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5ection 1.

1
Pump construction
1.1.1 1he centrifugaI pump
ln 1689 Ihe physicisI Denis Papin invenIed Ihe cenIriIugal
pump and Ioday Ihis kind oI pump is Ihe mosI used around
Ihe world. 1he cenIriIugal pump is builI on a simple
principle. Liquid is led Io Ihe impeller hub and by means
oI Ihe cenIriIugal Iorce iI is Ilung Iowards Ihe periphery oI
Ihe impellers.
1he consIrucIion is Iairly inexpensive, robusI and simple
and iIs high speed makes iI possible Io connecI Ihe pump
direcIly Io an asynchronous moIor. 1he cenIriIugal pump
provides a sIeady liquid Ilow, and iI can easily be IhroIIled
wiIhouI causing any damage Io Ihe pump.
Now leI us have a look aI Iigure 1.1.1, which shows Ihe
liquid's Ilow Ihrough Ihe pump. 1he inleI oI Ihe pump
leads Ihe liquid Io Ihe cenIre oI Ihe roIaIing impeller Irom
where iI is Ilung Iowards Ihe periphery. 1his consIrucIion
gives a high eIIiciency, and is suiIable Ior handling pure
liquids. Pumps, which have Io handle impure liquids, such
as wasIewaIer pumps, are IiIIed wiIh an impeller IhaI is
consIrucIed especially Io avoid IhaI ob|ecIs geI sIocked
inside Ihe pump, see secIion 1.2.S.
lI a pressure diIIerence occurs in Ihe sysIem while Ihe
cenIriIugal pump is noI running, liquid can sIill pass
Ihrough iI due Io iIs open design.
As you can Iell Irom Iigure 1.1.2, Ihe cenIriIugal pump can
be caIegorised in diIIerenI groups. kadial Ilow pumps,
mixed Ilow pumps and axial Ilow pumps. kadial Ilow
pumps and mixed Ilow pumps are Ihe mosI common
Iypes used. 1hereIore, we will only concenIraIe on Ihese
Iypes oI pumps on Ihe Iollowing pages.
Rowever, we will brieIly presenI Ihe posiIive displacemenI
pump in secIion 1.2.8.
1he diIIerenI demands on Ihe cenIriIugal pump's
perIormance, especially wiIh regards Io head, Ilow, and
insIallaIion, IogeIher wiIh Ihe demands Ior economical
operaIion, are only a Iew oI Ihe reasons why so many Iypes
oI pump exisI. ligure 1.1.3 shows Ihe diIIerenI pump Iypes
wiIh regard Io Ilow and pressure.
lig. 1.1.2. DiIIerenI kinds oI cenIriIugal pumps
lig. 1.1.1. 1he liquid's Ilow Ihrough Ihe pump
kadiaI fIow pump Mixed fIow pump AxiaI fIow pump
lig. 1.1.3. llow and head Ior diIIerenI Iypes oI cenIriIugal pumps
1 2
2
4
4
6
6
10
1
10
1
2
4
6
10
2
2
4
6
10
3
2
4
6
10
4
H
[m]
D [m
3
Js]
2 4 6 10
2
2 4 6 10
3
2 4 6 10
4
2 4 6 10
5
MuItistage radiaI
fIow pumps
5ingIe-stage radiaI
fIow pumps
Mixed fIow pumps
AxiaI fIow pumps
8
1.1.2 Pump curves
8eIore we dig any IurIher inIo Ihe world oI pump
consIrucIion and pump Iypes, we will presenI Ihe
basic characIerisIics oI pump perIormance curves. 1he
perIormance oI a cenIriIugal pump is shown by a seI
oI perIormance curves. 1he perIormance curves Ior a
cenIriIugal pump are shown in Iigure 1.1.4. Read, power
consumpIion, eIIiciency and NPSR are shown as a IuncIion
oI Ihe Ilow.
Normally, pump curves in daIa bookleIs only cover Ihe
pump parI. 1hereIore, Ihe power consumpIion, Ihe P
2
-
value, which is lisIed in Ihe daIa bookleIs as well, only
covers Ihe power going inIo Ihe pump - see Iigure 1.1.4.
1he same goes Ior Ihe eIIiciency value, which only covers
Ihe pump parI ( =
P
).
ln some pump Iypes wiIh inIegraIed moIor and possibly
inIegraIed Irequency converIer, e.g. canned moIor pumps
(see secIion 1.2.3), Ihe power consumpIion curve and Ihe
-curve cover boIh Ihe moIor and Ihe pump. ln Ihis case iI
is Ihe P
1
-value IhaI has Io be Iaken inIo accounI.
ln general, pump curves are designed according Io lSO
9906 Annex A, which speciIies Ihe Iolerances oI Ihe
curves.
- O +]- 9,
- R +]-7,
- P +9
- -7.
WhaI Iollows is a brieI presenIaIion oI Ihe diIIerenI pump
perIormance curves.
Head, the DH-curve
1he OR-curve shows Ihe head, which Ihe pump is able
Io perIorm aI a given Ilow. Read is measured in meIer
liquid column |mLCj, normally Ihe uniI meIer |mj is
applied. 1he advanIage oI using Ihe uniI |mj as Ihe uniI
oI measuremenI Ior a pump's head is IhaI Ihe OR-curve is
noI aIIecIed by Ihe Iype oI liquid Ihe pump has Io handle,
see secIion 2.2 Ior more inIormaIion.
H
[m]

[Z]
50
40
70
fficiency
60
50
40
20
10
2
12
4
6
8
10
0
30
30
20
10
0
10
0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
P
2
[kW]
NP5H
(m)
Power consumption
NP5H
lig. 1.1.4. 1ypical perIormance curves Ior a cenIriIugal
pump. Read, power consumpIion, eIhciency and NPSR
are shown as a IuncIion oI Ihe ow
lig. 1.1.S. 1he curves Ior power consumpIion and eIhciency will
normally only cover Ihe pump parI oI Ihe uniI - i.e. P
2
and
P
P
1
P
2
H M
3
M P
D
H
[m]
50
60
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
D [m
3
Jh]
lig. 1.1.6. A Iypical OR-curve Ior a cenIriIugal pump,
low ow resulIs in high head and high ow resulIs
in low head
9
fficiency, the -curve
1he eIIiciency is Ihe relaIion beIween Ihe supplied power
and Ihe uIilised amounI oI power. ln Ihe world oI pumps,
Ihe eIIiciency
P
is Ihe relaIion beIween Ihe power, which
Ihe pump delivers Io Ihe waIer (P
R
) and Ihe power inpuI
Io Ihe shaII (P
2
).
where.
is Ihe densiIy oI Ihe liquid in kg]m
3
,
g is Ihe acceleraIion oI graviIy in m]s
2
,
O is Ihe Ilow in m
3
]s and R is Ihe head in m.
lor waIer aI 20
o
C and wiIh O measured in m
3
]h and R in m,
Ihe hydraulic power can be calculaIed as .
As iI appears Irom Ihe eIIiciency curve, Ihe eIIiciency depends
on Ihe duIy poinI oI Ihe pump. 1hereIore, iI is imporIanI Io
selecI a pump, which IiIs Ihe Ilow requiremenIs and ensures
IhaI Ihe pump is working in Ihe mosI eIIicienI Ilow area.

Power consumption, the P
2
-curve
1he relaIion beIween Ihe power consumpIion oI Ihe pump
and Ihe Ilow is shown in Iigure 1.1.8. 1he P
2
-curve oI mosI
cenIriIugal pumps is similar Io Ihe one in Iigure 1.1.8 where
Ihe P
2
value increases when Ihe Ilow increases.
NP5H-curve (Net Positive 5uction Head)
1he NPSR-value oI a pump is Ihe minimum absoluIe
pressure (see secIion 2.2.1) IhaI has Io be presenI aI Ihe
sucIion side oI Ihe pump Io avoid caviIaIion.
1he NPSR-value is measured in |mj and depends on Ihe
Ilow, when Ihe Ilow increases, Ihe NPSR-value increases
as well, Iigure 1.1.9. lor more inIormaIion concerning
caviIaIion and NPSR, go Io secIion 2.2.1.
50
60
70
80
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
D [m
3
Jh]

[Z]
8
10
6
4
2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
P
2
[kW]
lig. 1.1.7. 1he eIhciency curve oI a Iypical cenIriIugal pump
lig. 1.1.8. 1he power consumpIion curve oI a Iypical
cenIriIugal pump
10
0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
NP5H
[m]

p
=
P
H

P
2
=

.
g
.
D
.
H
P
2
lig. 1.1.9. 1he NPSR-curve oI a Iypical cenIriIugal pump
P
H
= 2.72
.
D
.
H [W]
10
5ection 1.1
Pump construction
1.1.3 Characteristics of the
centrifugaI pump
1he cenIriIugal pump has several characIerisIics and in
Ihis secIion, we will presenI Ihe mosI imporIanI ones.
LaIer on in Ihis chapIer we will give a more Ihorough
descripIion oI Ihe diIIerenI pump Iypes.
- 1he number cf stages
Depending on Ihe number oI impellers in Ihe pump, a
cenIriIugal pump can be eiIher a single-sIage pump or a
mulIisIage pump.
- 1he pcsiticn cf the pump shaft
Single-sIage and mulIisIage pumps come wiIh horizonIal
or verIical pump shaIIs. 1hese pumps are normally
designaIed horizonIal or verIical pumps. lor more
inIormaIion, go Io secIion 1.1.4.
- SingIe-sucticn cr dcubIe-sucticn impeIIers
Depending on Ihe consIrucIion oI Ihe impeller, a pump can
be IiIIed wiIh eiIher a single-sucIion impeller or a double-
sucIion impeller. lor more inIormaIion, go Io secIion 1.1.S.
- CcupIing cf stages
1he pump sIages can be arranged in Iwo diIIerenI ways. in
series and in parallel, see Iigure 1.1.10.
- Ccnstructicn cf the pump casing
We disIinguish beIween Iwo Iypes oI pump casing. voluIe
casing and reIurn channel casing wiIh guide vanes. lor
more inIormaIion, go Io secIion 1.1.6.
lig 1.1.10. 1win pump wiIh parallel-coupled impellers
11
1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-Iine pump types
nd-suction pump = 1he Iiquid runs directIy into the impeIIer. InIet and outIet have a
90 angIe. 5ee section 1.1.9
In-Iine pump = 1he Iiquid runs directIy through the pump in-Iine. 1he suction pipe and the discharge
pipe are pIaced opposite one another and can be mounted directIy in the piping system
5pIit-case pump = Pump with an axiaIIy divided pump housing. 5ee section 1.2.2
HorizontaI pump = Pump with a horizontaI pump shaft
VerticaI pump = Pump with a verticaI pump shaft
5ingIe-stage pump = Pump with a singIe impeIIer. 5ee section 1.1.7
MuItistage pump = Pump with severaI series-coupIed stages. 5ee section 1.1.8
Long-coupIed pump = Pump connected to the motor by means of a fIexibIe coupIing. 1he motor and
the pump have separate bearing constructions. 5ee section 1.1.9
CIose-coupIed pump = A pump connected to the motor by means of a rigid coupIing. 5ee section 1.1.9
HorizontaI
CIose-coupIed CIose-coupIed
nd-suction
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed
MuItistage
12
5ection 1.1
Pump construction
13
MuItistage
HorizontaI J VerticaI
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed CIose-coupIed CIose-coupIed
In-Iine
5pIit-case
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed
HorizontaI
14
1.1.5 ImpeIIer types (axiaI forces)
A cenIriIugal pump generaIes pressure IhaI exerIs Iorces
on boIh sIaIionary and roIaIing parIs oI Ihe pump.
Pump parIs are made Io wiIhsIand Ihese Iorces.
lI axial and radial Iorces are noI counIerbalanced in Ihe
pump, Ihe Iorces have Io be Iaken inIo consideraIion when
selecIing Ihe driving sysIem Ior Ihe pump (angular conIacI
bearings in Ihe moIor). ln pumps IiIIed wiIh single-sucIion
impeller, large axial Iorces may occur, Iigures 1.1.11 and
1.1.12. 1hese Iorces are balanced in one oI Ihe Iollowing
ways.
Mechanically by means oI IhrusI bearings. 1hese Iypes
oI bearings are specially designed Io absorb Ihe axial
Iorces Irom Ihe impellers
8y means oI balancing holes on Ihe impeller,
see Iigure 1.1.13
8y means oI IhroIIle regulaIion Irom a seal ring
mounIed on Ihe back oI Ihe impellers, see Iigure 1.1.14
Dynamic impacI Irom Ihe back oI Ihe impeller, see
Iigure 1.1.1S
1he axial impacI on Ihe pump can be avoided by eiIher
using double-sucIion impellers (see Iigure 1.1.16).
lig. 1.1.11. Single-sucIion
impeller
lig. 1.1.12. SIandard pump wiIh
single-sucIion impeller
lig. 1.1.13. 8alancing Ihe axial Iorces
in a single-sIage cenIriIugal pump
wiIh balancing holes only
lig. 1.1.14. 8alancing Ihe axial Iorces
in a single-sIage cenIriIugal pump
wiIh sealing gap aI discharge side and
balancing holes
lig. 1.1.1S. 8alancing Ihe axial Iorces in
a single-sIage cenIriIugal pump wiIh
blades on Ihe back oI Ihe impellers
lig. 1.1.16. 8alancing Ihe axial
Iorces in a double-sucIion
impeller arrangemenI
Axial Iorces
5ection 1.1
Pump construction
1.1.6 Casing types (radiaI forces)
kadial Iorces are a resulI oI Ihe sIaIic pressure in Ihe
casing. 1hereIore, axial deIlecIions may occur and lead
Io inIerIerence beIween Ihe impeller and Ihe casing. 1he
magniIude and Ihe direcIion oI Ihe radial Iorce depend on
Ihe Ilow raIe and Ihe head.
When designing Ihe casing Ior Ihe pump, iI is possible
Io conIrol Ihe hydraulic radial Iorces. 1wo casing Iypes
are worIh menIioning. Ihe single-voluIe casing and Ihe
double-voluIe casing. As you can Iell Irom Iigure 1.1.18,
boIh casings are shaped as a voluIe. 1he diIIerence beIween
Ihem is, IhaI Ihe double-voluIe has an guide vane.
1he single-voluIe pump is characIerised by a symmeIric
pressure in Ihe voluIe aI Ihe opIimum eIIiciency poinI,
which leads Io zero radial load. AI all oIher poinIs,
Ihe pressure around Ihe impeller is noI regular and
consequenIly a radial Iorce is presenI.
As you can Iell Irom Iigure 1.1.19, Ihe double-voluIe casing
develops a consIanI low radial reacIion Iorce aI any capaciIy.
keIurn channels (Iigure 1.1.20) are used in mulIisIage pumps
and have Ihe same basic IuncIion as voluIe casings. 1he
liquid is led Irom one impeller Io Ihe nexI and aI Ihe same
Iime, Ihe roIaIion oI waIer is reduced and Ihe dynamic
pressure is IransIormed inIo sIaIic pessure. 8ecause oI Ihe
reIurn channel casing's circular design, no radial Iorces are
presenI.
1.1.7 5ingIe-stage pumps
Generally, single-sIage pumps are used in applicaIions,
which do noI require a IoIal head oI more Ihan 1S0 m.
Normally, single-sIage pumps operaIe in Ihe inIerval oI
2-100 m.
Single-sIage pumps are characIerised by providing a low
head relaIive Io Ihe Ilow, see Iigure 1.1.3. 1he single-sIage
pump comes in boIh a verIical and a horizonIal design, see
Iigures 1.1.21 and 1.1.22.
1S
DJDopt 1.0
VoIute casing
DoubIe-voIute
casing
k
a
d
i
a
I
f
o
r
c
e

lig. 1.1.18. Single-voluIe casing Double-voluIe casing
lig. 1.1.22. verIical single-sIage
in-line close-coupled pump
lig. 1.1.21. RorizonIal single-sIage
end-sucIion close-coupled pump
kadiaI forces lig. 1.1.17. Single-sucIion
impeller
lig. 1.1.19. kadial Iorce Ior single- and double-voluIe casing
lig. 1.1.20. verIical mulIisIage
in-line pump wiIh reIurn
channel casing
keIurn channel