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The research first conducted an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if there was a significant effect of intrinsic and extrinsic

motivation of nurses to their self-efficacy without controlling for their socio-economic characteristics. This helped the researchers established the original relationships as the theory specified other things constant. Table 1 showed a p of 0.712 which exceeded the critical value of .05. The null hypothesis of non-significance was accepted. The partial conclusion was that extrinsic motivation of the nurses did not significantly impact their self-efficacy other things being constant.

Table 1 Self-Efficacy and Extrinsic Motivation


SELF EFFICACY *EXTRINSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total (Combined) Sum of Squares 2.852 1.612 4.462 df 45 21 66 Mean Square 0.63 .077 F .825 Sig. .712

Table 2 showed divergent result. The p value of .012 did not exceed .05 rejecting the null hypothesis of non-significance affected their self- efficacy. Intrinsic motivation of nurses significantly affected their self-efficacy. As the original findings demonstrated in table 1 and table 2, intrinsic motivation also known as job content factors, that is, how the nurses actually do their work significantly contributed to their self-efficacy in performing their jobs than extrinsic motivation (External factors which they did not have control. The findings were in some extent consistent with Herzbergs two-factor theory in 1923 which stressed that the presence of intrinsic factors and a separate extrinsic job characteristics are independent from each other. Thus, satisfaction in intrinsic factors does not mean dissatisfaction in extrinsic factors. The findings suggest that to improve nurses job attitudes and productivity, Hospital

administrators must recognize and attend both sets of characteristics and not assumes that an increase in intrinsic factors satisfaction lead to a decrease in extrinsic factors. The findings simply demonstrated that extrinsic factors did not impact self-efficacy of nurses in the way intrinsic factors impact self efficacy. Table 2 Self-Efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation
SELF EFFICACY *INTRINSIC Between Groups Within Groups Total (Combined) Sum of Squares 4.190 .274 4.464 df 54 12 66 Mean Square 0.78 .023 F 3.396 Sig. .012

So far, the original or initial findings were consistent with the Herberg theory. However, the theory does not operate in a vacuum independent of other factors in actual situations or conditions. To validate the theory, the socio-economic characteristics of the nurses were taken into account to find out if the theory still holds. Top serve that purpose, nurses age, gender, marital status, monthly income, educational attainment, and years of work experience were included as covariates or mediating variables. There are several things that can happen in controlling for the mediating variables:

1. The relationship can remain at about the same level of strength and in the same direction. Therefore, one can conclude the original relationship remains and reject the potential effect of intervening variable. In such case, there is no intervening variable. 2. The relationship disappears or weakens (statistically insignificant).Thus, one can conclude that the control variable intervenes between the independent variable and the dependent variable. The relationship is theoretically spurious; and

3. The relationship weakens foe each value of the control value, yet remains significant. One can conclude that intervening effect takes place, but there is also direct effect as well as an indirect effort.

To determine whether the theory that intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors still have significant effect self efficacy controlling for the nurses socio-economic characteristics, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used. Note that initially intrinsic factors significantly affected the nurses self efficacy. Table 3 showed that intrinsic factors significantly affected the nurses self efficacy. Table 3 showed that intrinsic factors became statistically insignificant when gender, marital status, age, and years of experience were controlled. This was demonstrated by the Levenes p values 0.10; 0.322; 0.172; and 0.129 respectively exceeding the critical .05 value. This nonsignificant value simply means that the differences in means in self efficacy is the same for gender, age, marital status and experience. Thus, the results of ANCOVA are not meaningful.

However, The Levenes p value for covariate income and education is significant with p value .01 and .001 respectively. This means that the differences in self efficacy significantly vary with income and educational attainment. The researchers concluded that gender, age, marital status and years of experience of the nurses does not have intervening impact between intrinsic factors and self efficacy while there was intervening effect of education and monthly income.

Table 3. Self-Efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation Controlling For Socio-economic Characteristics Control Variable Gender Intrinsic Age Intrinsic Marital Status Intrinsic Education Intrinsic Income Intrinsic Experience Intrinsic F .073 3.133 4.435 4.427 1.421 3.540 0.452 3.105 0.590 3.258 11.34 6.356 Sig. .792 .027 .059 .005 0.258 .0130 0.515 .022 0.459 .019 .006 .001 0.129 0.819 .001 0.650 .01 0.646 0.172 0.642 0.322 0.737 Levenes test Sig. .10 R2 .634

Dependent: Self Efficacy Design: intercept+socio-economicprofile+intrinsic Table 4 shows that ANCOVA results between extrinsic factors and self efficacy controlling for socio-economic characteristics of the nurses. Except of the covariate income, the rest of the relationships are significant. This means the self efficacy of nurses significantly differ across gender, marital status, age, education and experience as a function of their extrinsic motivation. The significance values in the column are all greater than .05 which indicate that there is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the nurses and the dependent variable (self efficacy) because the mean of self efficacy are significantly the same. The findings in table 3 and 4 are consistent with the findings in table 1 and 2 indicating that socio-economic characteristics as they interact with extrinsic factor does not significantly affect the nurses self efficacy.

Table 3. Self-Efficacy and Extrinsic Motivation Controlling For Socio-economic Characteristics Control Variable Gender Extrinsic Age Extrinsic Marital Status Extrinsic Education Extrinsic Income Extrinsic Experience Extrinsic F .000 .785 .366 .802 .955 .844 2.377 .575 .130 .782 .067 .761 Sig. .987 .755 .522 .736 .340 .690 .139 .659 .722 .758 .799 .780 0.017 .640 .077 .641 .015 .677 .005 .655 .028 0.970 Levenes test Sig. .36 R2 .645

Dependent: Self Efficacy Design: intercept+socio-economicprofile+extrinsic