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International Hospitality and Tourism Student Journal 6 (1) 2014 14-22

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An investigation about Delhi city for being a potential shopping destination for tourists and the development in its shopping tourism.
Karishma Sharma
HTMi, Hotel & Tourism Management Institute, Srenberg, 6174 Luzern, Switzerland!

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Abstract Shopping tourism would be one of the most popular forms of tourism in the coming years and the scope of shopping tourism would continue to grow. It is imperative to investigate about Delhi city for being a leading shopping destination in the future as Delhi has got a lot of potential to emerge as a strong and competitive shopping destination. Various concepts and theories relating to motivation and the decision making model have been highlighted in the research as the research focuses more on the consumer behaviour aspects of the individuals that help in promotion of the shopping facilities. Various recent studies regarding consumer motivation and decision making have also been briefly discussed in order to know more about the behaviour of the individuals in areas other than shopping. The author does urge that the primary research and further in depth study should be carried out in analysing and evaluating the effectiveness and limitations of the research being conducted.
Keywords: Shopping tourism; Consumer behaviour; Consumer motivation; Decision making; Delhi; India

2011 International Hospitality Research Centre. All rights reserved.

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1. Introduction Shopping tourism is a form of niche tourism but shopping is also a very attractive form of any tourist destination. Shopping tourism can be of different level in different countries however one has to keep in mind that all consumers behave differently and have their own needs, which differ from individual to individual (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). The tourists that travel to a particular destination for shopping might have lot of motivations behind their visit and some tourists get motivated to shop only when they reach a destination. But in the case of shopping destinations, a particular shopping destination could be popular only when it creates the needs for the tourists to shop and also tries to figure out the consumers motivations by themselves. Shopping is considered to be a unique and exquisite thing in Delhi as it is not just about malls or luxurious shopping showrooms but a lot of traditional and handmade items are also forming an important part of the shopping industry of Delhi city (Delhitourism, 2010). It has got a lot more potential to grow but in order to strengthen the shopping tourism in Delhi city. It needs to analyse about the consumer behaviour aspects which can help to understand the difference in the thinking of every consumer and also the motivation concepts that influences the decision making process of the consumers because No tourist is likely to be

influenced by just one motivator. They are more likely to be affected by a number of motivators at any one time. (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2007). The motivation to do this research is the outcome o the fact that the author visited Delhi city and noticed the increased potential of Delhi city to compete with the major shopping destinations in the world. The author will be interested in considering the motivational factors that are present within the shoppers coming to Delhi to shop and will also like to find out if they develop any motivation factors only after reaching Delhi or if they had any particular motivations concerning the shopping in Delhi before reaching Delhi. The author is concerned about the development of large number of malls in Delhi city that are expanding very aggressively. However the author wishes to find whether the huge number of shopping complexes are creating any motivational factor for the domestic as well as the international tourists. Also, numerous studies have been conducted about motivation and decision making approaches of the individuals but the author wants to explore the impacts that the shopping facilities create for the tourists in terms of their motivation and decision making approaches and since no study has been done regarding the subject of shopping tourism in Delhi. The aim of this paper is to investigate Delhi for being a potential shopping destination for tourists and the developments which are taking place in the shopping tourism

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International Hospitality and Tourism Student Journal 6 (1) 2014 14-22

of Delhi. To achieve the aim, the objectives have been divided as follows: to examine the scenario of the Delhi shopping tourism at the present stage; to analyse the fact that how Delhi should compete with other shopping destinations of mainly Asian countries; and to analyse the needs of the customers that influence them to visit Delhi. 2. Literature review 2.1. Definition and Concepts

The key factors that determine the success and growth of any company or industry in the market place is the ability of any particular industry or company to satisfy and identify the unfulfilled need and wants of the customers before their competitors and for this purpose they should have a clear understanding of the motivational factors of the individuals that stimulate their needs and demands (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of tension which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010, 106). Though there are two types of needs that an individual possesses. The first type of needs are called Innate or primary needs that are important to sustain a biological life and the latter is called acquired or secondary needs that are also called as motives. The primary needs are very basic needs that comprise the needs for food, clothing, shelter, etc. However the secondary needs or motives are the ones that comprise the needs of self esteem, prestige, power, affection and learning and these motives are the major factors that motivate individuals to make a decision (Ibid). For example clothing is a necessity for every individual and is a basic primary need. However there might be certain customers that like only sport brands, as they prefer comfortable outfits while there might be some customers that only prefer very high end and luxurious outfits as they think that wearing such outfits would be a status symbol. Hence, it is obvious to see that secondary needs or motives are dominant over the primary needs but in the end both primary and secondary needs are fulfilled. Customers are generally complex in their behaviour and most of the time they are vey doubtful about their own needs and wants. However the very first step for any marketer should be to identify and understand the different priorities of any customer in order to build a relationship with the customer (Himansu, 2009). There are several types of motives that influences the decision making process in individuals. The first motive is physiological arousal that provides motivation to a consumer for satisfying his/her physiological needs. The second one is emotional arousal that arises when the people are too much occupied with their daily routine life. In this condition they often start fantasising or day dreaming and this results in generation of the needs that satisfy their emotions. The third is cognitive arousal in which the people tend to accidentally come across some

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2.1.1. Motivation

information, which triggers a cycle of thoughts in them. The fourth is environmental arousal that comprises more of the external environment in the form of sight, smell and sound that might also initiate certain needs in people (Himansu, 2009). The motivational factor in tourism depends upon two categories. The first one motivates the people to take a holiday while the second one motivates the people to take a particular holiday to a specific destination at a specific point of time (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2007). The people perceive different needs that they aim to fulfil at a particular destination such as the need to relax, the need to enjoy, the need to go for shopping etc. and this motivates them in deciding their potential holiday destination. Since the motivations of an individual could directly affect his/her decision making abilities, it would be equally appropriate to know about the decision making model too.

The decision making model is not just one model but can comprise of various models that help in understanding the decision making process of the individuals. A very noticeable decision making model called the satisfying can be a good example of decision making process. This model is emphasising and justifying the fact that the customers look for the products that they exactly want to possess and once they achieve those desired products, the decision making process stops (Richarma, 2005). Ideally there are seven steps that are involved in an effective decision making process by any individual. The steps are common to almost all the customers, as at the time of buying a product most of the consumers behave in a same manner. The first step is knowing yourself . In this step the individual that acts a buyer firstly focuses on his own personality traits and analyses that how is decision would affect him in the future (Nezer and Mcnamara, 2008). The second step is the identification of any considerable problem or issues in which an individual would reflect upon some of the possible issues that might alter the decision making abilities of the individual. The third step is the identification of the goals and interest of the individuals in which an individual reflect upon the fact whether the product bought by him would satisfy his goals and other priorities. The fourth step involves framing a clear decision and gathering of facts. In this step an individual tries to collect number of facts about the product he/she is willing to purchase and takes time to review upon any previous decisions made by him/ her (Ibid). The fifth step involves the individuals to make sure that they have considered a wide range of alternatives before making a final decision and that they have also considered the various consequences of the available option (Plunkett et al., 2008). The sixth step involves reflecting upon some of the barriers that arises during an effective decision making process and the final seventh step involves evaluating the final results that were obtained form the final decision making process (Plunkett et al., 2008). Different types of tourists have different types of values and perceptions, which could alter their decision making abilities, and this case

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2.1.2. The Decision Making Model

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Cohens typology of tourist is helpful in understanding the nature of different types of tourists.

According to Cohen there are four major types of tourists which all differ from each other. The first is organised mass tourist who is more likely to follow a fixed itinerary. The second one is individual mass tourist who is more likely to follow a package that allows him more freedom. The third one is the explorer who is more likely to plan his traveling schedule but would be still cautious about his comfort and security and the fourth one is drifter who does not care about planning his itinerary at all and does not wish to have any contacts with the formal tourist industry (Sharma, 2005). Cohen classified individual mass tourist and organised mass tourist as institutionalised and classified as the explorer and the drifter as non- institutionalised. He highlighted the various impacts that are created on any destination because of the activities of the institutionalised and the noninstitutionalised tourists and came up with the conclusion that every tourists creates a certain impact on the destination that he/she visits as every tourists is different from one another (Cooper et al., 2008).

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2.1.3. Cohens Typology of Tourists

Consumers can be driven by various personal or social needs that act as major motivators in influencing the consumers in many ways (Tauber, 1972 cited in Jamal et al., 2006). Concerning the case of shopping motivations, there are seven basic dimensions shopping that are present in all the shopping tourists. The first one is anticipated utility that motivates the shopper to consider about the benefits that re being offered by the product they are wiling to buy (Jamal et al., 2006). The second one is the role enactment that motivates the shopper to identify his/ her own culturally prescribed roles. The third one negotiation that motivates the shopper to get a fair value of the money spent through bargaining. The fourth one is choice optimisation that motivates the shopper to select the right product that fits into the demand of the shopper. The fifth one is affiliations that motivate the shopper to associate with other shoppers either directly or indirectly. The sixth one is power and authority that motivate the shopper to possess an element of achievement by the elevation of their social position and the seventh one is stimulation, which motivates the shopper to seek novel and interesting stimuli (Jamal et al., 2006). Arnold and Reynolds (2003) have found that some of the researchers and experts have made numerous efforts to study about the motivations of a shopping tourist and came up with six hedonic shopping motivations which are namely adventure shopping, social shopping, gratification shopping, idea shopping, role shopping and value shopping. Though all these shopping motivation differ form each other but considering the motivations of social shopping, the

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2.2. Review of Existing Industry Research 2.2.1 Complexities of Human Motivation

customers who have a motivation to enjoy with friends or family during their shopping activities engage in social shopping motivations. They concern more about the socialising side and not just basic shopping. Therefore in such a case affiliation is a major motive that drives them to socialise with other shoppers (Arnold and Reynolds, 2003). Consumers might be affected by various sources of external environment that might influence or motivate them in order to make specific decisions. There is a particular example of such a case in United States where the people nowadays are emphasising more on using environmental friendly products (Vlosky et al., 1999). Large numbers of people in Unites States are motivated to buy only environmental friendly products as they they are willing to take steps to conserve their environment. Although the environmental friendly products cost more yet the customers are motivated to buy them as they think it is a necessity (Ibid). Nowadays, various companies have become wiser in motivating the customers to shop for their particular products. Though understanding consumer motivations is not an easy step but still the companies of today have started incorporating various new procedures to motivate them and to build loyalty with the customers as well. Nowadays, majority of the companies have started with the reward or loyalty cards program in which customers could redeem the points with their cards whenever they purchase something. The companies often think that it is one of the best methods to make the customers loyal towards their product (Smith and Sparks, 2009). The customers might possible have multiple motivations in order to redeem their points. Due to the redeeming of points, the customers might get additional gifts and this possibly could be the motivation for them to obtain various gifts or other items for their own use or to obtain gifts for other people. Smith and Sparks (2009) also states that loyalty cards are not only motivating customers to shop but also help in building relationship between the company and the customers. Ozaki and Sevastyanova (2011) conducted a research in UK that described some of the important motivations that a customer generally possesses at the time of buying the hybrid vehicles of Toyota company in UK. They came up with the facts that the consumer motivations are generally multifaceted in nature and consist of a rational thinking by the customer in which customer could question himself about the benefits he/she receives from buying a product and secondly motivation often consist of an effective reasoning in which a customer might wish to own a product because the other groups of people around him/her also own the same product (Ibid). Considering the case of shopping destination, there can be a lot of motives that might create a favourable impression in the minds of tourists thus motivating them to visit the destination. This could easily be depicted with the example of Dubai city. Dubai is one of the cities in the world that has developed at a very fast rate. In fact this city has grown quite rapidly with the course of time and now it is amongst the highly advanced cities in the world. Dubai has set up a large number of promotional schemes in the form of huge annual shopping festivals that play with the psychological minds of

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the people by emphasising on the fact that the shopping festival offers very attractive discounts and hence motivates the customers indirectly (Pacione, 2005). Similarly with the case of Hong Kong, despite of facing numerous competition from the other Asian Countries of Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore etc. It is still considered as a shoppers paradise. This is due to the reason because Hong Kong strongly believes in the concept of customer satisfaction (Wong and Law, 2002). Hong Kong differentiates itself from other shopping destinations by providing a huge and wide variety of merchandise along with the faster and efficient service and this makes the customers feel that they that they got good value for their money (Ibid). In this case, the tourist customers might not be aware about the good service of Hong Kong people but after the tourist customers experience their exceptional service, it would be a major motivation for the tourists to visit Hong Kong again to experience the wonderful service provided by them. Because of the presence of variety of motives studied by the various researchers, it clearly gives author the idea that it is not easy to find about the motivations as the personality of the individual might not be very simple to understand and hence it might not be easy to study about the motivations. In one of the cases such as that of Americans getting motivated to buy environmentally friendly products, the American population got motivated quite fast. However concerning the case ok UK customers in order to buy hybrid Toyota vehicles, they were always questioning about the benefits that they would receive form buying the vehicle and in their case the consumers were not easily motivated at once. These studies prove that fact to the author that understanding consumer motivations is very complex in nature.

Consumer decision making style is a mental orientation characterising a consumers approach to making choices (Sproles and Kandall, 1986 cited in Wang et al., 2004). Sproles and Kandall (1986) carried out an important study regarding the decision making style of the Chinese consumers and they ended up with a result of eight decision styles which are quality conscious, brand conscious, fashion conscious, recreational and hedonistic orientation, price conscious, impulsive and careless tendencies, confused by abundance of choices and brand loyalty (Wang et al., 2004). Though their studies mainly focused on the Chinese consumer market but the decision making styles they mentioned could be applied to various other nationalities (Ibid). Many researchers have highlighted various facts that suggests that the national culture of an individual has a profound effect in stimulating the values and attitude of the individual, therefore all nationalities have a different approach to to their decision making style (Leo et al., 2005). For majority of the cultures quality of the product being purchased has been one of the most important factors to make up the decision. However different cultures would consider different aspects while making their decision. Some cultures might

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2.2.2. The Formation of Decision Making Process

consider the quality of any product as an important factor in forming their decisions whereas some cultures might not give a great importance of the quality of the product. Leo et al. (2005) found in their research that the Chinese tourists regard a high priced product as outstanding in quality and therefor Chinese tourists are considered as very popular in the form of luxury shoppers whereas Americans do not regard price directly proportionate to the quality of the product (Ibid). Josiam and Monteiro (2004) found in their research that in US the customers are more willing to know about the latest trends in the food and then base their decision on the latest trends. The ingredients such as ginger, hot sauce, exotic mushroom, aged balsamic vinegar etc. are some of the latest ingredients that are preferred by the Americans and due to such ingredients the Asian restaurants are becoming a major trend in US as they offer cuisine that consist of such ingredients (Josiam and Monteiro, 2004). Moving ahead with the latest trend can easily influence the decision making abilities of the customers as in the case of Asian restaurants in US, the trend of spicy and hot ingredients are influencing the customers to make a decision of dining in a restaurant offering such ingredients (Ibid). The consumers of today are not just affected by the price or the trend of the product but they also get influenced by the ambience of the place where they go to shop or go to dine (Madichie and Blythe, 2011). A good example of such a case would be the mall of Emirates in Dubai that is designed so magnificently both internally as well as externally that it has become a tourist attraction rather than just a shopping mall and the unique ambience is acting as a motivator in influencing the decision making process of the individuals regarding the venue for shopping. Madichie and Blythe (2011) also state that the number of options available to a shopper might also affect the decisions of a shopper. For example Dubai Mall is not only consisting of shopping facilities but also consist of an aquarium, underwater zoo and discovery Centre which influences the decision of the shoppers by offering more alternatives other than shopping. The decision making process could be different for different customer as well and could also depend upon a lot of factors. The growth of more and more facilities in a shopping area can influence the decision of the tourist customers as more and more tourists would generally prefer going to places which could offer all facilities at a same place and if the tourist consumers found such a tourist spot, their decision would most probably be in the favour of the tourists spot having lot of facilities as options.

Delhi shopping industry is still developing but at a slow rate. Being rich in culture, it tends to gain attention from the tourists looking for something traditional and Delhi has got a lot of shopping possibilities for such tourists as it excels in producing local handicrafts and other traditional shopping goods for the tourists by promoting the work of Central Cottage Industries (Seth, 2005). The shopping culture has developed a long way in Delhi. The development of number

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2.3. Primary Research Background: Shopping Tourism in Delhi

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of shopping malls in Delhi has been a result of the large population of the Indian middle class. The variety of shopping malls in Delhi have first been designed to suit the average Indian customer and afterwards focuses on international tourists as well (Delhi Information, undated). Even though the Delhi shopping malls firstly target upon the domestic tourists as their potential shoppers but it has been a noted phenomenon that most of the domestic tourists coming to Delhi city generally prefer window shopping more than the actual shopping. The mall business is growing insufficiently as most of the domestic tourists only prefer window shopping (Kuruvilla and Joshi, 2010). Among the domestic tourists, the younger generation is making the best use of the malls and is considered as important in terms of shopping customers. Therefore the malls have generally started focusing on the opening of stores that are ideal for teenagers such as sport brand, fashionable clothes etc. (Focus Delhi, 2010). The Indian domestic tourists are often seen as highly family oriented therefore store, products and brands which support family values, communicate feelings and emotions in their message have better chances of success in India (Madaan, 2009, 78). Although growth and popularity of the shopping malls has created a significant development in Delhis shopping tourism, international tourists generally prefer the local shopping ambience more than the developed and lavishing malls. The traditional cottage industry handicraft emporium has been one of the first preferences for the international shoppers as it contains the beautiful traditionally local made artefacts from the entire country (Delhitourism.com, Date unknown). The traditional and cultural features of Delhi influence the international tourists more than the modern features. The traditional markets of Chandni Chowk and Connaught place have often been regarded as the shoppers paradise in Delhi and have been equally popular with the international tourists as well (Sajnani, 2001). Many of the western cities such as London, Rome, Paris, New York etc. are considered to be the most vibrant shopping destinations in the world consisting of the best brands in the world (Holloway et al., 2009). All the big brands have been common with the western countries therefore they tend to look for more culturally related shopping products that are indigenous in nature. Delhi shopping industry is forecasted to gain a lot of revenue because of the development of the world class shopping facilities both in terms of domestic as well as international tourists and is expected to be a competitive shopping destination but for that it still needs to enhance the shopping quality both in terms of domestic and international tourists (Kandahari and Chandra, 2004).

quantitative research specifies numerical assignments to the phenomena under study (Vanderstoep and Johnston, 2009, 7). The author decided to use this approach as the research mainly focuses on knowing about the tourist consumers perceptions regarding the shopping facilities in Delhi and also analyses the various motivations and decision making procedure that influences the tourists consumers to visit Delhi for shopping and for this purpose it would be suitable to use this approach as it lets the author know more about the ideas and the beliefs of the shopping consumers. This approach has got both advantages as well as disadvantages. It is advantageous because the observations or the findings from the samples under the study conducted could describe the population more by any other method and even reflect the thinking of the population. It can also be disadvantageous because since there is a huge population involved in this method, it can be very tedious to go into the depth of the research. Hence the author needs to superficially analyse the thinking of the population involved (Vanderstoep and Johnston, 2009). Based on the approach of this study, the author has ended up with the following hypothesis regarding the relationship between customer motivations and decision-making process. H0 (Null hypothesis) - The customer motivations are always the major driving force in formation of the decision making process during shopping activities. H1 (Hypothesis) - The customer need to have a particular motive in order to make any decision for going for shopping. H2 (Alternative Hypothesis) - Going out for shopping could just be a random decision for the customer and does not need to have any particular motivation.

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3. Methodology 3.1. Approach After critically analysing the basis of this research and in order to fulfil the aims and objectives of this research, the author has decided to use quantitative approach. In general,

In order to meet the aims and objectives of this research, it would be appropriate to adopt the simple random sampling method. The simple random is the most basic form of probability sample (Bryman and Bell, 2003, 185). Approximately 300 questionnaires are to be given but the venues are going to be different from one another. Total 3 venues are decided to hand over the questionnaires to the people. First venue will be a major developed mall called Select City Walk, Saket which is an extremely popular shopping mall with the international tourists and therefore gives enough flexibility to the author for collecting the data from international tourists. The second venue will be a a popular street market called Janpath, which is a popular street market with most of the domestic tourists as well as the international tourists and therefore the author could make a clear comparison between the shopping motivations of both domestic and international tourists. The third venue will be the duty free shopping zone of the newly renovated Delhi International Airport that would again give a clear idea to the author about the shopping motivations of the tourists at the time of arrivals or departures at the Airport and what would be the major motive for them to shop at duty free shopping zone. The three different venues are chosen for the reason that it can give the author a more specific idea about the

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3.2. Sampling

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motivations of the tourists shoppers in Delhi city to shop at various places and what impression does the present shopping facilities create for the shopping tourists.

3.5. Generalisability The number of data collection methods used in any research has a strong influence on the generalisability of the study conducted. Using a qualitative approach such as group or individuals interview does not provide with a good base of generalisability and it becomes extremely difficult to generalise the results to other setting in the case of qualitative approach (Bryman and Bell, 2003). Since there is use of quantitative method in this research, it helps the author to generalise the research in various shopping malls and street markets of Delhi city. However since this research is primarily associated with Delhi city, the author cannot generalise the findings in other cities of India, as the shopping development scenario is not the same for every city in India. Therefore the shopping tourists going to other cities for shopping in India could have different motives and different behaviour and might make a total opposite opinion between Delhi and other city for shopping in India.

For the fulfilment of the aims and objectives of the research, the author has decided to use questionnaires as a form of quantitative research. The author feels that that this data collection method is the most suitable approach to find out the behaviour of the shopping tourists in Delhi city, as questionnaires are helpful in understanding the ideas of the population involved but besides that the major advantage of using questionnaires is that they are very flexible to be designed according to meet the desired objectives of any kind of research (McNabb, 2008). The author would try to make the questionnaires with a simple and easily understandable layout as the design of the questionnaires would affect response rate and the validity and the reliability of the data collected (Saunders et al., 2009). Since the nature of the research being conducted is descriptive in nature, questionnaires are the best data collection methods that are helpful in explaining the different relationships existing between the variables (Ibid).

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3.3. Data Collection

Validity refers to the issues of whether or not an indicator (or set of indicators) that is devised to gauge a concept really measures that concept (Bryman and Bell, 2003, 165). Since the data collection method in this research is based n questionnaires, it gives validity to the research as it presents the real opinions and beliefs of the population involved in the research. The author has to be cautious enough in designing an appropriate survey since the research is entirely based upon the motivational factors influencing the shopping tourists in Delhi and if supposedly the population involved does not understand the questions well, they would answer it imperfectly and might not understand the true meaning of the questions thereby providing the author with an imperfect and misinterpreted result (Veal, 2006). Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure of a concept (Bryman and Bell, 2003, 163). The research might lack some elements of reliability as the research more over depends on the mood of the people who are given questionnaires. So each time there might be different response compared to the previous research done and hence reliability level in this case might be low. Also the researches conducted around eight to ten years back in Delhi about shopping would have shown a completely different result due to the absence of shopping facilities whereas the researches that would be conducted in the future would probably also show different results as the shopping scenario would be more developed and further development in the shopping tourism would take place in Delhi. Therefore the shopping tourists might hold a different perception about Delhi shopping in the future. Hence the reliability in this case would be low again.

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3.4. Validity and Reliability

During the research the author discourages the use of personal information in the questionnaires such as telephone numbers, home address etc. therefore the private and confidential details of the participants would not be disclosed under any circumstances. There might be some security issues at the airport that might prevent the author to distribute questionnaires at the airport and might further lead to an ethical issue (Saunders et al., 2009). Also, at the time of distributing questionnaires the author would make sure that there would be no discrimination based upon any culture or any other ethnic group that might create an ethical issue as every shopping tourists who is providing the author with the answering of the questionnaire would always be appreciated and their opinions would also be respected (Graziano and Raulin, 2010).

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3.6. Ethical Issues

The major limitation of this research is restricted sampling as the questionnaires are meant to be distributed at only three shopping areas of Delhi city and since Delhi is the capital city of India, it attracts a lot of tourists from around the world and the tourist population in Delhi city is very huge. Therefore the sampling might be too minor compared to the tourist population of Delhi that would be a major limitation for this research. 4. Discussion The aim of this research paper gives the impression that Delhi is one of the cities in the world that possess a lot of potential to rank among the list of the most preferred shopping destinations in the world. However in order to do so, Delhi city should try to focus on the tourist consumers who can become the potential shoppers in Delhi and for this

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3.7. Limitations

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reason, Delhi city should analyse the patterns for consumer motivation and the patterns of the decision making process that would be responsible for making the tourists shop in Delhi. Delhi city has developed tremendously compared to the yesteryears due to which more and more development in the infrastructure is taking place in Delhi that is even leading to the building of more and more shopping malls and other various shopping facilities (Bruyn et al., 2010). The growth of more and more shopping facilities however does not guarantee that the tourists would definitely visit them. The purpose of this paper and study is to analyse the way consumers get motivated to shop and how they base their decisions so that Delhi city could also analyse the fact that why does it lack from the other shopping destinations. An important recognition in this study is that there is no actual primary research that was carried out and therefore the objectives would be answered with the help of the literature and other studies carried out by other academic researchers and experts. 4.1. To examine the scenario of the Delhi shopping tourism at the present stage. Because of the rapid increase in the shopping malls of Delhi, it is an imperative reason to consider the scenario of Delhi shopping tourism at the present stage and how it has revolutionised the mall culture in Delhi. The Delhi malls have been making an effort to suit themselves for all kinds of shopping tourists. They are becoming more innovative in terms of attracting the younger tourists especially form the domestic market as the mall culture has been very popular with the younger generation of college going age in Delhi (Focus Delhi, 2010). By having the presence of large traditional cottage industries, Delhi has got an abundance of local emporiums and local markets that are major shopping attractions for the international tourists (Delhitourism.com, Date unknown). Delhi is leaving no stone unturned in order to motivate the interests of both domestic as well as international shopping tourists as it has been designing the facilities by taking into consideration the needs of both the kinds of tourists (Kuruvilla and Joshi, 2010). Delhi has been improving its standards of shopping. However the mall culture has been more popular with the domestic tourists whereas international tourists are generally more interested in shopping for the things that are unique and indigenous in nature. With the growing number of international tourists in Delhi, it would possibly create more local markets that appeal more to the international tourists and we could also assume that they would probably include more of local artefacts stores even in the shopping malls rather than the common available brands. 4.2. To analyse the fact that how Delhi should compete with other shopping destinations of mainly Asian countries. There are numerous Asian destinations that have been very popular in terms of shopping such as Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Dubai, etc. (Timothy,

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2005). However they all possess some unique characteristic feature that makes the shopping experience totally unique in these countries. Considering the case of Dubai, the unique ambience of the shopping malls in Dubai creates a fabulous affect in motivating the tourists to visit it (Madichie and Blythe, 2011). The various facilities and atmosphere offered by the Dubai shopping malls influences the mind of the tourists to visit them as the success of any company is determined only when they are able to motivate the potential buyers in the right way before the competition (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Since Dubai has even developed lot of annual shopping festivals and fares, they further motivate the shopping tourists to make use of the heavy discounts that they offer in such shopping festivals (Pacione, 2005). It is evident that Dubai has motivated the shoppers through not only the ambiences of the malls but they have also stimulated the interest in the shoppers due to the promotion of their shopping facilities in the form of shopping festivals. Similarly Delhi could make use of such interesting and innovative ideas that could motivate the interest of the shopping tourists by providing them with interesting range of bargains and discounts. Similarly in the case of Hong Kong, they are very much concerned with maintaining a high level of standard for their shopper in order to stay ahead of their competing shopping destinations such as Thailand, Taiwan etc. (Wong and Law, 2002). Since they emphasise more on customer satisfaction aspect, the tourists become loyal to their exceptional service and feel that they get good value of money as their wishes are treated with lots of respect (Ibid). The author could easily make out that this example clearly suggests that Delhi could possibly emphasise in improving the services offered at the shopping areas in order to create a good impression about the facilities of the shopping areas and in this way could possibly motivate the interest in the shoppers regarding the shopping areas of Delhi. 4.3. To analyse the needs of the customers that influence them to visit Delhi. Sproles and Kandall (1986) cited in Wang et al. (2004) that Consumer decision making style is a mental orientation characterising a consumers approach to making choices. The decision making process varies from person to person however when there is a question of visiting a destination or selecting a product, most of the tourists share a common decision making process which is divided into seven important steps. According to Josiam and Monteiro (2004), the consumers are very easily affected by the latest trends that are very much responsible for influencing their decision to buy something. Despite of the modern development in Delhi, one feature that could be compared to a major trend in Delhi is visiting of the cultural and authentic monuments of Delhi and as Josiam and Monteiro (2004), pointed out that the hot and spicy ingredients are becoming a latest trend in the culinary section, it could also be highlighted that Indian cuisine is extremely popular with such hot and spicy ingredients that is also one of an important motivator that

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influences the decision of the tourists to visit Delhi in order to try the lip smacking food. Despite of the development of such huge number of shopping malls and marts, it could be argued that the international tourists are more concerned about visiting and shopping in the traditional zones of Delhi that are not popular with the domestic tourists. This leads to the conclusion that the international tourists are more willing to experience the traditional side of Delhi that motivates them to come to Delhi whereas this case would hold opposite for the domestic tourists who are more willing to enjoy the modern amenities offered in Delhi city. Hence in both the cases, the motivations are somehow opposite to each other and both domestic as well as international tourist consumers are influenced by different motivations that also makes their decision totally opposite to each other. 5. Conclusion and recommendations After critically analysing the present shopping tourism scenario in Delhi city, it is quite evident that Delhi has a long way to go promote its shopping facilities. Delhi, at the present stage is not really enough competent to compete with other major shopping destinations in the world but it definitely has the potential of having the spotlight of a leading shopping destination in the future (Mohan, 2000). Though Delhi has always been one of the most famous tourism destination cities in India, the major development in its infrastructure happened after the commonwealth games were introduced and since then Delhi has build up a very positive image of itself as a tourist destination (Thorpe and Thorpe, 2011). The image of Delhi as a shopping destination would probably grow very well in the future as the creation of more and more shopping facilities in Delhi has provided Delhi with a lot of popularity especially among the domestic tourists. The modern shopping malls and shopping marts have become a significant shopping venue for majority of the domestic tourists while the local cottage industries emporiums have gained popularity among the majority of the international tourists. Delhi could go a long way in terms of development of the shopping tourism, however it needs to focus more about the way the customers behave and should make an effort to know about the preferences, ideas, and beliefs etc. of the customers. Since all tourists customers are different from each other, they also have different motivations that influences the decision making process in them and due to this reason all shopping tourists have different motivations to shop at a place. Delhi could possibly promote itself from the consumers point of view in order to become the favourite shopping destination in the future but it should lay strong emphasis in making an effort to understand about the consumers needs and wants. Since Delhi city is still progressing slowly in terms of shopping tourism, it would be best recommended that it should try to raise the bar of its shopping standards in order to match the standards of the world class shopping destinations such as Dubai. The malls of Delhi could

possibly incorporate the setting of more traditional hand looms and emporium stores as the traditional products are preferred by a lot of international tourists and it would always be suitable to have some form of traditional shopping stores even in a modern ambience mall. For conducting this study in the future, certain recommendation can be made. Firstly, the sampling method can be applied to more shopping areas in Delhi city as the author feels that three shopping areas might be less in order to carry out an extensive research. Also in future, in depth interviews could also be used for this research. The management level employees of the malls could be interviewed in order to find out that how do they try to promote their shopping facilities, their ways of targeting customers, the ways through which they influence the decision making abilities of the customers and the ways through which they differentiate themselves from other respective competing malls and markets of the city. References
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