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4 basic production processes for producing desired shape 1.Casting 2.Machining 3.Joining (welding, mechanical fasteners, epoxy, etc.) 4.Deformation processes
1.Casting process exploit the fluidity of a metal in liquid state as it takes shape and solidifies in a mold. 2.Machining processes provide desired shape with good accuracy and precision but tend to waste material in the generation of removed portions.

3.Joining processes permit complex shapes to be constructed from simpler components and have a wide domain of applications.

4.Deformation processes exploit a remarkable property of metals, which is their ability to flow plastically in the solid state without deterioration of their properties.

Plastic deformation

With the application of suitable pressures, the material is moved to obtain the desired shape with almost no wastage. The required pressures are generally high and the tools and equipment needed are quite expensive. Large production quantities are often necessary to justify the process.

C:Maximum yield stress

To deform the metal permanently, the stress must exceed the elastic limit.

The process in which the desired shape and size are obtained through plastic deformation of a material under the action of externally applied forces. Stresses induced in the process are greater than yield strength, but less than fracture strength of material. Economical process, no loss of material, high production rates.


As a metal is deformed (or formed) into useful shape, it experiences stresses such as tension, compression, shear, or various combinations.
Due to plastic deformation the grains of the metal get elongated in the direction of metal flow (Fiber Flow Lines).

Fiber flow lines in forging

State of the stresses metal undergo during deformation.

Overview of Metal Forming





Overview of Metal Forming


Deep drawing


How better mechanical properties? Reduces any internal voids or cavities present and makes metal dense. Impurities get elongated with grains and in the process, get broken and dispersed throughout the metal. This decreases the harmful effect of impurities and improve the mechanical strength. At room temperature, the metal is in a more rigid state than when at higher temperature. Thus, to deform the metal greater pressures are needed when it is in cold state than when in hot state. When metal is formed in cold state, there is no recrystallization of grains.

Metals having large grains are more ductile than those having smaller grains.
When metal is deformed in cold state, severe stresses known as residual stresses are set up in the material. These stresses are often undesirable, and to remove them the metal is heated to some temperature below the recrystalline range temperature. In this temperature range, the stresses are rendered ineffective without appreciable change in physical properties or grain structure.

Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth Effects

Schematic illustration of the effects of recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth on mechanical properties and on the shape and size of grains.

Note the formation of small new grains during recrystallization.

Recovery: At a temp range below recrystallization temp. No change in mechanical properties such as hardness and strength Stresses in the highly deformed regions are relieved Recrystallisation: At a certain temp range, new equiaxed and strain free grains are formed, replacing the older grains is called recrystallization. (0.3Tm to 0.5Tm) Recrystallisation temp is generally defined as the temp. at which complete recrystallization occurs within approximately one hour.

Lowers strength and raises ductility

Recrystalization contd..

Recrystallization depends on the degree of prior cold work (work hardening).

The more cold work, the lower the temperature required for recrystallization to occur.
As the amount of cold work increases, the no. of dislocations and the amount of energy stored in dislocations(stored energy) also increases. This energy supplies the work required for recrystallization.
Under the action of heat and force, when the atoms of metal reach a certain higher energy level, the new crystals start forming. This is called recrystallization. When this happens, the old grain structure no longer exist, instead new crystals which are strain-free are formed.

Grain Growth: If we continue to raise the temperature of the metal, the grain begin to grow and their size may eventually exceed the original grain size. This phenomenon is know as grain growth and it affects mechanical properties. Grain size has a significant effect on the strength of metals. The smaller the size, the stronger the metal.

Cold, Warm & Hot working

Properties of C10 steel

Hot rolled

Cold rolled

Ultimate tensile strength, MPa

Yield Strength, MPa Brinnels Hardness Number

220 94

345 174

Cold, Warm & Hot working

Metals can be plastically deformed(worked) at room, warm or high temperatures. Their behavior and workability depend largely on whether deformation takes place below or above the recrystallization temperature.
Deformation at room temperature (cold working) results in higher strength but reduced ductility of the metal. It generally causes anisotropy, a state in which the properties are different in different directions. The effects of cold working can be reversed by annealing the metal: Heating it in a temperature range for a period of time and there by allowing successive processes of recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth to take place.

Effects of Hot Rolling

Changes in the grain structure of cast or of large-grain wrought metals during hot rolling. Hot rolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in metals for improved strength and ductility. Cast structures of ingots or continuous castings are converted to a wrought structure by hot working.


Cold Working
Plastic deformation of metals below the recrystallization temperature is known as cold working. It is generally performed at room temperature. In some cases, slightly elevated temperatures may be used.

Cold working offers a number of distinct advantages, and for this reason various cold-working processes have become extremely important. Strengthening occurs because of dislocation movements within the crystal structure of the material.

Cold Working

Cold worked material is harder and stronger than material deformed at other temperatures. These harder materials are advantageous for applications such as machine parts and mechanical supports While cold-working, a metal will tend to increase its strength, other properties such as ductility or corrosion resistance may be negatively affected. To remove internal stresses of cold work, it is sometimes desirable to heat treat the metal after cold working (Annealing).
% Cold Work = {(Ao-Ad)/Ao } x 100
Ao- original cross-sectional area Ad- area after deformation %CW is another measure of degree of plastic deformation, like strain

Strain hardening/cold working

During cold-working, it may take a considerable amount of energy to affect the change in size and shape. Some of the energy expended will appear in the form of heat.
A considerable amount of the energy will also be stored in the material. This stored energy is associated with the defects created during the deformation. This is also called as strain hardening/work hardening/cold working. Usually carried out in several steps with annealing used to soften the cold worked metal and restore ductility.

In comparison with hot working, the advantages of cold working are

1. No heating is required
2. Better surface finish is obtained

3.Better dimensional control is achieved; therefore no secondary machining is generally needed.

4. Products possess better reproducibility and interchangeability. 5. Better strength, fatigue, and wear properties of material. 6. Directional properties can be imparted. 7. Contamination problems are almost negligible.

Some disadvantages associated with cold-working processes are:

1. Higher forces are required for deformation. 2. Heavier and more powerful equipment is required. 3. Less ductility is available. 4. Metal surfaces must be clean and scale-free. 5. Strain hardening occurs (may require intermediate annealing). 6. Undesirable residual stresses may be produced. 7.Better suited to large-scale production of parts because of the cost of the required equipment and tooling. 8. Some materials are not capable of cold working

Summary of Cold working Advantages Increases strength and hardness due to strain hardening.

No oxide formation, good surface finish. Better dimensional accuracy. It is easy to handle cold parts. Disadvantages Material has high yield strength at low temperature. Hence, amount of deformation given to it is limited. Metals get strain hardened. the maximum amount of deformation can be given is limited. Excessive cold work will lead to fracture before final size has been reached.

Metals which are brittle cannot be cold worked. complexity of shapes is limited.

Warm working or Warm forming

Worm working is metal forming at temperatures above the room temperature but below recrystallization one. Advantages:

Lower forces and power More complex part shapes No annealing is required Disadvantages:
Some investment in furnaces is needed.

Hot Working
First step of converting a cast ingot into a wrought product Plastic deformation of metal carried out at temperature above the recrystallization temperature, is called hot working(with or without actual heating). For Lead, Tin, Cadmium and Zinc, R.T is below room temp. For Steels, R.T is of order 10000C (At 9000C is also cold working) In hot working, the temperature at which the working is completed is critical since any extra heat left in the material after working will promote grain growth, leading to poor mechanical properties of material.

Hot working

The lower limit of the hot working temp. is determined by its recrystallization temp.
The upper limit for hot working is determined by excessive oxidation, grain growth, undesirable phase transformation

In comparison with cold working, advantages of hot working are:

1.No strain hardening(work hardening). So no additional annealing is required.

2.Lesser forces are required for deformation 3.Greater ductility of material is available, and therefore more deformation is possible.

4.Favorable grain size is obtained leading to better mechanical properties of material

5.Equipment of lesser power is needed 6.No residual stresses in the material.

Disadvantages associated in the hot-working of metals are: 1.Heat energy is needed 2.Poor surface finish of material due to scaling of surface 3.Poor accuracy and dimensional control of parts 4.Poor reproducibility and interchangeability of parts 5.Handling and maintaining of hot metal is difficult and troublesome

6.Lower life of tooling and equipment.

7.Due to high temperature, surface decarburization can not be prevented oxidation and


Hot working

Cold working

1 Above recrystallisation temp., any amount of working can be imparted as there is no strain hardening (work hardening) Cold working increases strength and hardness of the material due to strain hardening, which would be beneficial in some situations.

At a high temp, material would have higher amount Some materials which are of ductility and no limit on brittle cant be cold worked the amount of hot working that can be done a material. Even brittle materials can be hot worked.


Hot working

Cold Working

Since shear stresses gets reduced at higher temp, hot working requires less force to achieve the necessary deformation

Since the material has higher yield strength at lower temps, the amount of deformation that can be given is limited by the capability of the processes or hammers used.

If temp. and rate of working are properly controlled, a very favourable grain size could be achieved giving better mechanical properties.

Since the material hardened, the max. deformation that can limited. Any further deformation can be annealing.

gets strain amount of be given is amount of given after

S.No 5

Hot working

Cold working

At higher temp. surface finish Since the working is done in cold obtained is poor state, no oxide would form on the surface and consequently, good surface finish is obtained Because of the thermal expansion of metals, the Better dimensional accuracy is dimensional accuracy in hot achieved. working is difficult to achieve since it is difficult to control the temp. of work pieces

Handling and maintaining of hot It is far easier to handle cold metal is difficult and parts and it is also economical troublesome for smaller sizes

Microstructure as a Function of Manufacturing Method

Schematic illustration of a part made by three different processes showing grain flow. (a) Casting by the processes. (b) Machining form a blank, and (c) Forging. Each process has its own advantages and limitations regarding external and internal characteristics, material properties, dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and the economics of production.