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Maria Kathrina Crave BSN-3C

I.

Probability

We all know that probability is simply described as a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur or a number expressing the ratio of favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible. Just like tossing a coin, wondering the chances that it will be a head or a tail. Probability in my own understanding it is the chances that occurs in an event whether its favorable or not. Simple Event- is an event that consists of exactly one outcome. Ex: tossing a coin (head or tail) getting 1 outcome Compound Event-consists of two or more simple events. Ex: tossing 2 dices and getting 2 outcomes Joint Event- the probability of two events occurring together Ex: a joint probability cannot be calculated when tossing a coin on the same flip. However, the joint probability can be calculated on the probability of rolling a 2 and a 5 using two different dice.

Reference: Cameron, P. (2000). Notes on Probability. Retrieved on August 18, 2013 from http://www.maths.qmul.ac.uk/~pjc/notes/prob.pdf II. Addition Rule

According to Julien Dompierre, a statistical property that states the probability of one and/or two events occurring at the same time is equal to the probability of the first event occurring, plus the probability of the second event occurring, minus the probability that both events occur at the same time.

Maria Kathrina Crave BSN-3C Reference: Dompierre,J.(2007) Addition and Multiplication Rules For Probability Lecture 10, STAT 2246. Retrieved on August 18, 2013 from http://www.cs.laurentian.ca/jdompierre/html/STAT2246E_W2007/L10_ProbabilityRules.pdf III. Multiple Rule

It can be used to find the probability of 2 or more events that occur in sequence. For example, if a coin is tossed and then a die is rolled, one can find the probability of getting a head on the coin and a 4 on the die. Theses 2 events are said to be independent since the outcome of the first event (tossing a coin) does not affect the probability outcome of the second event (rolling a die) 2 events A and B are independent events if the fact that A occurs does not affect the probability of B occurring. When 2 events are independent, the probability of both occurring is

1. Multiplication rule 1 can be extended to 3 or more independent events by using the formula

2. In this sequence, the experiments may or may not be the same. If the experiments are the same, the events may or may not be the same. Reference: Dompierre,J.(2007) Addition and Multiplication Rules For Probability Lecture 10, STAT 2246. Retrieved on August 18, 2013 from http://www.cs.laurentian.ca/jdompierre/html/STAT2246E_W2007/L10_ProbabilityRules.pdf