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Algae and Protozoa Algae o o Study of algae phycology or algology All algal cells consist of cytoplasm, cell wall

(usually), cell membrane, nucleus, platids, ribosomes, metochondria and Golgi bodies - Cytoplasm a type of protoplasm which lies outside the nucleus - Protoplasm- the semifluid matter within living cells - Plastid a membrane-bound organelle containing photosynthetic pigment; the sites of photosynthesis - Chloroplast- is a plastid that contains chlorophyll Are easy to find. They include: sea weeds of various colors Brown kelp (10 meters in length) Found in oceans and shores Green scum floating Slippery green materials on rocks o o o o o Live in both fresh and sea water They are important members of the phytoplankton (produce oxygen) They are the starting point of the food chain They have Silicon dioxide in the cell wall Diatoms deposits are used in making: - Diatomatomaceous earth - Filtration system - Insulators - It has attractive, geometric and varied appearance

Dinoflagellates o o o o Microscopic unicellular flagellated Often photosynthetic - Important link in food chains - Produce oxygen - Important links in food chains - Some produce light referred as fire algae - Also known as red tides

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Cell structure o o o o o Eucaryotic cell but some have stigma Stigma- is a light sensitive organelle also known as eyespot Some are multicellular like kelp (10 m in length) Flagella Pellicle a thickened cell membrane

Green Algae Found in pond water o Desmids - are unicellular algae resembles microscopic banana Spirogyra - filamentous alga which often produce green strands in the pond water Chymydomonas - unicellular - flagellated - contain chloroplast and stigma Volvox - multicellular alga sometimes referred as colonial alga, interconnected, biflagellated cells, arranged to form a hollow sphere - Flagella beat in coordinated manner which results to rolling motion in the water Euglena - Interesting alga- it possess features of both algae and protozoa - It has absence of cell wall - It has cytotome (primitive mouth) While in the dark, it ingest food through its cytotome - It can sense light (can swim into the light)

Characteristics o o o o o o More plantlike than protozoa But lack the true roots, stems and leaves Not all of them are microorganisms May be arranged in colonies or strands They produce their energy through photosynthesis (sun, carbon dioxide, water, organic nutrients from soil to build cellular materials energy)

Few species use organic nutrients, and other survive with very little sunlight Habitat o o o o Fresh water Salt water Wet soil Wet rocks o

Classification Depends on the photosynthetic pigments o o o o Green Golden or golden brown Red Various colors (sea weeds)

Damages caused by algae o o Clogging of filters and Pipes

Diatoms o o Tiny, usually unicellular large algae They have silicon dioxide in their cell wall

Medical significance o Very rare cause of human infections

Uses of algae o o o o o o o Important source of food Source of nutrient like iodine and other minerals Fertilizers Emulsifiers Stabilizers Gel agent for jams Nutrient media for bacterial growth

Desmids

Spirogyra

Chymydomonas Protozoa o o o o Unicellular More animal-like than plant-liketotome Have no chlorophyll Have cytotome - Can ingest whole algae, yeast, bacteria, and other protozoans No cell wall Has follicle Live in dead and decaying organic materials

Volvox

o o o

Euglena

Amoeba

Medical significance o o Some are parasitic Some are pathogens - They break down and absorb nutrients from the body of the host which they live

Malaria Female anopheles mosquito (vector of Plasmodium vivax) Man intermediate host (blood meal) Malaria Amoeba o o Phagocytosis They have food vacuole (phagosome) - Vacuole has digestive enzyme from lysosome Ingest fluid (pinocytosis)