 3 "aterial ,ost N:abour ,ost N;verhead ,harges 3 3 Total cost for this project 3 3"aterial ,ost N:abour ,ost



The project carried out by us made an impressing tas in the field of automobile department. #t is very useful for driver while drive the vehicle at any places without any tension. This project has also reduced the cost involved in the concern. *roject has been designed to perform the entire re)uirement tas which has also been provided.


.. @esign data boo -*.8.(.Tech.

1. "achine tool design handboo K,entral machine tool

#nstitute, Bangalore.
6. 8trength of "aterials --.8.Surmi -".Haslehurst.

4. "anufacturing Technology

A. @esign of machine elements- -.s.Surumi