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# Data Visualization

Authors: Peter Yochev, Danitsa Andreeva, Plamena Radneva, Ivan Chervenkov Software Technology and Design The Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv Plovdiv, January 30, 2014

Content
Patterns Over Time Proportions Relationships Differences

## Patterns Over Time

One of the first known graphics: Planetary movement chart, 10th century

## Patterns Over Time

The first bar chart, 1786, William Playfair

## Patterns Over Time

John Snows map of Cholera outbreaks in the London epidemic of 1854

## Patterns Over Time

Charles Minards 1869 chart showing the number of men in Napoleons 1812 infamous Russian campaign army

Proportions
There are many options to visualize data out there, but it may be hard simply to find the perfect chart or the perfect graph that can suit your data best. To make your decision clearer and easier there are lots of proportions available.

## Using Different ways to visualize data with proportions

Graphs and charts: Pie chart Donut chart Stacked area chart Treemap Voronoi diagram

Pie chart
Pie chart: Circular chart divided into sectors Illustrates numerical proportions Most effective when limited components are used Most effective when limited components are used

Donut chart
Donut chart: Functionally similar to pie charts Display data in rigs, where each ring represents data series Can support multiple statistics at once with its blank center Total 100% when percentage is used

## Stacked area chart

Stacked area chart: Graphical display of quantitive data based on a line chart Uses axis and lines The area between axis and lines are colored and textured to emphasize changes Commonly used to represent trends over time

Treemap
Treemap: Hierarchical displayed data as a set of nested rectangles Uses branches-rectangles which tile with smaller subbranches Can legibly represent lots of items because of their simple construction

Voronoi diagram
Voronoi diagram: Visualize magnitude using convex polygons Uses robust algorithms to sidestep problems when restricted to rectangles Can be found also in technology, science and even in art

Relationships
Or how to visualize data relationships effectively.

## The Foundation: Entity-Relationship (ER) diagram

> Can be considered as the base of all the charts which display data relationships.

## Figure 1: ER Diagram legend

Figure 2: Elaborated (classic) ER diagram (i.e, contains both entities and properties)

## The Classic: Scatter Plot chart

Figure 4: Simple Scatter Plot chart showing how two variables/entities correlate

Figure 4: Bubble chart - can be considered as a variation of the Scatter Plot chart.

Hierarchy chart

## Figure 6: Same idea, different look

Figure 7: Radial Cycle chart: Shows the relationship to a central idea and also how the information in the outer ring contributes to the main idea.

Figure 8: Stacked Venn chart: Best used for visualizing overlapping relationships.

Differences
In this lesson I will compare a few charts, which will show you the main difference between them.

Differences
The first chart is calledapt chart, which is an addition of the column charts.

Differences
The apt chart: has small number of categories can use shades of a single color easiest way to show all bars belong to same data type

Differences
The next one is the bar chart.

Differences
The bar chart: more than 8 but less than 15 categories more space for large names arranged from lowest to highest makes the understanding of the data easier connects shape of value faster

Differences
The Line chart: when you have a lot of numbers of data points doesnt show minimum and maximum shows the rate of change of a population best fits for showing trend-based visualization has only 1 value axis shows the population with negative spikes,because of famines or some infections.

Sources