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Residual Surface Stresses in Laminated Cross-ply

Fiber-epoxy Composite Materials

by Harold E. Gascoigne

ABSTRACT--Residual (curing) stresses in a cross-ply and the second in a flat cross-ply panel. 2 Neither of these
laminated plate are related to the strains released when studies presents a unified experimental procedure which
individual plies are separated. Released displacements are results in determination of the residual stresses at prese-
determined using high-sensitivity moir6 interferometry and lected locations. It is the goal of this paper to present a
linearized strain-displacement equations are used to deter- significant step toward such a unified procedure9 Only
mine residual strains. Elastic orthotropic stress-strain rela-
cross-ply laminates are considered in this paper in which
tions are used to calculate residual stresses remote from
free-edges of a [902o/02o/902o] graphite-epoxy cross-ply representative residual stresses are determined in a flat
panel. The measured strains compare favorably with those panel and in a cylinder9
predicted by laminated plate theory. In a second example,
the circumferential and radial residual strains and stresses
at the end-section of a thick-walled cross-ply graphite-ep- Approach
oxy cylinder are determined.
During cooling from the curing temperature, certain
plies contract more than their neighbors, leading to locked-
Introduction in deformations at the ambient (operating) temperature9
When free-edges of a laminate are present, interlaminar as
Residual stresses in composite laminates result from well as in-plane stresses are created. This 'free-edge prob-
various sources during manufacture but particularly from lem' has been studied extensively in cases of mechanical
differences in thermal contraction of adjacent plies when 9 3 . . . .
loading. Since interracial forces (stresses) acting between
a laminate is cooled from its curing temperature.These plies that differentially contract during cooling from the
residual stresses depend on laminate construction and ma- curing temperature create deformations in the plies, elimi-
terial properties as well as the fabrication process. Residual nation of these interfacial forces (stresses) will relieve the
stresses are especially important at the free edge of a residual deformations in the plies9 Assuming elastic re-
laminate where high values can create matrix cracking or sponse, if all of the interface stresses are removed, each ply
delamination initiation. Cut-outs (holes) in laminated returns to a stress-free state throughout. In the present
structures create free edges where the basic in-plane resid- approach, plies are separated at interfaces using diamond
ual stresses generate strong interlaminar shear and normal cutting tools after replicating a cross-line diffraction grat-
stresses9 Organic, metal, and ceramic matrix laminates are ing on the surface where the residual strains and stresses
likely to possess residual stresses after fabrication9 Since are to be determined. The relieved deformations (strains)
fabrication residual stresses may be large, it is essential are the negative of the deformations (strains) produced by
that they be understood so that designers can estimate their the residual stresses resulting from cool-down9 The re-
influence. lieved displacements are determined using moir6 inter-
Two recent studies involving composite material have ferometry and the corresponding relieved strains are
used moir6 interferometry to measure deformations due to determined from the linearized strain-displacement rela-
released residual stresses; the first in a thick cross-ply ring I tions 4

OU 1 ON~ OV 1 aNy
HaroM E. Gascoigne is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, California ~ X - - 0 X - - f 0X ~Y----0y f Oy (1)
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 9340Z
Paper was presented at the 1992 SEM Spring Conference on Experimen-
tal Mechanics held in Las Vegas NV on June 8-11.
Original manuscript submitted: April 31, 1992. Final manuscript re-
l(aN~ ~NyI
ceived." May 27, 1993 (2)

Experimental Mechanics 9 27
where U, V are components of displacement in the x and y with the principal material directions: x perpendicular to
directions, respectively; N~ and Ny are fringe orders corre- the plane of the laminate, y parallel to the 0-deg fibers and
sponding to U and V, respectively; a n d f i s the frequency z parallel to the 90-deg fibers. Residual strains and stresses
of the reference grating which was 2400 g/mm (60, 960 at locations affected by and at locations not affected by
g/in.) throughout. The corresponding residual stresses are free-edges are sought. To determine the strains in the plane
determined from the general classical thermoelastic equa- of a free-edge, strips are isolated from an edge as shown
tions written for the cross-ply laminate as 5 in Fig. 1. If the lengths of the sides of the plate are
sufficiently large, the edge effects will not be felt suffi-
cy! e~ - o ~ I A T " ciently far from the edge and the strains and stresses will
-Ql! Qlz Q13 0 0 0
e~ - ~2AT be independent of y and z. Near the edges, interlaminar
0'2 Q12 Q22 Q23 0 0 0
E~ - o~3AT shear stresses are required to equilibrate the in-plane
9 (Y3 ---- Q13 Q23 Q33 0 0 0 stresses created by differential thermal contraction. In turn,
"~23 0 0 0 Q44 0 0 723 to satisfy equilibrium, the interlaminar shear stresses re-
"1~31[ 0 0 0 0 Q550 quire interlaminar normal stresses. These interlaminar
"[12 J 0 0 0 0 0 Q66 stresses have signs depending on the coefficients of ther-
71z (3)
mal expansion, c~, of the plies. Figure 1 shows the sense of
where the coordinate axes coincide with symmetry axes of the stresses developed for c~90 > a0. Relieving the inter-
the material. Because the grating is applied on a surface laminar stresses will relieve the locked-in residual strains
after cool-down, the residual strains measured are the in all plies9
terms (e~- ~IAT), etc. Since the surfaces on which the To demonstrate, in a particular case, the release of
gratings are replicated are free of surface tractions, eq (3) deformations that were locked-in during cooling from the
simplifies to curing temperature, a 38 x 41-mm (1.50 x 1.61-in.) coupon
was cut from a [902d02d9020] ]M7/8551-7A (Hercules
Materials Co.) graphite/epoxy flat laminate having a thick-
ness of 8.38 mm (0.330 in.). Each lamina was one-third of
the total laminate thickness, i.e., each lamina had a thick-
~12 L0 0 Q66 [~12J (4) ness of 2.79 mm (0.110 in.). The panel had been stored in
the laboratory in which subsequent measurements were
with the superscript R denoting residual strain or stress made for several weeks to minimize hygroscopic effects.
with A 1200 g/ram (30 480 g/in.) cross-line reflective diffrac-

Q,, -
Ez QI~ ---
1)12 E2
1- '1.)12 'O21 l -- 1)12 1)21

022 -- Q66 = G12
1 - ~12 'D21 (5)

The normal strain perpendicular to the surface may be

determined from

'1-)13 1)23
~3 = E~ - ~3AT = - 7 G1 - - - (Y2
E2 (6)

The 'tension value' of Poisson's ratio, a)~l, is defined as the (a)

decrease in length of an element in the one-direction due
to a tensile force in the two-direction divided by the I o- o -oo -oo ~v
extension in the two-direction. The compressive value of l
, ~ _ _-- ,F
Poisson's ratio, v~l, is correspondingly defined as the
increase in length of an element in the one-direction due
to a compressive force in the two-direction divided by the I-I o o- ~o 1o7 o6 1 7 6.~,..r'l,..~
o o 90
contraction in the two-direction. Differences between the
Poisson's ratios in tension and compression in composites r, -ooo
- o -'v ~
oo o o
u 1 7 6
..~.--n,.-~ 90
has been observed previously. 68 onono n J
(~90~ ~0
Examples (b)

Fig, 1 - - G r o s s - p l y laminate. (a) Laminate

Flat Laminate construction and coordinate system. (b)
As a first example, consider a [90d0d90n] flat laminate Formation of residual stresses upon cool-
shown in Fig. 1. The x, y, z, coordinate system is aligned ing from curing t e m p e r a t u r e

28 9 March 1994
Ny Nz

Fig. 2-Ny and Nz displacement fringes for surface ply of [902o/0zd90~0]cross-ply laminate. (a) Initial
2.16-mm (0.085-in.) layer thickness removed. (b) 0.50-mm (0.020-in.) thickness layer removed
from original 2.16-ram layer

tion grating was replicated on one of the lateral surfaces parallel to the interface between the 90-deg and 0-deg
using PC-10 adhesive (Measurements Group Inc.). The plies. The thickness of the layer removed was 2.16 mm
thickness of the adhesive layer in the replication process (0.085 in.). The relieved displacements in the plane of the
is typically less than 25 p-m (0.001 in.). The coupon with surface are shown in Fig, 2. The effect of the edges is
the replicated diffraction grating was placed into the field clearly evident extending inward from each edge approxi-
- 4
of the mterferometer and the null-field obtained in the mately one-third of the length of the side of the coupon.
projection plane for both the y- and z-direction displace- Thus, approximately the central one-third of the length of
ment fields, V and W, respectively. The specimen was the edge is free of edge-effect. The representative strain
removed from the interferometer. The mold from which released perpendicular to the fibers was -0.37 percent
the grating was taken was then placed in the interferometer (residual strain +0.37 percent) and representative strain
to verify that the same null-field was obtained. Thereafter, released parallel to the fibers was +0.014 percent (residual
the interferometer could be brought to null-field immedi- strain -0.014 percent). Figure 2 also shows the correspond-
ately prior to determining the residual displacements in the ing displacement fields after a 0.5 l-ram (0.020-in.) surface
plane of the grating using the grating mold as the reference layer was removed from the 2.16-mm thick original layer.
for released deformation. This was a critical step in the No significant change in response was observed indicating
procedure since several hours could elapse between ply that the locked-in deformations were fully released with
separation and obtaining the final displacement interfero- the first cut at the interface and, thus, substantiated the
grams. The outer (90-deg) ply was separated from the premise that removal of stresses at the interface returns the
center (O-deg) ply using a diamond-wafering saw cutting lamina to a stress-free state.

Experimental Mechanics 9 29
TABLE 1--MATERIAL PROPERTIES* viously described was replicated on one lateral surface. A
ii I
0.5 l-ram (0.020-in.) surface layer was removed using a
Propertyt IM7/8551-7A AS4/3501-6 diamond-wafering saw. Thus, the interlaminar tractions
El(ten.) 1 6 5 x 1 0 S ( 2 4 x 1 0 a) 145 x103 ( 2 1 x 1 0 a) acting at the plane of the cut were eliminated and the
E1 (com.) 148 x 103 (21.5 x 103) 143 x 103 (20.7 x 103) surface slice relaxed to its stress-relieved state. The result-
ing Vand Wdisplacement fringes are shown in Fig. 3. The
E2(ten.) 7 . 8 x 1 0 a ( 1 . 1 4 x 1 0 a) 9.3 x103 (1.35 x103) sign of the fringe gradient was determined using carrier
E3*(ten.) 7.8 x10a (1.14 x103) 9 . 3 x 1 0 a ( 1 . 3 5 x 1 0 a) fringes of extension. 9 The excellent fringe clarity and high
Su~ (ten.) 2480 (360) U fringe density permit reliable determination of the fringe
gradients and strain. The residual (tensile) strain, ey, per-
Su~ (com.) 1650 (240) 1720 (250)
pendicular to the fiber direction was +0.45 percent. The
Su2 (ten.) 53 (7.7) U corresponding residual tensile stress was ~y = 35 MPa (5.1
v12 0.3 0.3 ksi). At other locations on the boundary of the hole, resid-
v2(" 0.014 0.020 ual shear stresses may reach significant levels which, in
combination with normal stresses, may cause in-plane
v2a U U
matrix cracking.
c~r +21.6 x 106/~ +21.6 x 108/~ The residual deformations in the plane of the free-edge
~_ -0.4 x 10~/~ -0.1 x 108/~ are determined in a similar way. A cross-line grating was
replicated on the edge of the coupon perpendicular to the
z axis. Two cuts were made nearly parallel to the interface
*Hercules Materials Co. data base between the 0-deg and 90-deg plies using a 0.35-mm
tStiffness and strength in MPa (ksi) at 20~ (0.014-in.) diamond slitting saw denoted as Cut I and Cut
T= Transverse to fibers II in Fig. 4. These cuts were made at a slight angle with
L = Along fibers
**Calculated from reciproicity at 20~ respect to the ply interfaces--the interfaces are indicated
U = Unknown by the symbol 0 . . . . . . 0. The purpose of these cuts was
*Property not available--assumed to be approximately E2 to separate the central 0-deg lamina from the 90-deg lam-
ina, thereby removing the interfacial stresses. The purpose
of the slight angle of the cut relative to the interface was
to reveal the slope of both the U and V field displacement
It is interesting to compare the strains released in the fringes near and at the interface as seen in Fig. 4. Next, Cut
experiment with the residual strains predicted by lami- III (Fig. 3) was made by parting off a layer of 0.80 mm
nated plate theory (LPT). The appendix gives the LPT (0.032 in.) parallel to the grating. Three separate strips
analysis corresponding to the present example. With un- were thus created; one from the central lamina and one
certainty in material properties, principally the values of each for the two outer laminae. Each strip was heldin place
the coefficients of thermal expansion, the measured values on a flat glass plate using two-sided adhesive tape, and the
of the in-plane strains on the lateral surfaces away from the glass plate was inserted into the interferometer after taking
edges and those predicted by the LPT agree quite favor- great care to carefully align the interferometer for null-
ably. Table 2 gives these results. field using the specimen grating mold. The U (x-direction)
Using the material properties given in Table 1, residual and V (y-direction) displacement fringes are Shown in Fig.
stresses in the 90-deg layer are (~y= 28 MPa (4.1 ksi), which 4. One entire interface is visible along 0 . . . . . . 0 adjacent
is approximately 50 percent of the transverse tensile to the chevron shaped (v or ^) fringes in the U-field. These
strength, and (~z= -20 MPa (-2.9 ksi) or about one percent chevron fringes indicate a change in sign of the through-
of the longitudinal compressive strength. the-thickness normal residual-strain component ~ cross-
To portray the influence of cut-outs (holes) on the state ing the interface from positive in the central 0-deg lamina
of residual strain (stress) near the intersection of the cut-out to negative in the outer 90-deg lamina. This is similar to
and the surface of the laminate, a 9.38-mm (0.375-in.) the reversal in sign of the through-the-thickness normal
diameter hole was machined through the thickness of a stress very near the interface of a mechanically loaded
coupon taken from the same panel. A diamond-core drill cross-ply laminate described in Ref. 3 (page 209). The
was used with liberal amounts of coolant and the cutting residual strains in the uniformly responding center one-
speed reduced to minimize cutting damage and introduc- third of the length of the edge are: ex= +0.50 percent in the
tion of machining stresses. A cross-line grating as pre- center lamina and -0.22 percent in the outer lamina, ey =



0-deg Lamina 90-deg Lamina

] I to Fibers (percent) Fibers (percent) [ I to Fibers (percent) .1_to Fibers (percent)
Measured Not Measured Not Measured -0.014 +0.36
Theory -0.037 +0.34 -0.016 +0.32

30 9 March 1994
-0.04 percent in the center lamina and +0.33 percent in the are ex = -0.22 percent, and ey = +0.33 percent. This meant
outer lamina. An elemental strip shown in Fig. 4 at the that when the residual stresses were released, the elemental
intersection of the free-edge and the lateral surface of the strip responded as if a compressive stress, Cry,acted alone
laminate experiences uniaxial loading; a special case of
resulting in a Poisson's ratio v~ = 0.22/0.33 = 0.67. This
plane stress. The values of residual strains at this location
seemingly large value of Poisson's ratio in compression
has been observed in similar laminae. 8

Thick-walled Cylinder
Thick-walled cross-ply laminated cylinders are of cur-
9 Cut III rent interest for use in submersible structures. The influ-
ence of curing stresses has been studied theoretically under
D 0.8010.032)
the assumptions of linear-elastic response and tempera-
ture-independent properties. 1~The same methodology as
described for the flat laminate can be used to determine the
' V residual strains on surfaces of a cross-ply cylinder. A
i.i I ,,,,,u portion of a cylinder near its end section is shown in Fig.
5. At an end section of the cylinder, there will be a
41(1.61) free-edge effect with the strains and stresses varying in the
axial (z) direction. The r-0 plane is similar to the x-y plane
at the free-edge of the laminate as shown in Fig. 4. Like-
/~0.35(0.014) wise, there will be residual strains and stresses in the r-0
Dimensions: ram(in] plane. The representative strains released in the plane of
3301 the free surface at the end of the cylinder due to the removal
of the circumferential and radial stresses, co and crrrespec-
O) tively, (at the free surface 6z = 0) will be independent of 0

V - Field

W - Field


Fig. 3-Released residual displacement fields

for cross-ply laminate with through-the-thick-
ness hole. (a) Coupon dimensions. (b) V
and Wdisplacement fields (perpendicular Fig. 4--U and V residual displacement fringes on the
and parallel to fiber direction at surface) edge of a [902o/020/902o]cross-ply laminate

Experimental Mechanics 9 31
made, say, one-third of the thickness of the outer ply
without causing an appreciable force release in the outer
ply. This fiat is desirable since replication on curved sur-
faces is very difficult. Next, a grating G~ is replicated on
this flat and, subsequently, a thin layer containing the
grating is removed with the thickness of the layer confined
to the outer ply. The released strains will indicate the nature
of the axial dependence in the outer ply. The same proce-
dure could be used to determine the axial dependence of
the surface strains on the inside surface but with greatly
increased difficulty due to the concave curvature of the
surface. To determine the released strains in the r-0 plane,
a grating G2 is replicated on the end section of the cylinder
and a thin slice parallel to the surface is removed. This
piece can be cut into two portions from which information
can be extracted for the circumferential plies from one
portion and for the axial plies from the other portion (see
Fig. 6). Stresses ~0 are removed by radial cuts and stresses
(~r are removed by making short, straight cuts approxi-
mately parallel to the plies.
Fig. 5--Surface slice removal for thick-walled cross- As an example of these steps, a wafer containing G2 was
ply cylinder taken from a AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy cylinder with
([903/0]20/903) stacking sequence designated 89-1A which
was used in a previous study. 11 The cured plies had a
thickness of 0.18 mm (0.0072 in.) giving a representative
thickness of the three-ply circumferential layers of 0.55
because of axial symmetry. Anomalies in material proper- mm (0.0217 in.). The cylinder had an inside diameter of
ties and fabrication will, of course, give local variations 17.78 cm (7.00 in.) and a nominal wail-thickness of 1.58
from average (representative) values. However, these cm (0.62 in.). Figure 6 shows the displacement fringes in
strains and stresses may depend on axial (z) position. the r-0 plane near the outside diameter resulting from the
The following procedural steps are suggested to reveal release of both 60 and ~YrThe circumferential and radial
the important characteristics of the residual stresses at stresses for the outer four circumferential plies which are
surface points of the cylinder. (1) To determine the axial given in Fig. 6 were determined from eq (4) with the
dependence of e0 and ez on, say, the outer surface, a small principal material directions for the 903 plies taken as 1 =
flat surface can be produced by carefully machining or 0, 2 = z, 3 = r. The exact locations of calculated stresses
grinding using diamond tools. The depth of this flat can be are shown for each ply in Fig 6. The use of carder fringes

Fig. 6--Circumferential and radial residual displacement fringes at end section of a thick-walled cross-ply cylinder.
(a) Microphotograph showing cuts that release ~o and ~r. (b), (c), (d) are Vdisplacement fringes with different carrier
fringes of rotation. (e), (f), (g) are U displacement fringes with different carrier fringes of rotation

32 9 March 1994
of rotation were indispensable in accurately determining affect calculation of shear strains (Ref. 4, page 345). Nor-
the released strains. 12 Averaging of fringe spacings and mal strain calculations are not affected by rigid-body rota-
fringe angles over the areas shown together with standard tions regardless of the type of optical system used.
deviations are given. Since the outer circumferential plies (5) Shear lag in the specimen grating. Because the dif-
had compressive circumferential residual strains, the value fraction grating is separated from the composite surface by
of v+21 was used in calculating the residual stresses using a thin layer of epoxy approximately 25-gm (0.001-in.)
eq (4). Some small uncertainty exists in the residual strains thick, abrupt changes in strain are not transmitted precisely
determined at the boundary due to minor distortion of the to the external surface of the grating. High-strain gradient
grating caused by epoxy shrinkage. This uncertainty is zones on the composite surface are enlarged on the grating
discussed in the following secton. The value of ~0 = -140 surface and peak strains are reduced. Values of strain
MPa (-20.3 ksi) in the outer ply is in fair agreement with determined at ply interfaces where resin-rich zones may
the value of -15 ksi determined using a layer-removal exist will therefore be less accurate than at locations away
method for rings cut from the same cylinder.13The values from such high-strain gradient regions. Since all numerical
of ~r calculated in the outer four circumferential plies is results presented in this paper are for locations away from
considerably larger (approximately ten times larger) than ply interfaces, shear-lag error is judged to be unimportant.
those determined by experiment in Ref. 13 or calculated (6) Distortion of the grating at saw cut or free edge. If
for a similar cylinder in Ref. 10. It is interesting to note extreme care is used in cutting with diamond wafering
that the radial residual stress, or, increases very quickly blades, no damage to the grating occurs. Slow speeds are
from zero at the free surface to +14.9 MPa (2.2 ksi) near recommended with the use of liberal amounts of cutting
the inner surface of the outer ply as shown in Fig. 6. fluid to keep the edge being cut cool and free of debris
which can damage the cut edge. The blade removes mate-
Experimental Error Sources rial which is not available for analysis. The width of the
saw blade can often be selected to closely match the
As in any experiment, Uncertainties occur that may
thickness of a ply so that complete plies may be removed
deteriorate the accuracy of the results. The following un-
with a single cut. Wafering blades may be obtained which
certainties and sources of error are considered.
remove as little as 0.20 mm (0.008-in.). A more serious
(1) Uncertainty of the specimen-grating frequency. The
method by which the master grating (from which specimen error may be introduced near a boundary due to shrinkage
replicate copies used in the present work were made) was in the epoxy used to replicate the grating. This shrinkage
made precludes an uncertainty of more than 1 fringe/ram near the boundary is manifested by distortion of the grating
in the frequency. This uncertainty would lead to a negli- and the generation of 'parasitic' fringes similar to those in
gible error of 0.04 percent in the strains using eq (1) and photoelastic coatings. This causes error principally in nor-
eq (2). mal strains perpendicular to the boundary. These parasitic
(2) Out-of-plane warpage of the specimen grating due to fringes can be readily identified by introducing carrier
release of residual stresses. If the out-of-plane warpage fringes of rotation and observing any curvature or 'hook-
causes a rotation about an axis perpendicular to the refer- ing' of the fringes near the boundary. These fringes can be
ence grating lines, no error is introduced. If warpage causes minimized, and in some cases completely eliminated, by
a rotation of the grating about a line parallel to the reference carefully cleaning any excess uncured epoxy from the
grating lines, an extraneous moir6 frequency Fe = -f W2/2 intersection of the grating plane and the boundary during
is caused where W is the rotation angle (assumed to be replication.
small) a n d f i s the frequency of the reference grating (see (7) Uncertainty in material properties. Except at resin-
Ref. 4) For a rotation W = 0.01 rad, the extraneous strain rich or resin-starved locations in the material, the repre-
a, = -50 p,m/m or -0.005 percent. It is highly unlikely that sentative values given in Table 1 are felt to be accurate
the deformations of the removed surface layers in the within +2-3 percent for modulii and within +3-5 percent
present study would be this large. Thus, the error due to for the coefficients of thermal expansion. Thus, in most
out-of-plane warpage is judged to be insignificant. cases, the greatest errors in the calculated values of strain
(3) Introduction of carrier fringes of rotation introduce and stress are caused by uncertainties in material proper-
extraneous fringes with frequency Fe = -f 02/2 where 0 is ties.
the angle between the initial specimen grating lines and the
reference grating lines andfis the frequency of the refer-
ence grating (see Ref. 12). The carrier fringes are related
to 0 by Fc = f O. The largest cartier frequency used in the (1) The determination of residual surface strains and
present study was 35 fringes/ram for the outer circumfer- stresses for cross-ply laminates as described in this paper
ential ply shown in Fig. 6. The extraneous strain in this is a straightforward but tedious process.
case is - 106 gm/m or approximately -0.01 percent, making (2) Extreme care must be taken, in the method described,
the apparent value of 8rat this location 0.028 percent which in releasing inter-ply tractions using diamond-cutting tools
is approximately 28-percent low. At other locations in Fig. so as not to damage the excised section or the diffraction
6 this error is small enough to be neglected. grating.
(4) Rigid-body rotations of portions of layers occur after (3) For the flat [9020/020/9020] graphite-epoxy laminate,
release of residual stresses. Since a four-beam optical good agreement was found between the experimentally
system was used, rigid-body motions of the grating do not determined in-plane residual surface strains and corre-

ExperimentaI Mechanics 9 33
sponding residual surface strains predicted by laminated
plate theory,
(4) Residual surface strains and stresses at the end sec-
tion near the outer surface of a thick-walled ([903/0]2o/903)
Laminated Plate Analysis
graphite-epoxy cylinder were determined. The introduc-
tion of carrier fringes in moir6 interferometry is an impor- In classical laminated plate theory (LPT)5 the following
tant tool in increasing the accuracy of the results where the assumptions are made. (1) Displacements are continuous
load-induced fringes are irregular or sparse. across the interface between two lamina. (2) The in-plane
(5) Material properties used in constitutive equations displacements at any point are related to the displacements
of the geometric midplane. (3) Plane sections remain
should be accurately determined to insure that the calcu-
plane. (4) In-plane strains are related to displacement
lated residual stresses are realistic. gradients at the geometric midplane. (5) Strains vary line-
arly (at most) across laminate thickness. (6) Through-the-
thickness normal strains are neglected.
Acknowledgments Figure 7 shows the coordinate system and deformations
in the x-y plane. From geometry
Appreciation is expressed to the Photomechanics Group
in the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
v = Vo - xo~ (A1)
at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for
their assistance during 1989-1990 when the work de- with
scribed herein was initiated. Special thanks are extended
to Professor Daniel Post for his advice and encouragement. ~Uo
The author wishes to thank the Hercules Materials Com- OY (A2)
pany for supplying the specimens used in the study.

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Strains in Thick Composites," Proc. 1989 SEM Spring Conf. on Exp.
Mech., 356-364 (1989). The linearized strain-displacement relations give
2. Lee, J. and Czarnek, R., "Measuring Residual Strains in Composite
Panels Using Moird Interferometry, '" Proc. 1991 SEM Spring Conf. on
Exp. Mech., 405-415 (1991). Ov OVo O2Uo
3. Herakovich, C.T., "Free Edge Effects in Laminated Composites," - ~y 3y x Oy2
Handbook of Composites, ed. C.T. Herakovich and EM. Tarnopolskii,
Elsevier Science Publishers, 2, Chap. 4 (1989).
4. Post, D., "Moir~ lnterferometry," Handbook of Experimental Me-
Ow 3Wo b2Uo
chanics, ed. A. S. Kobayashi, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Chap.
7 (1987). ~ Z - ~z ~z - X ~z ~
5. Agarwal, B.D. and Broutman, L.J., Analysis and Performance of
Fiber Composites, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 148-155 (1990).
6. Halpin, J.C., "Primer on Composite Materials," Technomic Pub- by 3w bVo 3Wo 32Uo
lishing Co., Lancaster, PA, 168-172 (1984). ~(y~= -q--+ --V-= - - + - - - 2 x
oz oy Oz 3y ~yOz (A4)
7. Bert, C. W., "Modelsfor Fiber Composites with Different Properties
in Tension and Compression," J. Eng. Mat. Tech., 344-349 (1977).
8. Gascoigne, H.E. and Abdallah, M. G., "Strain Analysis of a Bonded, Equation (A4) can be written in matrix form as
Dissimilar, Composite Material T-Joint Using Moir~ lnterferometry,"
Opt. and Lasers in Eng., 13, 155-165 (1990).
9. Han, B. and Post, D., "The Tilted Plate Method for Introducing
Carrier Fringes of Extension in Moirg Interferometry," EXPERIMENTAL ,,z
TEC~Qt;ES, 13 (7), 25-29 (1989).
10. Hyer, M. W., "Hydrostatic Response of Thick Laminated Compos- LvyzJ L~yzJ (A5)
ite Cylinders, " J. Reinforced PIastics and Composites, 7, 321-340 (1988).
11. Abdallah, M. G., Cairns, D.S. and Gascoigne, H.E., "Experimental o o
where e y, and ~ z, and "~~ z are the midplane strains and ~:y,
Investigation of Thick-Walled Graphite~Epoxy Composite Ring Under
External Hydrostatic Compressive Loading," Proc. 1991 SEM Spring ~c~, and ~Cyzare the plate curvatures. The stress-strain rela-
Conf. on Exp. Mech., Milwaukee, 626-631 (1991). tions for the kth lamina are
12. Guo, Y., Post, D., and Czarnek, R., "The Magic of Carrier Fringes
in Moir( lnterferometry," EXPERtMEN'rALMECHANtCS, 29, 169-173
13. Abdallah, M.G., "Residual Stresses in Thick-Walled Composite
Rings," Proc. 1992 SEM Spring Conf. on Exp. Mech., Las Vegas,
1063-1070 (1992).
14. Post, D., MeKelvie, J., Tu, M. and Dai, F., "Fabrication of
Holographic Gratings Using a Moving Source," Appl. Opt., 28 (15),
f ~176 1 lfyt
LQ,6Q2006JLyJ (same) ,,,
3494-3497 (1989). (A6)

34 9 March 1994
. v,

f!ot; r _A""_ _
where, for the case of cross-ply laminate symmetric with
respect to the midplane,

)or ~ 3)00000000000(
oo x oooooo(

[A'] = [A]-'
[B'] =
{M T} = {0}



Deformed Undeformed [A]~ = [Au]~= ~ (Qij)k ( hi: - hk-, )

Fig. 7--Definition of the undeformed and deformed
cross section of a laminated plate where hk is the thickness of the kth lamina. Hence, as
expected, the plate curvatures are zero for the symmetric
cross-ply laminate.
where ~0 are the transformed stiffnesses which are related The thermal force resultant for the present case is
to the stiffness in the principal material directions, Qu, by
eq 5.61 of Ref. 5. INIV!I [Q22[ff'T'4;-Q120~L] [Qlll~Lnt'Q120[,T
In' the case of thermal strains now considered, the me-
chanical strains are given by


"~y~J tYyzJ [~yzj (A7) From eq (A12) the inverse of [A], [A]-~, gives the elements
of [A'] as

where {e} are the total lamina strains given by A'I 1--'- A22
AuA22 - A22

Iy1,1 f](]yzyt
['YyzJ [~yzJ (A8)
Atl2 _--

A'22 --
AuA22 - A~2
A uA22 - A~2

with the thermal strains given by where

Ali = ( 2Q22 + Qu ) h

V;yzJ L~y~ArJ (A9) Am = ( 3Qm ) h

where ~y, o~ and ~yz are the (transformed) coefficients of A22 = ( 2Qu + Q2z ) h
thermal expansion. The thermal stresses for the kth lamina
are with


I[ rzJk [O,6Qz6066J,[yyz-~zATJ
I OllO] 2 #161 I~y -- 0(,yAT ]

=1 a120%2 QG6|
__ __
O l I --

Q12 ---
1 - 19LragrL
~Lr EL
1 - ~Lra~rc
The midplane strains and curvatures are related to the Er
Q22 --'-
thermal force (Nr) and thermal moment ( M r) resultants by 1 - ~Lra&L (A14)

Experimental Mechanics 9 35
Computing the components of the midplane strains gives

4= (2Qll+Q22) [(Qn+2Q,2)o~L+(2Q22+Q12)o~r] - 3Q12 [(2Qn+Q,2)o~L+(Q22+2Q,2)o~r]

(2Q22+Qll) (2Qll+Q22) - 9Q22

(2Q22+Q11)[(2Q11+Q12)o~L+(Q22+2Q12)otr] 3Q12[(Q1,+2Q12)o~L+(2Q22+Q12)o~r]

(2Q22+Qll) (2Qll+Q22) - 9Q~2 (A15)

Since v12v21 is very small compared to unity, it will be neglected so that

Qll -~ El, Q22 = E2, Q12 -~ v12E2

Defining m = EffE1, r = V12m and rewriting (A15) gives

e~ = (2+m) [(l+2r)aL+(2m+r)O~r] - 3r [(2+r)o~L+(m+2r)o~r] A T

(2m+l) (2+m) - 9r 2

= (-3r[(l+2r)aL+(2m+r)O~r]+(2m+l)[(2+r)otL+(m+2r)~r] A T
(2m+l) (2+m) - 9r z (A16)

Numerical Example
Using average values over the temperature range of AT The corresponding total midplane strain perpendicular to
= -160~ to be (XL= -0.4 X 10-6/~ C~r= -21.6 x'10-6/~ the fiber is ez~ = -93 x 10 -6 m/m and the mechanical strain
gives ey~ = -304 x 10 .6 m/m. Hence, in the 0-deg layer, the in the 0-deg layer perpendicular to the fiber is
mechanical strain parallel to the fiber is
~M[0deg]= ~o -- [~TAT = +3363 x 10 -6 m/m or +0.34 percent
~Mt0deg]~--- ~ y -- ~L A T = -368 x 10 -6 mJm or -0.037 percent

The mechanical strain parallel to the fiber in the 90-deg

and, in the 90-deg layer, the mechanical strain perpendicu- layer is
lar to the fiber is

~[90 deg]= ey - o~r AT = +3152 x 10 -6 m/m or +0.32 percent ~zM[90deg]~-- -157 • 10 -6 m/m or -0.016 percent

36 9 March 1994