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International Hospitality and Tourism Student Journal 6 (1) 2014 71-85

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An investigation of the consumer expectation and satisfaction of underwater wedding tourists: A case study of Caribbean Islands.
Shun Kwan Wong
HTMi, Hotel & Tourism Management Institute, Srenberg, 6174 Luzern, Switzerland!


Abstract Adventure tourism is one of the most active sectors within the tourism industry and it will potentially become a major market in the future. In fact, many existing contexts have untaken adventure tourism as investigations, but only certain research studies are touching part of the unusual events. Therefore, the researcher would like to find out the relationship through a broad range of academic sources, which are based on consumer motivation, expectation and satisfaction by conducting the literature. In the case of Caribbean Islands, its attractive natural scenery appeals to adventurers to explore, the study has been critically assessed the demographic characteristics of underwater wedding tourists. Additionally, the literature embraced push-pull theory, which is directly associated with individuals motivation (internal) and destination (external). Last but not least, the research also demonstrates a framework of consumer motivation, expectation and satisfaction on how consumers make decisions to participate in unusual events. As the investigation mainly focuses on underwater weddings, a qualitative research method has been used in the study to obtain a better prominence through the individuals experiences and their perceptions. The findings from secondary research show that disconfirmation is the most sufficient motivation to the participants. Nonetheless, the researcher strongly believes that if the primary research has been done, the result would be more accurate and given an in-depth understanding of the effect behind underwater wedding tourists. Recommendation for further academic research and possible interferences with underwater weddings are discussed.
Keywords: Adventure tourism; Underwater wedding; Consumer motivation; Expectation; Satisfaction; Caribbean Islands

2013 International Hospitality Research Centre. All rights reserved.


1. Introduction Adventure tourism is regarded as the fastest growing outdoor tourism market, which is a combination of travel, sport and outdoor recreation (Williams and Soutar, 2009; Beedie and Hudson, 2003). According to Richards (2011), one of the major reasons why tourists participate in adventure tourism is solely for a thrilling experience. This can be divided into fantasy and reality whereby fantasy holds the principles and dedicated vacation while reality can be depicted to making it happen. This conversion from imagination to reality can be then described as an increasing assurance to choice (Decrop and Snelders, 2004). Tourist motivation is often proportional to its risk of activities (Weber, 2001). Buckley (2012) argues it is a particular type of experience motivates them indeed. To increase the possibility for new leisure experiences is based on new emotions and sensation different from daily routine (Carnicelli-Filho et al., 2010). In fact, Gyimthy and Mykletun (2004) remark adventure tourism as a debate among tourism scholars when considering that a tourism activity could be defined as adventurous. Motivation is also affected by Freudian theory (Bowen and Clarke, 2009). It consists of conscious, rational

motivations (the superego); real, unconscious motivations (the id); and the subconscious mediator (the ego). Supported by Chen and Chen (2011), the opportunities of travelling not only satisfy the need to escape but to reestablish a tourists ego. In general, most studies have taken push and pull factors as an element to form motivation in consumer behaviour, which influence every step in decision-making process (Dan, 1977 cited in Prayag and Ryan, 2011). Push and pull factors can be generated diverse perceptions to different scenarios like pharmaceutics, technovation, business research, and so forth (Malaterre et al., 2009; Brem and Voigt, 2009; Chiou et al., 2010). In this context, the framework of push and pull would be based on personality characteristics, perceptions, experiences and attitudes (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Furthermore, the aspect of push and pull is corresponding with generic goals. Whereas pull factors attract individuals toward a destination refers a positive goal is one toward which behaviour is directed. Likewise, push factors push the individual away from home and travel somewhere else, it is a negative goal is one from which behaviour is directed away. Although TAT news (2013) proves that underwater wedding events are seen as a positive pull, it is believed they

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are still exotic to most people. Yet, at one of the worlds premier travel destinations, Caribbean Islands, a topical paradise for vacationers and wedding tourism, underwater wedding events is not cryptic (Frohlick and Johnston, 2011). Along with the rise of romanticism, international tourists are attracted by Caribbean Islands, which offer wildness and passion as well as beautiful landscape. However, there is no any answer to specify the future of Caribbean tourism (Duval, 2004). Seeking an unusual wedding instead of a classic wedding, the adventure tourism industry is likely to endure. Regardless, classic weddings no longer fulfil satisfaction anymore from a consumer perspective, or else, as an adventure tourist, it is doubtless to say having an unusual wedding once probably is the biggest challenge but worth. From another way to support this statement, Frohlickand and Johnston (2011) have conducted a research by critically examining the product of a submerged wedding and how the ritual is dependant on the natural landscape. In order to understand why the adventure wedding tourism is becoming a trend, the present study focused on consumer expectation and satisfaction of underwater wedding tourists in a case study of Caribbean Islands. Heading to the literature review, it begins with a few questions: what are the major factors that influence and still motivate underwater wedding tourists by taking a risk? What do they want to gain from the experience? Are underwater wedding events in Caribbean successful? The dynamics of consumer motivation will never be understood (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Albeit that there are many studies have been undertaken adventure tourism, events and recreation activities (Villalobos-Cspedes et al., 2010; Patterson and Pan, 2007; Schott, 2007; Kaplanidou and Gibson, 2010; Soteriades and Dimou, 2011). Researchers are not able to ascertain what exact motivations influence consumers to participant in tourism activities. Hardly any studies have been implemented within the area of underwater wedding events; therefore the author was obliged to find out the intimate motivations through consumer satisfaction and expectation. As Gabriel and Lang (2006 cited in Bowen and Clarke, 2009, pp.267-268) explain a theoretical conclusion of tourist behaviour, As consumer, we can be irrational, incoherent and inconsistent just as we can be rational, planned and organised. We can be individualist or may be driven by social norms and expectations. We can seek risk and excitement or may aim for comfort and security. We can be deeply moral about the way we spend our money or quite unfettered by moral considerations Such fragmentations and contradictions should be recognised as core features of contemporary consumption itself. In saying so, the paradox of consumer behaviour and limitation of underwater wedding events have stimulated the interest of the author to gain more knowledge on this interesting concept. By analysing such adventure romanticism from the customers perspective. The aim of this research is to explore motivations and expectations of underwater wedding tourists: a case study of Caribbean Islands. The aim will be reached by answering the following three objectives: to assess the demographic

characteristics of tourists participating in underwater wedding events in Caribbean Islands; to determine the level of satisfaction of underwater wedding tourists from Caribbean Islands perspective; and to establish and explore the tourists motivations while participating in underwater wedding events in Caribbean Islands. 2. Literature review 2.1. Experience Economy An exploration of the event and tourism experience can disclose the attached meanings, which embody experience is defined as the heart of an event. According to Manthiou et al. (2011) account of tourists often have varying motivations to attend a particular event instead of to any event in general. From a consumer perspective, the intention of experiential purchases refers to the expectation of a memorable experience (Jurowski, 2009). A question that arises at this point is twofold: which one is the first sways to another, experience or expectation? Each person has diverse backgrounds, beliefs, attitudes and values to create their own experience while participating in an event; thus experience economy is a conceptual study (Sundbo and Darmer, 2008). When Getz (2008) says in order to adopt new behaviours in the future, individuals will change beliefs, values or attitudes in the transformation of event tourism experiences. Besides, due to the differentiation between consumption experience and consumer experience cited from Walls (2013), the author would like to state that clearly this investigation only focuses on the consumers side. With regard to the components of consumer experience, it is a subjective complexity of motivations, expectations, perceptions and meanings (Kastenholz et al., 2012). In this case, events would be the core resource to shape the tourism experience by helping tourists to discover and enjoy an intensive experience. An event is associated with feelings, selfexpression, achievement and accomplishment; its motive therefore becomes internalised and take on greater meaning for participants (Coghlan and Filo, 2013). Yeoman et al. (2007) also state that consumers dedicate their increasing affluence to travel and tourism products with the growth of experience economy. Nonetheless, Cohen (1979 cited in Li, 2000, p.864) supposes classically, this experience reflects some stable patterns of motivations both differentiating and characterising various modes of tourists activities. In this respect, Ziakas and Boukas (2013) apply phenomenology in analysing the event tourism experiences. By critical pondering on conscious experience rather than subconscious motivation, this conceptual and methodological line of thought can potentially appear a powerful gap when it has further researched. In terms of understanding the essence of experiences, Tung and Ritchie (2011) have examined satisfaction is commonly as the outcome of tourism experiences. Additionally, by minimising expectation can inversely increase satisfaction with the experience (Ritchie et al., 2011). Taking a

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step further, Pine and Gilmore (2000) describe the progression of economic value on how goods, services and experiences have been customised (see figure 1). From this framework, it is a need to understand the general needs of ones customer base as the foundation first. In fact, it does not work in reality although satisfaction measurement is counted. Paradoxically, an overflow of choices in ordinary tourism products can cause tourists make no choice at all, especially suppliers often lean towards on intangibility, tourists novelty seeking behaviour and considerable risk taking (Park and Jang, 2013). By then, companies do not actually gain a true insight into customer specific wants and needs; rather, they produce what they believe is suitable for the customers.

sense for achievement, affiliation and power that determine satisfaction. To the contrary, figure 3 shows the expectancyvalue theory as an example of process theories (Vroom, 1964 cited in Mackay, 2007; Berger and Brownell, 2009). It signifies the idea of motivation is measured by expectancy, instrumentality and valence. In short, these psychological interactions force individuals to maximise the pleasure and minimise the punishment.

Figure 2: Herzbergs two-factor theory (Zan, ca.2011)

Hallmann et al. (2012) construe consumer motivations as the influence on travel behaviour and it is a complex subject in tourism. Cited in Schiffman and Kanuk (2010), consumer behaviour consists of purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services. It mainly focuses on how consumers spend their time, money and effort to make a purchase, which is based on their needs, wants and desires to form such motivations. Due to every tourist having different purposes of travelling, motivations are classified as escapism, relaxation, pursue a hobby, find new friends and see a specific site (Kinley et al., 2012). Additionally, Kozak and Decrop (2009) have distributed motivations into content theories and process theories. Content theories are a justification between individual needs and how these needs will change while process theories focus on the interaction among variables influence motivation and how they influence behaviour. In order to acknowledge between two theories, Zan (ca.2011) lists out the studies from Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland are from a content perspective; and the studies from Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke are from a process perspective. Taking Herzbergs two-factor theory (1959) as an example (see figure 2), hygiene factors will create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them insufficient, it can be also defined as external/pull factors that determine dissatisfaction. Motivators regard as push factors such as

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Figure 1: The Progression of Economic Value (Pine and Gilmore, 2000, p.19)

2.1.1. The Concept of Consumer Motivation

Regarding back to the topic, consumers past experience will affect their attitude by eventually forming an expectation of a future product (see figure 4). Yet, Katona (1960) testifies that experiences do not change the allocation of attitudes obtained. Inversely, attitudes influence both expectations and the intentions of purchasing (Juster, 1964). Then, it is a necessity to add intention/action within the framework, while those three components are not specific enough to determine whether consumer will take any action based on them.

Figure 3: The expectancy-value theory (Vroom, 1964 cited in Zan, ca.2011)

Initially, (2008) announces the expectation economy, which captures the significance of demanding consumer arena. Once high(er) expectations have been set, they are bound to go largely unmet, since the

Figure 4: Motives and travel behaviour (Wiswede, 1965 cited in Zehrer and Siller, 2007, p.40)

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majority of brands still choose not to keep up with the best o f t h e b e s t ( Tr e n d w a t c h i n g. c o m , 2 0 0 8 , p. 2 ) . Notwithstanding, the dynamics of motivation has explained why human activity will never be ceased, because consumers are never fully satisfied; new needs will emerge; human will set new and higher goals (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010).

regarding to the underwater wedding events. Hence, consumers cannot expect more until they have participated.

From a theoretical perspective, consumer expectations formulation has been contributing for many studies in different contexts. Licata et al. (2008) assign expectations are the guidelines for product evaluations. Hence, expectation has indicated as predictive expectations, idea expectations, desired expectations and experience-based norms as the basic standards in the judgements of consumer satisfaction (Bosque et al., 2006). Still, predictive expectations provoke an argument. Which the capture from totality of ones needs, desires and values are pre-existent, it is effortlessly to translate the consumer expectations for the product or service purchase experience (Oliver, 1997 cited in Burke et al., 2003). Also, attitudes are considered as an influential factor to the level of expectations on consumer intentions to use or reject (Gnoth, 1997). Mason and Simmons (2012) conclude that consumer expectations are shaped by their prediction, characteristics, attitudes as well as preferences. As Hitchcock (1903 cited in Coye, 2004, p.56) had another point view by stating that, expectation is a mental process or attitude in which certain ideas or images are regarded as substitutes for definite sensational contents which are to be experienced later. Despite this, Seabra et al. (2007) declare if tourists have more information, they are able to create more realistic expectations. Apparently, referring to the relationship between push and pull and expectation, Wong and Dioko (2013) confirm satisfaction is determined by customer expectations, perceived performance, and perceived value of a service. Therefore, satisfaction is a consequence of customer expectations and expectancy disconfirmation. When Zeithaml et al. (1993) discuss the experience as a source of expectation norm; again, the question goes back to the experience economy. In a sense, consumers expectations become more cognisant as they evolve over time (Fay, 2008). By applying the Assimilation Theory, it explains the direct effect of expectations, which consumers are apt to adjust perception to their expectations by minimising the psychological conflict when they perceive discrepancies between performance and prior beliefs (Sherif and Hovland, 1961 cited in Bosque and Martn, 2008). Beyond that, the expectation-disconfirmation paradigm is about consumers compare prior expectations against the perceived performance to calculate satisfaction of a product (Rojas and Camarero, 2008). In sum, figure 5 can clarify precisely what is expectation formation about. Gelb and McKeever (2006) notice it is easier to recall and articulate consumers expectations before, during, and after phases of their experiences. As a result, Johnson and Mathews (1997) suggest a consumer may have a difficulty to evaluate a pre-purchase service while the current state of knowledge is limited

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2.1.2. Expectation Formation

However, Gnoth (1997) argues that expectation formation is more complex than that (see figure 6). Two aspects, the persistence and intensity, express the expectations are temporary embodiments of future events or unfinished learning process. Moreover, he says, Both feelings and cognitions contained in expectations direct perception and behaviour in that objects are targeted according to their instrumentality to satisfy the values underlying the expectations. Subsequent learning processes that seek to find fulfilment of these expectations are characterised by prior motivations, the shape and form of the expectational attitude, the process of stabilising and integrating prior tentative neural or mental representations, and by a reduction of drives resulting in a feeling-state of awareness of their absence and/or the confirmation of cognitive structures of attitudes (Gnoth, 1997, p.298)." Bamah and Puad (2010) affirm push and pull factors are based on the inner motives, individuals often build their own perception and expectation towards a product or a destination before purchasing, and it is depending on how individuals receive and process information to have positive or negative satisfaction. Consequently, if the actual performance is greater than consumers expectation, it leans to be a positive transition by leading a satisfied consumer to have a willingness-to-pay again. Tourists overall satisfaction is also influenced by the attributes and factors from the destination (Enright and Newton, 2004 cited in Seubsamarn, 2009). Through the investigation of push and pull, it actually involves as a part of decision-making process (Martn and Bosque, 2008). Theoretically, Yoon and Uysal (2005) argue tourist behaviour is not only based on their needs and wants but further than that. It is important that an empirical examination of tourist motivations is undertaken since it helps identify the attributes that are to be promoted to match tourist motivations, or to identify markets in which destination features and resources match tourist motivations (Lam and Hsu, 2006, p.590). Martn and Bosque (2008) have then adopted the means-end chain theory by exploring the relationship between the psychological variables. It consists of attributes, consequences and values; in short, individuals attributes indicate the means whereas they obtain distinct consequences and enhance their personal values. Similarly, another concept

Figure 5: Expectancy disconfirmation model (Woodruff and Gardial, 1996 cited in Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2004, p.337)

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of emphasising on such components would be the AttitudeBehaviour-Context model (Stern, 2000 cited in Ozaki and Sevastyanova, 2011). When it is based on individual attitudes towards a value and it often influences by the interpersonal motives. The synthesis of both theories above is looking at the importance of how individuals perception, expectation and attitude may affect the consequences of making a decision, meanwhile it also create their own values, underscored satisfaction.

Figure 7: The hierarchy model of life satisfaction (Neal et al., 1999, p.155)

Consumer satisfaction can be divided into three domains (see figure 7). Although the literature tends to concern on how travel/trip experience affects the level of consumer satisfaction, it is still an assumption whether trip reflections may bias tourists judgment of the travel (Neal et al., 1999). Indeed, the literature indicates that the overall life satisfaction will somehow affect the satisfaction in various life domains. For instance, if someone is always being dissatisfied in his life, he will probably create a negative perception or assumption on everything. This is the reason why consumers will adjust their perception in order to make them satisfy. Lewin (2009) mentions the ancestor of satisfaction advises to the past, current and future of customer anticipation, contemporary levels of product/service quality, and customers understandings of value received. Kotler et al. (2010) simplify it as relying on a products perceived performance in delivering value relative to a buyers expectations.

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Figure 6: The process of motivation and expectation formation (Gnoth, 1997, p. 297)

2.1.3. Consumer Satisfaction

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Surprisingly, Esbjerg et al. (2012)s study is analogous to this research structure, and they have come up with a conclusion by saying that satisfaction results from the customers comparison of expectations with experiences, through attributions regarding responsibility, control, and expected recurrence of causes of a confirmation/ disconfirmation moderate this relationship between the confir mation/disconfir mation of expectations and satisfaction (p.453). It seems hard to understand, but in some ways it can be defined as the extent of the multiple attribute disconfirmations and mediates their effects on behavioural intentions (Finn et al., 2009). Brown et al. (2008) assent to the level of disconfirmation will influence satisfaction as well. Specifically, Mokonyama and Venter (2013) sum up those attributes are basic, performance, attractive, indifferent and reverse; meanwhile, it is required to classify satisfaction into transaction and cumulative. Transactional satisfaction alludes to a specific purchase occasion to make an evaluative judgement, whereas cumulative satisfaction is an overall evaluation in reference to the total experience (Spiteri and Dion, 2004). However, Austen et al. (2012, p.974) have gathered some researchers standpoints and argue that, Customer satisfaction should be understood as a relationship-specific construct rather than a transactionspecific construct, because transaction satisfaction measures a particular product or service encounter by providing specific diagnostic information but overall customer satisfaction is a fundamental indicator of the firms past, current and future performance. Besides, Lin (2007) points out consumers can face several services encounters during purchase and includes remote encounter, indirect personal encounter and direct personal encounter. In order to gain an in-depth insight of this study, figure 8 illustrates the changing satisfaction process. It is always starting from perceived quality and expectations to form a perceived value of things. Even though the value has

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not delivered yet, consumers will still create their own assumptions on a product. Satisfaction appraisals result in either more dissatisfied (complaints) or more satisfied (loyalty), it is depending on what customer is receiving and how they receive, no matter that is a positive or negative indicator.

phenomenal experiences as typified by high levels of emotional intensity with the experience narrative revealed over time (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997 cited in Dalton, 2009).

Adventure tourism, a type of niche tourism, involves exploration in unusual, exotic, remote, or wilderness settings (Heneghan, 2006). The motivators related to this form of tourism are interpreted as excitement, challenge, risk, uncertainly, danger, novelty, escapism and stimulation (Page et al., 2005). However, Bentley and Page (2008) ultimately conclude the major element driving adventure tourists to participate in adventure activities is the perceived risk. Correspondingly, the Adventure Experience Paradigm has been created by giving tactic for enjoyment in experience according to flow, in autotelic activities, is the most readily experienced (Priest and Bunting, 1993 cited in Cater, 2006; Damian, 2001). The Adventure Experience Paradigm is based on the level of risk and individuals competence to elucidate how perceived risk pulls them towards a particular adventure activity. Thus Stremba and Bisson (2009) confirm the enthusiasm might wane when individuals have already predicted the success or failure of its forthcoming. The perceptions of risk and competence therefore strongly influence the flow experience. Further, Carnicelli-Filho et al. (2010, p.953) argue emotion being one of the most overriding elements by saying, adventure itself will generally provide the participant with a certain degree of physiological, physical, and psychological reactions that influence his/her perception, learning, and performance of the activity. For this reason, emotional theories are deliberated as significant to the study. Like arousal theory, adventurers as anticipated in seeking challenge in order to test their strength and achieve high arousal (Gyimthy and Mykletun, 2004). At this point, contrasting emotions are integral to adventure experiences and form a memorable part of participants emotional journeys (Pomfret, 2012, p.147). However, Finn (2011) carries out attractive attributes surprise and arouse inversely in providing something customers do not expect. Referring to most researches conducted a very clear disputation between the idea of flow and emotion, it is because when people are involved in the flow state, their attention is attracted by the activities and activity goals, and the tools required to accomplish them will not be sensed by the participants (Vitters et al., 2001 cited in Wu and Liang, 2011, p.318). Due to emotions confronted during adventure focuses on positive emotions and on the flow concept, the relationship between both has actually provided a limited picture (Pomfret, 2012; Gyimthy and Mykletun, 2004). Alam (2008) proves that the flow experience could positively influence the consumers emotions. Additionally, it renders

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2.2. Review of Existing Empirical Research 2.2.1. The Motivation of Adventure Tourism

In the context of unusual events, consumer satisfaction is delineated as a function of evaluating the pre-travel expectations and travel experiences (Hill, 1986). From Truong and Foster (2006) and Armario (2008)s point of view, it explains as a comparison between tourists experience of the event (after) and expectations about the event (before). According to Nisco and Warnaby (2012), the emotional reactions do affect the evaluation of quality and the character of the environment, so as the same logic applying to the event itself. Beyond question, Robinson and Clifford (2012) come up with the statement that critical consumer sensibility is the becoming of when corporate worlds realisation reflects it. Their study is to investigate how medieval festival visitors seek the foodservice authenticity experience in the tourism industry. Moreover, it scrutinises the increase of tourist satisfaction with a product through perceived authentic experience, highlighted event experience, authenticity can be considered as a part of the event product, because it is something that can motivate certain tourists, and it is a benefit that can at least be partially controlled by organisers (Getz, 1994 cited in Robinson and Clifford, 2012, p.573). Yet, Alba and Williams (2013) believe consumers not only try to obtain memorabilia or souvenirs of meaningful experiences with the strong desire of unusual events, but also abstain from experiencing the special events again so as not to damage to their remembrance. Notwithstanding, Rivero (2009) remarks that the sense of unusual experience becomes a part of the attraction referring underwater wedding as the one-time event. As a result, although tourists are satisfied with the unusual events, it does not mean there is a high overall satisfaction since it includes individual elements/attributes by forming up the whole trip experience, for instance accommodation, weather, natural environment and so on (Chi and Qu, 2008; Bowie and Chang, 2005). As Hyfte (2009)s opinion stands oppositely those attributes are not the major factors that influence consumers, rather, the more important a factor is to an individual, underlined underwater wedding itself, the narrower the zone of tolerance is likely to be. Hence, unusual events play a significant role within the trips indeed.

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2.2.2. The Consumer Satisfaction of Unusual Events

Due to a lack of research about underwater wedding events, and there is no specific answer to define underwater weddings. Thus it becomes the spotlight of the primary research focus. In this regard, the author is going to the direction, which associates with other types of extreme weddings in tourism, namely bungee jumping, skydive, hot air balloon and zero gravity (MelisBuzzFeed, 2011). With the process of gathering information of unusual wedding events, the author is able to conduct a brief review as the ground for

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2.3. Review of Key Case Studies

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future researchers. In this section, unusual wedding events will be examined by given an overview and estimated where is its position and what is its direction in the tourism industry. Moreover, tourism in Caribbean is extremely important as it can determine if its underwater wedding events will be successful in the future. Nonetheless, looking at the underwater wedding itself in Caribbean, it seems to have a doubt for that. The section also concerns wedding providers in order for them to understand their customers as well as the direction of the trend.

With the demand of international wedding market is slightly growing in the tourism industry, people are willing to travel abroad and get married or for honeymoon (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2007). As Mont (2011, p.1) says brides and grooms have already been adding wrinkles to the longstanding matrimonial blueprint, ranging from the quaint to the unusual. Who does not want to have a unique experience on the big day? In some ways, it is the symbol for the entire relationship (Moir, 2011). Similar to, people often choose the most unique themes, outfits, dates instead of venues in order to create their own memorable experience (Migdol, 2013; Childers, 2013; Quinn, 2009; McDermott, 2012; Lai, 2012). Further, there are an increasing number of couples to incorporate their wedding ceremony into travels that they have already planned (Anon, 2012). Kaufmann and Kaufmann (2012) support that it is even less stressful than getting married at home, if everything works well, couples only have to turn up and say, I do. Getting married abroad is a combination of celebrity of wedding, relaxation of honeymoon, and much cheaper as well (Lander, 2010). When time passes, its no longer just about the exotic location as it appears that the more extreme, the better (Crown, 2012, p. 1).

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2.3.1. Unusual Wedding Events in Tourism Industry

determine increases in Caribbean tourism, whereas North America is one of the most difficult to access sub-regions. Therefore, Hartnell (2012) points out Caribbean is actually losing its market share even though the US and Canadian markets are expected to perform well in the tourism industry, since they are non-restricted tourists obviously (CTO, 2013). Gayle and Goodrich (1993) initially remark its market share was already low since 1986 due to the cost was relatively high and with a lack of marketing. Notwithstanding, the Caribbean is one of the most famous destinations with the symbol of geologic and geographic characteristics in the world (Nelson, 2012). In addition, the Caribbean mainly focuses on mass and cruise tourism but there are some potential tourism products still immature (Zappino, 2005). Unfortunately, its government realised that along with the natural endowment comparative advantage does not pledge consumer demand for tourism indeed (ECLAC, undated). In terms of tourism development, Caribbean has been facing inadequate problems without any proper steps for changes, underlined economic, social as well as environmental. Perhaps, Caribbean should execute plans that could accommodate the issues it has been facing in order to improve the tourism industry in Caribbean.

Duval (2004) mentions earlier on, tourism would bring a greater financial affair to Caribbean and its growth would be in parallel to worldwide patterns. However, the Caribbean is not expected to crave out a large piece of the travel and tourism industry over the next 10 years said Thame (2013, p. 1). Although Caribbean Tourism Organisation has put an effort on promoting its region by launching a new website (Breaking Travel News, 2013), it is still indecisive to

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2.3.2. Tourism in Caribbean

Getting married in an unusual way becomes fairly popular and institutionalised regard as the most remarkable and memorable experience (Abubakr, 2009; Mylonas, 2013). While Caribbean Islands are seen as one of the most outstanding wedding destinations, the unique nature has given the couples an opportunity to customise their ceremonies (Jeanish, 2010; Jones, 2011). As Shannon (undated) notes that a unique wedding trend would tend to be the unconventional wedding locations, whereby the natural settings are preferred. Caribbean therefore has a significant pull in the concept of underwater wedding events. Yet, Caribbean does not emphasis so much on the underwater weddings but the allinclusive packages and cruises instead (Strauss, 2012; USATODAY, 2011; Gabbadon, 2013). Besides, there is no clear differentiation of underwater weddings among destinations throughout the world. According to Djoki (2012), with such Trang, Fiji and Dubai as the nature-based destinations to compete with the Caribbeans underwater weddings, the author has a doubt if Caribbean can be successful in the business."

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2.3.3. Underwater Weddings in Caribbean

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3. Methodology 3.1.

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Figure 8: Fornells satisfaction model (Vavra, 1997 cited in Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2004, p.337)


Acknowledging the essentiality for deeper insight for the complicated objectives on the case of underwater wedding tourists in a famous destination, Caribbean Islands, the author decides to adopt qualitative approach as the most appropriate method for this paper. It is strongly supported by Bryman and Bell (2007) that the qualitative approach is concerned with detailed information rather than numbers; thus it can bring an in-depth cognition of the main motivators. In this study, individuals understanding on a reality based manner is essential as it is associated with concepts and characterised by their richness and fullness based on the opportunity to explore a subject (Saunders et al., 2009). On the other hand, it is referring to the belief that people involve personally in a particular situation and explain their experiences or feelings in their own words (Veal, 2006). At this point, Bryman (2008) believes it could be related to emotionalism with the indication of the way human being is observed, which is taken into consideration during the research. To attain and in-depth understanding about the notion of underwater wedding tourists in Caribbean, using qualitative approach is ideally in designing the findings in an adaptable way and notably, participants have a right to express their perceptions and experiences as well (Silverman, 2010). Marshall and Rossman (2006) expound it is appropriate for current literature that has not been identified clearly for any research. Plus, qualitative method is mainly for collecting data of activities, events, occurrences and behaviours (Phillimore and Goodson, 2004). Regarding to the case, since the author could not find any secondary data about underwater weddings and most of the studies about consumer expectation and satisfaction are

adopted under quantitative way. Such as, Ziegler et al. (2012)s work about tourists motivation, satisfaction and experience in whale shark tourism industry in Mexico intimate to the issue of consumer behaviour, yet use quantitative practice. Equipotential to this paper, Reynolds and Braithwaite's (2001) study on finding the authenticity experience in wildlife tourism, but the study tends to hint at adventure tourism. Hence, the data of qualitative research will be acquired and assessed carefully with the participants from underwater wedding events or anyone previous experience so as to provide a more critical panorama of the roots and results process in analysing the truth behind unusual events. Overall, through using a qualitative approach, it is possible for the researcher to answer the objectives that she proposes in this paper, which will lead to a better comprehension in the field.

As mentioned above, the researcher is trying to find out the relationship between tourists motivation and the underwater wedding events (Veal, 2006). Therefore, the population in this study is more likely to be married or couples who consider unusual weddings as their first preference and those who have experienced underwater wedding events before. To validate results and eliminate the error, young couples will be taken into consideration, too. Due to underwater wedding events still being underestimated in reality and the contribution that young couples have the stimulus when seeking these adventurous motives (Whitelocks, 2013). In this study, snowball sampling will be applied in the selection of all the respondents as it can identify cases of interest from people who know which cases have the richest information (Marshall and Rossman, 2006). Although most people do not have the experience of underwater wedding events, they may know who is able to respond the questions. Moreover, it is defined as interviewees

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3.2. Sampling and Data Collection

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used as source of suggestions for additional contacts (Veal, 2011). The purposive sampling would be appropriate for the study as well. According to Silverman (2010), interviews are separated into three categories, which are the informal conversational interview, the semi-structured interview and the standardised open-ended interview. By collecting information from different perspectives can reduce participants bias and gain more reliable data, the author will choose in-depth interview with the underwater wedding providers as her data collection method, with a cluster of 8 to 10 interviewees being invited to converse about what they have observed from the underwater wedding tourists behaviour. The author can acquire the volumes of quality data by asking specific questions through interaction, and observing their emotions, tones as well as body languages. Marshall and Rossman (2011) regard an in-depth interview as a conversation between individuals who have experienced the wonder of interest. Denzin and Lincoln (2011) state that researchers treat an understanding of storytelling practices of constructing meaningful selves, identities as well as realities. To adopt indepth interview as the most appropriate method, its data emphasises on a specific case in order to find out providers perceptions, assumptions, prejudgments and presuppositions (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The interview questions are bend toward the inclination of open-ended discussion. Regarding the areas of the fieldwork, the researcher believes such types of suspicions can provide clear-cut information (Saunders et al., 2009). In contrary, Jordan and Gibson (2004 cited in Phillimore and Goodson, 2004) indicate the accuracy of the findings obtained during the interview is still questionable as it is dependant on the straightforwardness of tourists responding to the authors questions. Still, the researcher has decided to pursue the focus group in order to obtain obligatory intelligence (Marshall and Rossman, 2006). The main prominence of this academic work is the investigation of underwater wedding participants perspective in standing from a point that how underwater weddings appeal to them. An agreement with providers will be done beforehand by asking a permission that allows the researcher can have an interview with participants afterwards for 30 minutes. It requires a minimum of 3 selected participants whom will join and engage in the interview schedule. The length of the group interviews discussion will be arranged according to the time permitted of the participants to the research.

will then reproduce a written account with the actual words, record what was said and by whom, also to give an indication of the tone. Based on each separated word-processed file, she is able to find out what respondents have mentioned a lot to frame a broader theme but that might not relate to the literature (ibid). However, in finding the central theme can lead a classification of each of the answer that is always related to the literature. As a result, the process of recategorising the existing data can confirm if these themes, patterns and relationships are current. Qualitative data analysis is used as inductively by summarising, categorisation and structuring of meanings (Saunders et al., 2009). Through developing categories and unitising data, the researcher will begin to recognise relationships and continuously quest for crucial themes and patterns in the rearranged data. The final step will be to structure data using narrative, such research is based on individuals chronicles of their experiences, the manners in which they describe and relate them to constitution of the social world in which they live.

The next step of collecting data is to analyse them but that requires time and skills (Veal, 2011). As Lancaster (2005) supposes data analysis consist the steps of data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification. First of all, CAQDAS assists the researcher in undertaking the routine qualitative data management instead of manually, and she has chosen NVivo as the technique (Saunders et al., 2009). Regarding both in-depth interview and focus group are audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed, the researcher

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3.3. Data Analysis

Trustworthiness and authenticity are defined as the radical criteria for determining a qualitative study and it is made up of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability (Bryman and Bell, 2007). Firstly, Marshall and Rossman (2006) identify credibility relies on its validity in describing a process or a pattern of interaction. In a means that only participants can judge the credibility of the results because the credibility criteria depend on the perspective of the participants, referring to Slevitch (2011, p.77) says, Truth is a matter of credibility. As Bryman and Bell (2007) note that the formation of the credibility of findings requires the research is accomplished in line with the canons of good practice while the research findings should be submitted to the member of the social world who was studied for confirmation and has correctly understood that social world. Due to most people not having experience underwater wedding events, the findings therefore show a deeper understanding from the participants viewpoints. However, in-depth interview may cause a couple of errors such as language barriers or a lack of skill, the responses may not answer properly leads the results are not fully truthful either. One of the constructs in qualitative research is confirmability. As every researcher comes up with his/her own perspective to the study, it refers to the findings that can be confirmed by other researchers (Marshall and Rossman, 2006). The author may compare hers to the other researchers by ensuring or confirming if the studies come up with similar results. In fact, it is recognised that to complete objectivity is almost unattainable in doing business research, the researcher can be then shown to have executed in good faith. Apparently, she has not overtly allowed personal values or theoretical inclinations manifestly to sway the conduct of the research and findings deriving from it (Bryman and Bell, 2007).

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3.4. Credibility and Confirmability

3.5. Dependability and Transferability

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According to Trochim (2006), dependability is similar to the concept of reliability from traditional quantitative approach. Researcher attempts to account for changing conditions in the phenomenon chosen for study and changes in the design created by an increasingly refined understanding of the setting (Marshall and Rossman, 2006, p.203). To maintain the dependability of the study, each element within the unusual events is important because it can occur any consumer dissatisfaction to the result. Transferability tends to be useful that can generalise or transfer to other contexts (Trochim, 2006; Marshall and Rossman, 2006). Yet, Marshall and Rossman (2006) find that the transferability of a qualitative study to others becomes a problem, regarding to the external validity like populations. The structure of the study may change while it normally applies to the researcher who would like to transfer the contexts with the original researcher, known as second decision span (Kennedy, 1979 cited in Marshall and Rossman, 2006). Thus in order to assess if the cases described can be generalised for new research policy and transferred to other settings, the responsibility will accord as the investigators who make policy or design research studies within the same benchmarks (Marshall and Rossman, 2011).

Accordingly, data are hard to analyse due to the open-ended comments, every respondents will come up with different scenarios. Another barrier would be the possibility of different languages, which causes a problem of translation. Limited amount of participants in Caribbean Islands is also one of the considerations, if the participants are too less, the data will not be enough for the author. Besides, the data recordings will be time-consuming to the individual interviews. Finally, the author is lack of familiarity with the data since she has not experienced underwater wedding event before, all the data that she obtains is from the others, the author somehow cannot ask deeper as she has limited information. 4. Discussion The intention of this paper is to determine the consumer expectation and satisfaction of underwater wedding events in Caribbean Islands, as both a provenance of inducement to tourists and as a contributory element to the satisfaction derived from events. Correspondingly, the author believes that she can make the best use out of three objectives to examine the phenomenon of analysing consumer behaviour. A couple of recommendations for its development are highlighted as well. Due to the primary research has not been conducted yet, thus the secondary studies will be used to evaluate and appraise the three preceding objectives. 4.1. To assess the demographic characteristics of tourists participating in underwater wedding events in Caribbean Islands. The investigation reconfirms past work that can be found in other unusual wedding events. With the regard of underwater wedding events are seen as tourism products, instead of those from the mass market groups, Bailey (2013) declares the purpose of underwater weddings is to comprehend and meet the needs and wants of individual tourists. Therefore, the demographic characteristics of tourists are very significant in this investigation. It is expected the characteristics will change over time of participating in underwater wedding events. Perhaps, from the study of bungee jumping weddings, it is found that participants are 20 to 30 years old European (Anon, 2008). Another extreme wedding, which is skydive wedding and it mainly appeals to European and American (Gardner, 2012; Paulin, 2013). Besides, one of the most famous destinations for underwater weddings, Trang, is more attractive for Asian. In fact, unusual wedding events are not legal for some destinations, thus it depends on which regions provide underwater weddings. It is assumed that income is not a matter for participating in underwater weddings since it is inversely cheaper than the classic one. While the demographic characteristics tend to consider on the age as well as the nationality, underwater wedding participants are therefore estimated to be middleclass, young, and outward looking people. As a result, Caribbean appeals to Canadian and US market, but not really

Ethical issues are uncontrollable and generically direct affect to the results (Marshall and Rossman, 2006). It can impact negatively on the voluntary respondents with no unfavourable issues such as psychological, financial or social impairment. Hence, the researcher has to be sensitive with the ethical considerations, which can avoid any unexpected error for the study. The purpose of this study is using indepth interview method; it does not touch on any sensitive question, but a set of broader open-ended questions. Participants may feel stressful in a way during the interviews or any interruption can also affect their responses but a proper interaction within the process is necessary (Finn et al., 2000). In order to minimise the ethical issues, the author should be aware of reciprocity concerns. To provide an appropriate environment for interviews, the author should create an interview guide even though it is an open-ended interview; a guide helps the researcher in advance to shape step-by-step during the interview duration. An appropriate location is needed whereby comfort the respondents such as coffee shop. Asking questions in a friendly way, enable them to have a conversation with no tension. Last but not least, the author has to keep the anonymity of the respondents.

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3.6. Ethical Issues

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A primary research still leads to an abundance of several limitations in conducting this research. The accuracy may drop since the author is not able to do the primary research whereby all information is taken from secondary research. In fact, undertaking secondary data from the other researchers may not be neutral as different purpose (Finn et al., 2000).

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3.7. Limitations

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to Asian because it consumes time and money for the visa requirement; instead, they may travel to Thailand. 4.2. To determine the level of satisfaction of underwater wedding tourists from Caribbean Islands perspective. In Caro and Garca (2007) study, it results customer satisfaction is positively influenced by both disconfirmation and arousal as independent factors, and the emphasis on the relationship between arousal and satisfaction is stronger than disconfirmation. Hence, it is suggested the level of satisfaction of underwater weddings is somehow indirectly mediated to the relationship between service quality dimensions and behavioural intentions (Theodorakis et al., 2013). Yoshida et al. (2013) verify consumers overall assessments of sport event innovativeness will have a positive effect on their satisfaction with event experiences. There are 99% participants are satisfied with wildlife safari. The findings provide a contention about underwater wedding event is not simply about getting married. Perhaps, this may refer to Orams's (2000) thought that it has given the arguments presented earlier regarding the complexity of human motivation and the diverse range of influences on human satisfaction. In this respect, underwater wedding tourists will have a higher satisfaction on underwater wedding events, as it is the first time that they participate; it is regarding when the level of disconfirmation increases, participants are more satisfied with the outcome (Akama and Kieti, 2003). In addition to that, Yu (2012)s study has 89% participants are satisfied with adventure tourism. By then, it deems underwater wedding events may also get as high tourists satisfaction as the previous studies. 4.3. To establish and explore the tourists experience while participating in underwater wedding events in Caribbean Islands. The relationship between adventure activities and tourists experience is always referring to excitement, new challenges, while it is argued that they actually feel anxious in terms of arousal theory. These kinds of water-based activities do not literally provide any new experience but from another perspective, it derives that maybe the first time by linking marriage with adventure activity. So it is assumed participants are seeking for new romanticism by testifying to their marriage, or finding the refresh moment in their relationships. Besides, it presumes extreme sports have a possibility to lead participants relationships to have some positive changes with the natural world as well (Kerr and Mackenzie, 2012). Highlighted Caribbeans underwater weddings, participants can customise their weddings with dolphins, fish, or even sharks, at this unique selling point, which allows participants an opportunity to feel and explore the world of underwater plus increases participants awareness of environment indirectly. More so, underwater wedding events represent a deep insight of a ceremony of life and death to the participants (ibid). Regardless, they may have a sense of superiority among the others who do not have an adventure and unusual

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wedding. In this context, it significantly allows participants to get married with partner and the nature as well. Moreover, it is expected underwater wedding events are seen as the art of exceptional living from the tourists perspective (Luxergy, 2009). Last but not least, it definitely a new experience for couples because the way of underwater wedding event is still uncommon while the ceremony takes place underwater instead of at a church. Although the current study determines the satisfaction from consumers respected opinion, an emphasis on attention will be granted to the leverage of demographic aspects. Despite the high probability consumer satisfaction plays a pivotal role in the overall process of consumer behaviour, the researcher assumes that, through free disclosure stories and events from Caribbean Islands perspective, there will be findings exposed in the areas which Caribbean Islands can improve upon promoting underwater wedding events in the consumer satisfaction context. 5. Conclusion and recommendations As with previous research, many of the constructs associated with experience, motivation, expectation and satisfaction in a tourism context are difficult to measure. While researchers assume they have well understood the complexity of consumer behaviour, in fact, they do not. By demonstrating which one initially influenced the others, the literature has critically investigated the empirical studies among researchers. Furthermore, the cross-sectional design of the study creates opportunities for replication, comparative studies and longitudinal analyses in a multitude of adventure contexts. Regrettably, the relative primary research in the present adventure unusual events has not been done, thus it needs further investigation. This would help validate the present studys main findings and establish the generalisability of the multidimensional value framework. Expectation and disconfirmation have been found to be key aspects of functional value and to be related to satisfaction. However, in the present study, functional value did not predict satisfaction or intentions. Further research is also needed to explore the underwater wedding dimension in more detail. As the value framework used in the present study was contextualised towards adventure tourism, there may be other specific value dimensions relevant to adventure consumption. The constructs such as risk and challenge are difficult to define and measure but they are important components of adventure, thus they need to be examined and incorporated in the value model. Perceptions of risk from driving down a steep sand dune differ considerably among consumers. By asking only underwater wedding tourists within Caribbean Islands does not increase the reliability of the investigation, it should be then commence with the organisations that involve with underwater weddings outside Caribbean such as Japan and Thailand. Although the data may not be what researchers expected, it shows indirectly why underwater weddings are successful in other destinations.

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Admittedly, Caribbeans government should put an effort on safety management when having such adventure activities definitely exist a certain level of risk. Maintaining and improving the quality of safety issue is required, to keep adventure couples in a fear but a safety condition. Last but not least, the author attempts to observe adventure packages from any travel association or agency, and to analyse how they boost adventure tourism in the industry. The next step of this study is to continue engaging with the adventure tourism industry, government agencies, travel agencies as well as international adventure travellers to develop a strong relationship and seek more about other motivations or factors that influence underwater wedding tourists. References
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