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Project Stages Execution, Control and completion

Ch:15

1. Execution 2. Configuration management and change control 3. Planning and control 4. Earned Value Management (EVM) 5. Reporting and meetings 6. Completion 7. Post Completion Audit (PCA) 8. Continuous improvement

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Session Content Diagram

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Initiation

Planning

Execution

Control

Completion

Execution

Execution, control & completion

Completion

Reporting

Tools

Evaluation & reviews

Execution

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Project manager must provide leadership and co-ordination to the project team members and other stakeholders. This stage can be weeks, months or years long. This is the stage where stakeholders need to be focused upon the project

tasks.

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Execution Example
The development and installation of an organisational information system

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Undertaking detailed design work, including system specifications, flow charts, programmes and a list of required hardware. Carrying out design reviews on a continual basis, which may result in

modifications and design changes. It may result in a change in the project


scope, price or schedule. It may also involve re-planning the original schedule. A plan prepared for systems testing once the system has been designed.

This may involve customers who may wish to participate in testing or at


least review the test procedures.

Execution Example
The development and installation of an organisational information system

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Carrying out the writing and construction of the software. Testing the software. Purchasing, assembling and testing the hardware, including detailed testing of sub-assemblies of hardware, and then a final test of the entire hardware system interface. Integrating hardware and software and testing the whole system. Planning installation. Preparation of training materials to enable users to understand, operate and maintain the system.

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Execution Example
The development and installation of an organisational information system

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Carrying out the installation and changeover procedure. Carrying out training.

Conducting final acceptance testing of the new system to demonstrate that


the system meets the original objectives.

Configuration management and control Change control

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Change can be required at all stages of the project, very often during the execution phase as new factors emerge. A change control process is not to stop change happening, but to ensure

that the changes, which will inevitably required during the project, are
agreed and communicated to all parties before they are implemented.

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Configuration management and control

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Change control
Failure to manage change can result in a number of problems for the project: Team members working to the old plans which do not incorporate the

changes.
The project is unlikely to deliver the set objectives if change is not well managed. End users will be unhappy at the final product if their expectations have not

been managed throughout the project and they have not been advised of
changes.

Configuration management and control Change control Failure to manage change can result in a number of problems for the project:

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The project may end up costing more as costs may continue to be spent on aspects of the project which are no longer required, but that team members

were unaware of.


It can cause confusion and conflict for the project stakeholders.

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Configuration management and control

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Change process
A change management process must be agreed at the outset of the project. It should include the following:

Method for prioritising changes requested.


Authorisation for changes. Agreement of a change budget. Recording of changes.

Communication of changes.

Configuration management and control Configuration Management Involves tracking and controlling all aspects of the projects and all documentation and deliverables from the project.

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The Configuration Management System for a project will specify how all

aspects of the project are to be managed.

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Configuration management and control

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Configuration Management

It includes: Version control for documentation

Ownership and responsibility for documentation


Authorisation and tracking procedures for any changes required to documentation Monitoring and control procedure to ensure only authorised documents and

records are held.


Access control over project records.

Planning and Control

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Project manager will collect actual project data on costs, schedule and progress and compare these against the project plan. If a deviation is discovered, and a project manager considers that corrective action needs to be taken, take corrective action to get the project back on target.

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Planning and Control

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Project Planning and Control Methodology


Control begins at the inception of the project, not just before implementation. When work is planned it will need to be controlled.

A control system should be targeted at the agreed critical success factors not on
the assumptions of the project manager. The milestone plan allows the project manager to define the (go / no go) control points in the project, and the enter and exit criteria for each activity. The responsibility matrix allows the project manager to communicate clearly the needs of the project and accountabilities for the completion of tasks. A control system needs to be balanced with the objectives of the project.

Planning and Control Project Control Systems

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This tool enables recognition of problems before they become too difficult to solve. The decision to introduce a formal control system and the selection of a

specific system should be based largely on two aspects of the project:


The risk involved The cost of the control system and its expected benefits

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Planning and Control

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Planning and Control What are the main controls? Prevention of deviations. Correction of deviations.

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Prevention of any future deviations, by revising plans, target, measures etc. Implementation of conclusions from monitoring, reviewing and evaluating

the project.

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Planning and Control

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What control system is best?

Earned Value Management (EVM) EVM helps project managers to measure project performance.

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It is used to find variances in projects based on the comparison of work performed and work planned. It is used on the cost and schedule control and can be very useful in project forecasting. It provides quantitative data for project decision making.

It takes account not only what has been done to date but also what value
has been added for that effort or expenditure. It is a technique for monitoring progress as part of overall project monitoring and control.

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Earned Value Management (EVM)

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It can be used to determine whether a project is meeting scope, time and


cost goals by using information from the project and comparing it to the baseline plan. EVA involves calculating three primary measurements for each activity from

a projects work breakdown structure.


Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) Actual cost of work performed (ACWP)

Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)

Earned Value Management (EVM)

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From these three measurements, variances and indices can be calculated: Schedule variance (SV) = BCWP BCWS If the absolute value of the difference is very small, then in terms of work content, the project is on schedule.

A positive difference indicates that the project is ahead of schedule, and


a negative difference implies that the project is late.

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Earned Value Management (EVM)

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Cost variance (CV) = BCWP ACWP


A positive CV indicates a lower actual cost than budgeted for the control period, while a negative CV indicates a cost overturn.

Schedule Index (SI) = BCWP/BCWS An SI value equal to 1 indicates that the associated activity is on

schedule.
Values larger than 1 suggest that the activity is ahead of schedule, and values smaller than 1 indicate a schedule overturn.

Earned Value Management (EVM) Cost Index (CI) = BCWP/ACWP A CI value equal to 1 indicates that the activity is on budget.

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CI values larger than 1 indicate better-than-planned cost performance, and values smaller than 1 indicate cost overruns.

These variances and indices;


help to measure the performance of the project to date provide accurate prediction of the final cost and schedule

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Earned Value Management (EVM)

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EVM improves the chance of delivering a successful project by:


Preventing scope creep Providing an objective measurement of the scope, schedule and cost

Improved effectiveness and accuracy of status reporting


Improved communication with stakeholders Reducing risk Profitability analysis

Project forecasting

Reporting and meetings Project Reports Project Initiation Document (PID) Exception Reports Effort Reports Progress Reports

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Reporting and meetings

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Project Reports
Project Initiation Document (PID) This report is utilised as the basis of general agreement within the project team and between the stakeholders about the nature of the project.

It contains:
Plans, budgets and timetables including deadlines Nature, background and scope Objectives and summary overview

Organisation issues such as roles, responsibilities and signatories.


This document will be used for reference throughout the project life.

Reporting and meetings Project Reports

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Exception Reports Only exceptions are reported.

Effort Reports

This is often handled on a completed/to go basis.


This has the effect of re-estimating the work content of an activity.

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Reporting and meetings

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Project Reports
Progress Reports It includes: Status against plan in terms of cost, timetable, and scope.

Status and progress of resolving issues identified to date.


New issues. Corrective action plan. Expected achievement of milestones before next report.

Next report date.

Reporting and meetings Project Reports

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Reports from the project manager to the project board should be made on a regular and frequent basis. Written reports are made monthly mostly, with a major summary report

quarterly (or on completion of a life cycle stage).


They should have a standard format.

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Reporting and meetings

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Project Meetings
Project status review meetings Project design review meetings

Project problem solving meetings

Reporting and meetings Project Meetings

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Project status review meetings Regular meetings Involves Project Manager, Team members, and the customer. Might take place quarterly.

The purpose is to provide an update on the project status, identify any


issues and establish action plans from that point.

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Reporting and meetings

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Project Meetings

Project design review meetings Where projects involve a design element, regular meetings are required to

resolve design problems or to present new technical specifications.

Project problem solving meetings These would be called as soon as a problem occurs to identify and resolve

the issue.

Completion

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The final stage of the project life cycle is the closure of the project once the project work is finished.

A number of activities must be undertaken at this stage: Project is delivered to users. End of project meeting.

Formal sign off of project.


Project review meetings. Final report issued. Project team disbanded.

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Completion

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An end of project meeting confirms closure of the project by a formal


signoff. At this meeting a review evaluates how well the project was managed. Project review meetings should be carried out both internally with project team members and externally with the customer.

Completion End of Project Review Meetings The internal review (team) This is:

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An opportunity to review the planning, management, reporting and control. An opportunity to discuss the success and failures of the project process. Establish what can be learned in future for the benefit of other projects.

An opportunity for the project manager to discuss with individual team


members their role in the project and the means by which they could improve their own performance on future projects.

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Completion

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End of Project Review Meetings


The external review (customer) This is: A crucial aspect of project disclosure

An important part of establishing whether the project has satisfied the


customers requirements. To obtain feedback to help improve future projects. When customers can voice any concerns regarding how the project was

carried out.

Completion End of Project Review Meetings

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Business Review An evaluation from the business perspective is also essential. Are the benefits from the feasibility study likely to be realised? If not, what ongoing actions need to be taken?

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Completion

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The Final Report

The contents will include: Brief overview of project.

Customer original requirements and original project deliverables.


List of deliverables which the customer received. Actual achievements re costs, schedules and scope. Degree to which the original objective was achieved.

Future considerations.

Completion The Final Report

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To produce this report reference will be made to the following documentation: Feasibility study & report PID

Project planning reports


Milestones & gates

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Completion

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The Final Report


The purpose of this stage of the process is To ensure the project is finally completed. Formal comparison between PID and project outcomes.

To evaluate performance of project against agreed levels of performance.


Cost of the system in comparison with budgeted cost with an explanation of variances. Comparison of time taken with the budgeted time anticipated.

Effectiveness of the management process.


Significance of any problems encountered.

Completion The Final Report The purpose of this stage of the process is To complete project termination activities: Organising and filing all project documentation. Receiving and making final payments to suppliers of resources.

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Agreeing formally with the customer that all agreed deliverables have

been provided successfully.


Meeting with project team and customers to report on project successes and failures. Disbanding the project team.

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Completion

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The Final Report


The purpose of this stage of the process is To provide continuous improvement and feedback any improvement,

even a small one, is important.


To learn from the experience.

Post Completion Audit (PCA)

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A meeting of manager, users and developers, held a few months after the project has been completed. Designed to review the success of the project To receive the users feedback Highlight specific issues with the project

Establish whether the project has helped the business to deliver the
benefits defined in the business case.

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Post Completion Audit (PCA)

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Key areas to consider:


Technical performance review (was scope of project achieved?) Extent to which the quality has been achieved. Whether benefits have been achieved.

Cost/budget performance.
Schedule performance. Project planning and control. Team relationships.

Communication.
Risk evaluation and assessment of risk management policies. Outstanding issues. Recommendations for future management of projects.

Continuous Improvement The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM)

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This model encourages continuous improvement in project management proposed by Kerzner in 2001. It is an industry standard benchmarking process. It allows an organisation to evaluate a single program, multiple programs, a single division or multiple divisions in comparable terms.

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Continuous Improvement

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The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM)


Level 1 Common Knowledge Level 2 Common processes

Level 3 Singular methodology


Level 4 Benchmarking Level 5 Continuous Improvement

Continuous Improvement The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) Level 1 Common Knowledge The emphasis here is on training and education.

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The organisation reorganises the importance of project management and

the need for a good understanding of the basic knowledge of project


management.

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Continuous Improvement

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The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM)


Level 2 Common Processes

The organisation reorganises that common processes need to be defined


and developed such that successes on one project can be repeated on other projects.

Continuous Improvement The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) Level 3 Singular Methodology The organisation reorganises the synergistic effect of combining all

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corporate methodologies into a singular methodology, the center of which

is project management.

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Continuous Improvement

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The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM)


Level 4 Benchmarking

This level contains the recognition that process improvement is necessary


to maintain a competitive advantage. Benchmarking must be performed on a continuous basis. The company must decide whom to benchmark and what to benchmark.

Continuous Improvement The Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) Level 5 Continuous Improvement The organisation evaluates the information obtained through

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benchmarking, and must then decide whether or not this information will

enhance the singular methodology.

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