Anda di halaman 1dari 9

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

Updated: 21 January 2013

Print version

Lecture#2 (modelingfundamentals&massbalance)

Chapra, L1
(pp. 3-20)

Water Quality Modeling Objectives


Waste Load Allocation

todeterminetheenvironmentalcontrolsthatmustbe institutedtoachieveaspecificwaterqualityobjective focusonpointsources

X
David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 2

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

Evolutionofmunicipalsystems
Safewatersupply
Needrecognizedby

studiessuchasJohn Snows

WastewaterCollection
Firstjustremoval Thenneedfortreatment LaterquantifiedinWLA

Figure 1.1 from Chapra, 1997


David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 3

Objectives(cont.)
TMDL total maximum daily load Themoregeneralprocessofwasteloadassessment andcontrolinawatershed Encompassingpointsources(WLA)andnonpoint sources(LA)

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

WaterQualityManagement

Figure 1.2 from Chapra, 1997


David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 5

Objectives(cont.)
Toxics Modeling

tounderstandthefateofhazardoussubstancesinthe aquaticenvironment tounderstandtheresponseofnaturalsystemtopollutant inputs

General Understanding of the Ecosystem

Errors?

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

TABLE1.1 PRINCIPALPOLLUTIONPROBLEMS,AFFECTEDUSES, ANDASSOCIATEDWATERQUALITYVARIABLES(FromThomann&


Mueller,1987)
Manifestation of problem 1 Fish kills Nuisance odors, H2S "Nuisance" organisms Radical change in ecosystem 2 Disease transmission Gastrointestinal disturbance, eye irritation Water use interference Water quality problem Water quality variables

BOD NH3, org N, Low DO Fishery Organic solids (dissolved Recreation Phytoplankton, DO Ecological health oxygen) Water supply, High bacterial Total coliform bacteria, Recreation levels Fecal coliform bacteria, Fecal streptococci, Viruses Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Excessive 3 Tastes and odors-blue green algae Water supply, plant growth, Phytoplankton Recreation, Aesthetic beach nuisances, algal Ecological health (Eutrophicati mats "Pea soup" Unbalanced on) ecosystem Metals Radioactive High toxic Water supply 4. Carcinogens in water supply substances Pesticides chemical Fishery closed-unsafe toxic levels, Fishery Herbicides Toxic product Ecological health levels Ecosystem upset; mortality, chemicals reproductive impairment
David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 7

Rates
Determination of Mass Loading
Point Sources - General Concepts

W(t)=Q(t)c(t)

ImportantConversionFactors

8.34

lb liters sec Kg liters sec lb liters 5.39 2.45 3 mg ft 3 day mg ft day mg MG

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

Rates(cont.)
RelatedRates Volumetricflowrate
Q=UAc
MassFluxrate

U velocity of water Ac cross-sectional area

m W Uc tAc Ac
And therefore, W=JAc
9

Refer to Example 1.2 (pg 9)


David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2

ModelImplementations
TheModel concentration,c,isproportionaltoloading,W,by thereciprocalofanassimilationfactor,a SimulationMode c=W/a DesignModeIAssimilativeCapacity W=ac DesignModeIIEnvironmentalModification a=W/c

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

10

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

TwoApproachestoModeling
EmpiricalModeling basedoninductiveapproach heavilydependentonstatisticalanalysis ofexisting data MechanisticModeling basedondeductiveapproach moredependentontheory ofunderlyingprocesses emphasizedinChaprasbook

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

11

MassBalanceorMassInventory
Alsoknownasconservationofmass KeytomechanisticWQmodeling

Accumulation loadings transport reactions


Ifsourcesareinbalancewithsinks,massremains

constantandweareatsteadystate:

Accumulation 0
Separatemassbalanceswrittenforeachsubstance

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

12

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

TypicalMechanisticModel

Loadings

Transport In
Substance A
Reactions

Transport Out

Substance B

Components
Based on: Figure 1.5 from Chapra, 1997
David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2

System Response

13

Spatial/TemporalResolution
Whenspatialortemporalconcentration differencesareimportant,systemmaybedivided intosubvolumesortimes
Segmentationistheprocessofdividingspaceand

matterintoincrements

space:1,2or3dimensions

Resolutionisthedegreetowhichspace,timeandmatter

aresegmented

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

14

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

HistoricalDevelopmentofMechanistic Modeling
19251960:StreeterPhelps
DOmodeling,basedonBOD,SOD

19601970:Computerization
greatercomplexity,resolutionpossible

19701977:Biology
eutrophicationmodeling,basedonN,P,light

1977present:Toxics
partitioningofhydrophobics,complexphysical,

chemicalandbiologicaltransformations

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

15

Evolving Issues

Figure 1.6 from Chapra, 1997


David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 16

CEE 577

Lecture #2

1/21/2013

Economicsofpollutioncontrol
Asstandardsbecomemore

strict
Costsgoup

disproportionally Errorsinjudgmentare morecostly

Figure 1.7 from Chapra, 1997


David A. Reckhow CEE 577 #2 17

Tonextlecture

David A. Reckhow

CEE 577 #2

18