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MARTINEZ, KRISIA 11142596 SURVEY3 1. What are control surveys?

Positions (latitude, longitude and height) that a mapmaker uses in order to represent the relationship between a map and the real world. 2. What is control network and what is it needed for? How does it benefit you? By knowing the scale, orientation and height displayed in the map, one would be able to gather information about a certain area and its surroundings. 3. What are the different types or levels of control networks? Horizontal (x & y coordinates) control network Vertical (height) control network 4. What are horizontal control networks? These networks provide the positional information such as the latitude and longitude in order to model the size and shape of the Earth. 5. What are the different methods in establishing horizontal control? Traversing Triangulation Trilateration Network GPS Photogrammetric methods 6. What are vertical control networks? These networks establish series of points based on height and elevation. These vertical control stations are usually called benchmarks, and the benchmarks elevation usually starts at the mean sea level. 7. What are the different methods in establishing vertical control? Differential leveling Trigonometric leveling GPS Photogrammetric methods 8. What is a horizontal survey? Give the different methods Horizontal control survey is a type of survey that uses the longitude and latitude to establish points on the horizontal coordinate. The GPS has become the most widely used for its efficiency and accurate results.

9. What is a vertical survey? Give the different methods Vertical control survey is a type of survey, which determines the elevation with respect to the sea level; benchmarks are used to accurately portray relief on a map. 10. What are route surveys? Give different examples Route surveys gather information to be used for creating the most feasible plans for railroads, utility pipe, highways, transmission lines, canals, etc. 11. How are route surveys used in locating transportation routes? Studies on route surveys would be able to present the different passageways of people, or even materials such as water, and so on. 12. What are construction surveys? Give different examples Construction Survey is done in order to provide reference points and markers to guide the construction sites of new buildings or structures. 13. Give atleast 10 heavy equipment used in construction. Provide figures for each and description for each and its use

Bulldozer pushes heavy soil materials, used for clearing and grading land

Grader used to create flat surfaces from uneven soil laid down on the ground

Excavator used for digging trenches and holes

Tractor mainly for hauling a trailer and is used for harvesting and tilling

Loader to carry heavy materials from one place to another

Crane used for lifting and transporting heavy materials from high above

Backhoe for excavating and digging soil

Wheel dozer soil compactors

Asphalt plant used for manufacturing asphalt and other forms of road stone

Paver lays the asphalt on the road being constructed http://www.icsm.gov.au/mapping/surveying1.html http://www.godfreyhoffman.com/Types-of-Surveys/ http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-route-survey.htm http://hulberteng-ls.com/survey---mapping/route-survey-147.html http://surveying.wb.psu.edu/sur162/control/webnotes.htm http://www.sco.wisc.edu/land-surveying/standards-a-networks.html