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D E S I G N G U I D E

A C O U S T I C
ACOUSTIC
Insulation Design Guide
A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E

Contents. Introduction.
The Bradford Insulation Group forms part of the
Introduction 2 Building Materials Division of CSR Limited. CSR
Product Range, Applications Bradford Insulation manufactures and markets an
& Selection Guides 3 – 13 extensive range of insulation products offering outstanding
thermal, acoustic and fire protection properties for use in
Bradford Acoustic Solutions all types of domestic and commercial buildings.
Party & Interior Walls Two mineral fibre insulation types are available;
Residential & Commercial 14
‘Bradford Glasswool’, which is manufactured by
External Walls 18 controlled felting of biosoluble glass wool bonded with
Roof/Ceiling Systems 18 a thermosetting resin; and ‘Bradford Fibertex™ Rockwool’
Floor/Ceiling Systems 23 which is spun from natural rock and bonded with a
Floors 24 thermosetting resin. Both are available in sheet or roll
Plumbing 25 form and as moulded pipe insulation.
Gutters & Downpipes 26 Bradford Thermofoil™ and Thermotuff™ are a range
Pipes, Tanks & Vessels 27 of aluminium foil laminates available in various grades.
Factories & Workshops 27 All CSR Bradford Insulation products are tested to
Acoustic Baffles 29 meet stringent quality control standards incorporating
quality management systems such as AS3902/ISO9002.
Acoustic Enclosures 30
Vibration Damping 34 ABOUT THIS GUIDE.
Air Conditioning Systems 36 The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the
technical benefits obtained with the inclusion of acoustic
Bradford Acoustic Solutions for insulation materials in the construction of all types of buildings
Specialty Applications as well as noise control of machinery.
Home Cinema 46 The range of Bradford products and their applications
Auditoriums 47 is presented along with data and worked examples to
Sports Complexes 48 illustrate design considerations.
Canteens/Restaurants 50 This Acoustic Design Guide also outlines the basic
Karaoke/Night Clubs 50 properties of sound, and methods for its control. It does not
Shopping Centres 51 set out to provide a definitive solution to every conceivable
Recording Studios 52 noise problem. Rather, it aims to explain the principles
involved, so that these principles can be applied along with
Heavy Plant 53
common sense, to overcome common acoustic problems.
OEM Application 53
Acoustics is however a complex science, and there will
Appendix A The Nature of Sound 54 be many instances where the services of specialist acoustic
Sound Transmission 57 consultants or noise control engineers are indispensable.
Flanking Paths 59 The reader is cautioned against investing large sums of
Sound Absorption 59 money in noise control without first seeking advice.
Reverberation 61
This is particularly pertinent where compliance with
Room Acoustics 64
Industrial Acoustics 67 noise abatement orders is concerned.
Speech Privacy 68 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE.
To assist designers, a free and comprehensive technical
Appendix B Floor/Ceiling Systems 69 – 70
service, as well as advice and assistance in specifying and using
Appendix C Product Data 71 Bradford products is available from CSR Bradford Insulation
Sound Absorption Coefficients 74 offices in your region. Further technical data and product
Static Insertion Loss/Silencers 77 updates are also available on the CSR Building Solutions
Air Flow Resistivity 78 Website: www.csr.com.au/bradford
Appendix D Terminology 79 Information included in this Design Guide relates to
products as manufactured at the date of publication. As
CSR Bradford Insulation the CSR Bradford Insulation policy is one of continual
Regional Contact Details 80 product improvement, technical details as published are
subject to change without notice.

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The Importance of
Acoustic Insulation.
The minimisation of noise has become a significant environmental issue in the modern world,
whether at home, at work or on holidays.
CSR Bradford Insulation manufacturers and distributes an extensive range of insulation products
that provide excellent noise control properties, as well as the traditional thermal and fire control
benefits.
Although all fibrous insulation products can provide some acoustic benefits, CSR Bradford
Insulation has a range of products specifically designed and tested for the acoustic insulation market,
including:–

ACOUSTIC INSULATION APPLICATIONS


PRODUCT
Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts Economical insulation for internal wall sound absorption
in housing, residential apartments or commercial offices.
Various systems are available to meet building codes.

Bradford SoundScreen™ Unique rockwool insulation system to reduce room-to-


room noise transmission in houses.

Bradford ACOUSTICON™ Commercial and residential metal roofing insulation


specially developed to reduce rain noise.

Bradford Glasswool Air conditioning duct internal lining product offering full
R1.5 ACOUSTITUFF™ Ductliner enclosure with excellent sound absorption properties.

Bradford Glasswool High performance acoustic absorption product for


R1.5 ULTRAPHON™ Ductliner ducting, silencers and other acoustic applications.

Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ Wall absorber combining the superior acoustic properties


of Bradford Fibertex™ Rockwool with a perforated metal
panel system.

Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTILAG™ Pipe insulation product combining the noise barrier
properties of loaded vinyl and the absorption benefits of
glasswool. Ideal for noisy plumbing.

Bradford FIBERTEX™ Acoustic Baffle Rockwool batt enclosed in white polymer film used for
which is designed to be hung from the overhead structure
to provide acoustic absorption in a room or workplace.

Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ General purpose medium density glasswool acoustic


insulation.

Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 450 General purpose premium rockwool acoustic insulation
product.

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Acoustic Insulation for Homes.

1 Metal Roof Insulation or


Tiled Roof Sarking

2
Ceiling
Insulation

3
Internal Wall
Insulation

4
External Wall
Insulation/
Party Wall

5
Plumbing
Insulation

6 Acoustic Floor/Ceiling &


Floating Floor Insulation
7 Home Cinema Wall, Floor &
Ceiling Insulation.
Acoustic Absorbing Panels

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Bradford Insulation Application &
Selection Guide for Homes.
Insulation Application Product Type Product Range/Facings
Bradford ACOUSTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford Glasswool ANTICON™ Blanket R1.5, R2.0, R2.5 Faced Light,
1 Metal Roofing Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool R1.5, R2.0, R2.5 Faced Light,
ANTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford THERMOFOIL™ Sarking Medium, Heavy Duty,
Tiled Roof
ANTIGLARE
Sarking
Bradford THERMOTUFF™ Sarking Medium, Extra Heavy Duty, Safety
Bradford Glasswool Gold Ceiling Batts R2.0, R2.5, R3.0, R3.5, R4.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
2 Ceiling Ceiling Batts R2.0, R2.5, R3.0
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 2.5 - 5.0mm
Loose Fill Bags

Acoustic Internal Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts 50, 75 and 100mm


3 Walls Bradford Rockwool SoundScreen™ 75mm
Bradford Glasswool Gold Wall Batts R1.5, R2.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
4 External Walls Wall Batts R1.5, R2.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Cavity Wall Granulated Loose Fill Bags
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ Pipe Insulation ACOUSTILAG™ 20, 23 and 26
5 Plumbing
Bradford HANDITUBE™ Pipe Insulation Stocked by CSR Bradford Insulation
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Ceiling Batts R1.5 - R2.0

Acoustic Bradford Glasswool Wall/Floor Batts R1.5 - R2.0


6 Floor/Ceilings Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Wall/Floor Batts R1.5 - R2.0
Bradford Rockwool SoundScreen™ 75mm
Floating Floors Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™ Specialty installation system

Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ Specialty facings available


7 Home Cinema
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool

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Acoustic Insulation for Homes.

1 Tiled Roof Sarking or


Metal Roof Insulation

2 Ceiling
Insulation

3
Internal Wall
Insulation

4
External Wall
Insulation

5
Plumbing
Insulation

6 Acoustic Floor/Ceiling &


Floating Floor Insulation
7 Home Cinema Wall, Floor &
Ceiling Insulation.
Acoustic Absorbing Panels

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Bradford Insulation Application &
Selection Guide for Homes.
Insulation Application Product Type Product Range/Facings
Bradford ACOUSTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford Glasswool ANTICON™ Blanket R1.5, R2.0, R2.5 Faced Light,
1 Metal Roofing Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool R1.5, R2.0, R2.5 Faced Light,
ANTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford THERMOFOIL™ Sarking Medium, Heavy Duty,
Tiled Roof
ANTIGLARE
Sarking
Bradford THERMOTUFF™ Sarking Medium, Extra Heavy Duty, Safety
Bradford Glasswool Gold Ceiling Batts R2.0, R2.5, R3.0, R3.5, R4.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
2 Ceiling Ceiling Batts R2.0, R2.5, R3.0
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 25mm – 50mm

Acoustic Internal Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts 50, 75 and 100mm


3 Walls Bradford Rockwool SoundScreen™ 75mm
Bradford Glasswool Gold Wall Batts R1.5, R2.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
4 External Walls Wall Batts R1.5, R2.0
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Cavity Wall Granulated Loose Fill Bags
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ Pipe Insulation ACOUSTILAG™ 20, 23 and 26
5 Plumbing
ARMAFLEX™ Pipe Insulation Stocked by CSR Bradford Insulation
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Ceiling Batts R1.5 - R2.0

Acoustic Bradford Glasswool Wall/Floor Batts R1.5 - R2.0


6 Floor/Ceilings Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Wall/Floor Batts R1.5 - R2.0
Bradford Rockwool SoundScreen™ 75mm
Floating Floors Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™ Specialty installation system

Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ Specialty facings available


7 Home Cinema
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool

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Acoustic Insulation for Commercial Buildings

7
Air Conditioning
Duct Insulation
(Rigid & Flexible Ducts)
6 Fan Silencer & Fan
Casing Insulation

1 Ceiling Insulation
(Suspended Grid Ceilings
& Concrete Roof/Soffit)

2
Internal
Partition Wall
Insulation

3
Acoustic
Absorbing
Panels

4 Plumbing
Insulation

5 Plant Room Wall &


Ceiling Insulation

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Bradford Insulation Application & Selection
Guide for Commercial Buildings.
Insulation Application Product Type Product Range/Facings
Bradford Glasswool ANTICON ™
R1.5, R2.0, R2.5 Faced Light,
and ACOUSTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty
or Specialty THERMOFOIL™
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool R1.5, R2.0 Faced Light,
ANTICON™ Blanket Medium, Heavy Duty or
Concrete
1 Roof/Soffit
Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™
Specialty THERMOFOIL™
25 – 75mm
THERMOFOIL™ Facing
Bradford FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool 50 - 100mm
THERMOFOIL™ Facing
Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Panel Overlays Factory Applied Acoustic Facings
Exposed Grid
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Ceiling Ceiling Panel Overlays Factory Applied Acoustic Facings
Bradford Glasswool Building Blanket R1.2, R1.5, R1.8, R2.0, R2.5
Concealed Grid
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Ceilings Building Blanket 50, 75mm, R1.5, R2.0
Acoustic Internal Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts 50, 75, 100mm
2 Partitions Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Partition Batts 45, 70mm
Acoustic Bradford Glasswool ULTRATEL™ Board 25-100mm, Factory Applied
Facings
3 Absorbing
Panels
Bradford FIBERTEX™ 450 Rockwool 25-100mm,
Factory Applied Facings
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ Pipe Insulation ACOUSTILAG™ 20, 23 and 26
4 Plumbing Insulation
ARMAFLEX™ Pipe Insulation Stocked by CSR Bradford Insulation
Bradford Rockwool/Glasswool ACOUSTICLAD™
Plant Room Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, Perforated 750P
5 Wall & Ceiling SUPERTEL™, ULTRATEL™ THERMOFOIL™
Insulation Bradford FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool Perforated 750P
THERMOFOIL™
Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™ Perforated 750P
Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ THERMOFOIL™
6 Fan Casings
Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™ ACOUSTITUFF™
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool DUCTLINER ULTRAPHON™
Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ BMF, ULTRAPHON™
Bradford Glasswool ULTRATEL™ 25 – 100mm
Fan Silencers Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™ (Quietel 13mm - 50mm)
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool DUCTLINER
Bradford FIBERTEX™ 450 Rockwool
Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ Perforated 750P THERMOFOIL™
Rigid Ducting Bradford Glasswool DUCTLINER ULTRAPHON™,
7 Internal Lining Bradford Glasswool ULTRATEL™ ACOUSTITUFF™ facings
Bradford FIBERTEX Rockwool DUCTLINER

25 – 100mm, R1.5 & R0.9
Bradford Glasswool MULTITEL ™
R1.5 & R0.9
Rigid Ducting Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™ 25 – 100mm
External Wrap Bradford Glasswool THERMOGOLD DUCTWRAP

Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool DUCTWRAP


Bradford Glasswool R1.0 SPECITEL™ R1.0. R1.5
Flexible Duct Bradford FABRIFLEX™ Flexible Ducting Available ex-Singapore
Bradford ACOUSTIFLEX Flexible Ducting

Available ex-Singapore

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Acoustic Insulation for Theatre, Sports
& Multi-Purpose Buildings

1 Auditorium/Theatre/Cinema
• Roof/Ceiling Insulation
• Wall Insulation
• Acoustic Absorbing
Panels

2 Sports Centre
• Roof/Ceiling Insulation
• Floor Insulation
• Acoustic Absorbing
Panels

4 Air Conditioning
System Insulation

3
Canteen
• Wall Insulation
• Ceiling Insulation
• Acoustic Absorbing Panels
• Metal Deck Rain Noise Insulation

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Bradford Insulation Application & Selection Guide
for Theatre, Sports & Multi-Purpose Buildings.
Insulation Application Product Type
Walls
Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts
Bradford Rockwool Partition Batts
Acoustic Absorbers
Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™
Theatre, Cinema ULTRATEL™ with BMF (Black Matt Facing Tissue),
1 & Auditorium ULTRAPHON™ or other specialty facing.
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Bradford ACOUSTICLAD Wall/Ceiling Absorber
Roof/Ceiling
Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™
Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Batts
Bradford Rockwool Ceiling Batts
Acoustic Absorbers
Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ Wall/Ceiling Absorber
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Sports
2 Buildings
Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™
ULTRATEL™ with BMF (Black Matt Facing Tissue),
• Swimming ULTRAPHON™ or other specialty facing.
• Basketball
Roof/Ceiling
• Gymnasium
Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™
Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Batts
Bradford Rockwool Ceiling Batts
Acoustic Absorbers
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™
ULTRATEL™ with BMF (Black Matt Facing Tissue),
ULTRAPHON™ or other specialty facing.
Bradford ACOUSTICLAD Wall/Ceiling Absorber
Canteen
3 Facility
Walls
Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts
Bradford Rockwool Partition Batts
Roof/Ceiling
Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™
Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Batts
Bradford Rockwool Ceiling Batts
Air Conditioning Refer to CSR Bradford Insulation Air Conditioning Design
4 Systems Guide and Product Guide.

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Acoustic Insulation for
Industrial Applications.

2
Acoustic
1 Acoustic Baffles
(suspended)
Enclosures for
Plant & Machinery
8 Acoustic Wall
Absorbers
7 Metal Deck
Roof Insulation

6 Ceiling
Insulation

3
Bradford Insulation
for OEM Applications

5 Acoustic Internal
Wall Insulation

4 Acoustic
Absorbing
Screens

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Bradford Acoustic Insulation for
Industrial Applications.
Insulation Application Product Type Product Range/Facings

Bradford FIBERTEX™ Acoustic Baffle Fully enclosed in white polymer


1 Acoustic Baffles
film ready to hang.

Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool 25 – 100mm


Acoustic Enclosures Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL ™
Density 24 – 120kg/m3
2 for Plant & Machinery Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™
Bradford Glasswool ULTRATEL™

Bradford Glasswool Appliance Grade Cut to size with specialty facings


3 OEM Applications Bradford Rockwool Appliance Grade available
Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL ™

Acoustic Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ 25 – 100mm


4 Absorbing Screens Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool

Acoustic Internal Bradford Glasswool Partition Batts To fit studs


5 Walls Bradford FIBERTEX Rockwool Partition Batts

Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Batts 50 – 150mm


6 Ceilings
Bradford Rockwool Ceiling Batts

Metal Deck Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™ 75mm


7 Roofs Bradford Rockwool ACOUSTICON ™

Acoustic Wall Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ 25 – 100mm


8 Absorbers Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Specialty facings available

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Bradford Acoustic Solutions.


Interior Walls. The addition of denser wall sheeting products such as
CSR Gyprock® Fyrchek™ or Soundchek™ plasterboard or
RESIDENTIAL PARTY & CSR Fibre Cement together with Gyprock’ Resilient
INTERNAL WALLS. Mounts and furring channels can reduce noise levels.
The Building Code of Australia (BCA) Sections F5 sets
DOUBLE-LEAF WALLS.
out Sound Transmission Class (STC) requirements for
Higher transmission losses than those expected by the
sound insulation of floors, walls, between units, walls
Mass Law can be obtained by using double-leaf walls
between bathrooms, laundries, kitchens, between habitable
with an air cavity.
and non-habitable rooms in multi-tenancy buildings. In
late 1999, the BCA changed its acoustic rating from STC Further increases in sound transmission loss,
to Sound Reduction Index (Rw). This Acoustic Design particularly at low frequencies can be achieved by using
Guide uses the STC rating units as Australasia and Asia are wider air cavities.
familiar with STC and it is very similar to Rw. An increase When a double leaf wall is uninsulated, the air in the
of either one STC unit or one Rw unit approximately cavity can act as a spring, efficiently transmitting sound
equals a reduction of one decibel in noise level. energy from one side of the wall to the other.
Table 1 below shows common STC values of walls Significant improvement in STC is obtained by
used in buildings. The expected audibility for a given using Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool batts in the
STC level is also shown, based on guidelines for ambient cavity.
sound levels Acoustic tests of walls around the world have shown
the use of glasswool batts or rockwool batts inside cavity
TABLE 1. STC AND AUDIBILITY walls reduces resonances between the two sheets and can
THROUGH WALLS AND FLOORS. significantly improve the acoustic performance by up to
STC Value Audibility 10 STC. Generally the thicker and/or denser the
30 - 35 Speech audible insulation in the cavity, the higher the STC rating
resulting in less noise transmitted to the other side of the
40 Loud speech, still heard wall. The actual improvement in STC depends on the
45 Loud speech, just heard type of wall construction. Insulation in the cavity will also
lessen the effect of the ‘coincidence dip’ in double leaf
50 – 55 Speech cannot be heard
walls.
The BCA Part F5.4 Sound Insulation Of Walls FLANKING NOISE.
Between Units currently states a wall must have an STC It should be noted that actual installations, as compared
not less than 45. It has been proposed to increase this to to acoustic laboratories, exhibit flanking noise through
STC 55 in the future as STC 45 does not provide enough doors, windows, ventilation ducting, air gaps at ceiling,
acoustic privacy. STC’s ≥50 are standard in Europe and wall and floor intersections. In addition, poor
USA. workmanship may degrade the acoustic performance of
Generally internal walls for residential applications in partitions. For these reasons, a building element
Australia use either rendered brick or lightweight double constructed in the field will usually achieve a lower STC
leaf walls using plasterboard and/or fibre cement ratings than when tested in the laboratory.
construction on timber studs. Maximum acoustic performance can be achieved by
To improve or increase the sound transmission loss eliminating penetrations in walls, caulking gaps, and
(STL) hence the STC of these walls, the following is staggering electrical outlet or other necessary penetrations
required:- through the wall. Wall cavities should be completely
filled with insulation and tightly fitted around pipes,
EXTRA MASS.
conduits and other outlets.
Sound Transmission Loss (STL) depends heavily on
the surface density of a building element (mass per square
metre of surface). For every doubling of surface density,
the sound transmission loss increases by about 5dB.

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LOW FREQUENCY NOISE. STC data for some typical partition walls is given in
Low frequency noise from sources such as fans, aircraft, Table 2. Further STC data for internal cavity walls is
road and rail traffic, and bass from amplified music can available the CSR Bradford brochure ‘Noise Reductions
penetrate walls easier than high frequency noise. For Internal Partitions or the CSR Gyprock Fire &
Therefore higher sound transmission loss (ie. higher Acoustic Design Guide, ‘The Red Book’.
STC) walls are required to ensure satisfactory acoustic
performance. As a general rule, add at least 5 STC points
to the acoustic requirement of the walls when low
frequency noise is present.

TABLE 2. STC DATA FOR TYPICAL TIMBER FRAME PARTITION SYSTEMS.

Description STC (Rw) STC (Rw) STC (Rw)


Bradford Bradford
No Glasswool Rockwool
Insulation Wall Batts Wall Batts
STC 30 - 42 33 38 39
(75mm Batts) (45mm Batts)
• 1 layer 10mm CSR Gyprock Plasterboard CD™ Test CSR 37/67
• 70/75mm Timber Studs 42
• 1 layer 10mm CSR Gyprock Plasterboard CD™ SoundScreen™
STC 40 - 50
• 2 layers 13mm CSR Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard 43 47 48
• 70/75mm Timber Studs (50mm Batts) (45mm Batts)
• 1 layer 13mm CSR Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
STC 50 - 60
• 2 layers 16mm CSR Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard 51 58 59
• 90 x 35mm Staggered Timber Studs (50mm Batts) (45mm Batts)
• 2 layers 16mm CSR Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
* Refer to the CSR Bradford Noise Reduction of Internal Partitions brochure or the CSR Gyprock® Fire & Acoustic
Design Guide (‘The Red Book’) which show a wide range of internal partitions and their STC ratings.

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COMMERCIAL INTERNAL
PARTITIONS.
Internal plasterboard or fibre cement walls using steel Thinner gauge steel studs, with greater stud spacing
stud systems are widely used in commercial construction and minimum fixing of sheets to studs also results in a wall
and offer a wide range of sound transmission loss which is able to flex more easily generally resulting in
performance. slightly higher acoustic performance.
The methods stated previously for improving acoustic If higher STC performance is required, there are a
performance of Residential Internal Walls also apply to number of steps that can be incorporated at the time of
the Commercial Internal Partitions. construction to improve acoustic performance, as detailed
in Table 3.

TABLE 3. INSULATION FOR NOISE REVERBERATION CONTROL.

Addition STC Improvement Comments


Fit insulation into studs Up to 10 STC points Thicker and/or denser insulation
such as Rockwool is beneficial.
Light gauge or deeper steel studs give
higher STC performance.
Use Gyprock® Fyrchek Up to 3 STC points Use of 13mm or 16mm CSR
plasterboard if installed both sides Gyprock® Fyrchek™ improves
performance due to extra mass.
Gyprock® Resilient Channel 6 – 8 STC points Resilient Channel isolate the
one side Gyprock® Plasterboard from the stud.
Bradford Quietel one side and 4 STC points Quietel board acts as a sound
insulation to stud isolator between the Gyprock®
Plasterboard and the Stud.
Staggered and double studs Up to 10 STC points Provide sound breaks between solid
studs and Gyprock®. Recommended
where impact isolation is also required.
Gyprock® Resilient Mounts and Up to 10 STC points Used where high level reduction of
Furring Channel airborne and impact noise is required.

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TABLE 4. STC RATINGS OF SOME COMMERCIAL INTERNAL PARTITIONS*.


A sample of the STC ratings for commercial internal partitions using steel studs taken from the Tables in the CSR Bradford
Insulation ‘Noise Reductions for Internal Partitions’ brochure, together with results from recent testing.

Description STC (Rw) STC (Rw) STC (Rw)


Bradford Bradford
No Glasswool Rockwool
Insulation Partition Batts Partition Batts
STC 30 - 40
35 40 41
• 1 layer 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD™
(50mm Batts) (45mm Batts)
• 64mm Steel Studs
Test HAS 085
• 1 layer 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD™
STC 40 - 50
• 1 layer 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ 39 44 45
• 64mm Steel Studs (50mm Batts) (45mm Batts)
• 1 layer 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™
STC 50 - 60
45 57 58
• 1 layer 13mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
(75mm (75mm
• 64 x 0.75mm BMT Separated Steel Studs
Wall Batts) SoundScreen™)
• 1 layer 13mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
STC 55 - 60
45 55 60
• 1 layer 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
(80mm Batts) (75mm
• 64 x 0.75 BMT Separated Steel Studs
SoundScreen™)
• 1 layer 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
STC 60 - 70
• 2 layers 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard 55 63 64
• 92 x 0.75mm BMT Separated Steel Studs (75mm Batts) (70mm Batts)
• 2 layers 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ plasterboard
* Refer to the CSR Bradford Insulation Noise Reduction of Internal Partitions brochure or CSR Gyprock® Fire &
Acoustic Design Guide (‘The Red Book’) which show a wide range of internal partitions and their STC ratings.

ACOUSTIC PREDICTION SYSTEM.

CSR Bradford Insulation has available a sophisticated loss STC greater than 50, such as those used between
‘Acoustic Predictor’ computer program, developed by CSR recording studios or cinemas, flanking paths should be
Gyprock®, which can predict the STC rating of many considered, as they can derate the acoustic performance of
different internal partitions, in addition to those shown the partition. For cinema walls requiring a very high STC
above and in the brochure. rating, contact CSR Bradford Insulation regarding the CSR
Note: For walls which require high sound transmission Gyprock® Cinema Wall System, or other CSR systems.

17 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
External Walls. To improve STC performance of single timber studs,
consider the use of Rondo resilient channels or CSR
External walls of residential buildings usually consist of Gyprock® resilient mounts with furring channels, which
• brick veneer construction, or lightweight concrete can improve STC (or Rw) by 6 to 8.
construction, Buildings with double brick walls should use vibration
• a cladding material, usually timber or fibre cement or isolated wall ties to reduce the amount of noise and
• occasionally double brick. vibration transmitted from one wall to the other.
For better acoustic performance, use building materials Note that building elements of low acoustic
with more mass. Clay bricks provide high surface density performance will derate the improvements made to other
(or mass per square metre) to enable high transmission building elements ie. walls and ceilings. For example,
loss. lightweight windows and doors can reduce the overall
The use of CSR Gyprock® Soundchek™ or Fyrchek™ STC rating of the wall.
plasterboard is recommended for interior walls. For even Products.
higher wall STC, the use of CSR Gyprock® Resilient
Bradford Glasswool Wall Batts
Mounts and Furring Channels is recommended.
Bradford Rockwool Wall and Ceiling Batts
For brick veneer walls add the thickest possible
rockwool or glasswool batts inside wall cavities during
construction of the building. Roof/Ceiling Systems.
Granulated rockwool can be retro-fitted into existing Roof/ceiling systems generally consist of either steel
walls of a building using a special machine which blows roofing or tile roofing. These roofing systems usually
granulated rockwool under pressure into the wall cavities. provide average to poor acoustic performance and can be
an acoustically weak link in a building facade. It should
Wall sheeting usually has solid connections (ie screw
be noted that consideration should be given to other weak
or nail fixed) to the timber or steel studs and transmits
links in the building extensions such as windows and
noise through these solid connections. CSR Gyprock®
doors.
Resilient Mounts can reduce both noise and vibration
transmission. Low frequency noise generated by aircraft, road and
rail traffic can easily penetrate commonly used building
materials including the roofing.
FIG 1. Tile roofs are generally used in domestic applications.
EXTERNAL WALL INSULATION.
It is recommended that Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
Ceiling Batts be used in the roof cavity to improve both
acoustic and thermal resistance. Note the higher the
thermal resistance or R-value, the thicker the batt, and
the better the acoustic absorption.
The following points indicate methods to improve the
Bradford acoustic performance of a typical tiled roof system. Tips
Thermofoil or
Thermotuff on how to further improve the STC rating are provided
Breather
in (brackets)

Timber Frame
• Rockwool or glasswool insulation batts on top of the
ceiling, (the thicker the insulation or the higher the
R-rating, the better the acoustic absorption)
Bradford
• Using a heavy THERMOFOIL ™ sarking as a
Insulation condensation barrier under the roof tiles, the heavier
Wall Batts
the better the noise reduction.
External
Cladding • Adding Bradford SOUNDLAGG™ loaded vinyl over
the ceiling joists, (the heavier the better).
• Thicker and/or heavier plasterboard for the ceiling,
(use fire rated plasterboard and multiple layers).
Gyprock® Care should be taken to minimise all gaps in the roof
Plasterboard
ceiling to maximise the acoustic performance.

18 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TILED ROOF SYSTEMS.
Figure 2 shows how to improve the acoustic rockwool or glasswool insulation will maximise noise
performance of a typical tiled roof system. absorption in the roof space, minimising the amount of
Note that the gaps inherent in tile roof construction noise entering the room/s below.
allow noise to enter the roof cavity. Hence the use of

FIG 2. IMPROVING ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF TILED ROOF SYSTEMS.


Bradford Thermofoil 733
Sarking over rafters

SYSTEM STC/Rw Monier Concrete


Roof Tiles
Monier concrete tile roof with one
layer of Gyprock Supa-Ceil™
33 Bradford Soundlagg
plasterboard fixed to ceiling joists (6kg/m2) over joists
spaced at 600mm centres.
Add Bradford R2.5 Glasswool Batts
41
between joists.
Replace Bradford R2.5 Glasswool
Batts with Bradford R3.0 FIBERTEX™
Rockwool Building Batts between 45
joists, and install Bradford Ceiling
THERMOFOIL™ 733 over rafters. Joist

Gyprock 10mm
Add Bradford SOUNDLAGG™ Supa-Ceil
Bradford Glasswool
50 Plasterboard Ceiling
or Rockwool Ceiling
(6kg/m2) over ceiling joists. Batts (as indicated)

STEEL ROOFING SYSTEMS.


Steel roofing is used in both commercial and installed directly underneath the metal decking to guard
residential roofing systems in Australia, New Zealand against condensation.
and Asia. Figure 3 shows the improvement in STC of a typical
Metal deck roofing systems require a layer of thermal domestic roof with the addition of Bradford insulation in
insulation faced with a suitable vapour barrier to be the roof/ceiling system.

FIG 3. IMPROVING ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS.

SYSTEM STC/Rw
Metal Roofing
Metal roofing with 1 x 10mm Gyprock
Supa-Ceil™ plasterboard fixed to ceiling 34 Bradford Acousticon
Foil Faced Blanket
joists spaced at 600mm centres.
Add Bradford ACOUSTICON™ foil
faced building blanket over rafters under 41
metal roofing.
Add Bradford R2.5 FIBERTEX™
45
Rockwool Building Batts between joists.
Replace Supa-Ceil plasterboard with 2
layers x 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD
fixed to metal furring channels (at 52
600mm max. cts) attached by Gyprock
Ceiling
Resilient Mounts Joist

Metal roofing with one layer plasterboard Gyprock 10mm Bradford Fibertex
Supa-Ceil Rockwool Batts or
fixed to ceiling joists spaced at 600mm Plasterboard Ceiling (Bradford G lasswool
39 – 41 Ceiling Insulation in
cts. plus Bradford Ceiling Insulation New Zealand)
between joist. (New Zealand only).

19 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
The STC of a roof system (commercial, industrial or Bradford ACOUSTICON ™ Glasswool Roofing
domestic) can also be improved with the addition of Blanket is faced with THERMOFOIL ™ .
heavier building materials such as: ACOUSTICON ™ has been specially developed to
• addition of insulation between the roof sheeting and provide cost effective rain noise reduction of 18dB(A)
Bradford batts above the ceiling, insertion loss under metal deck roofing.
ACOUSTICON™ has BHP approval for use under all
• thicker steel roof sheeting,
types of Lysaght steel roofing profiles, including Klip-Lok.
• using heavier, fire rated plasterboard or multiple layers For more infor mation refer to the Bradford
for the ceiling, ACOUSTICON™ ‘A Quiet Step Forward’ brochure,
• installing a layer of Bradford SOUNDLAGG™ beneath available from your nearest Bradford office.
(4 kg/m2 or heavier). For optimum rain noise reduction under steel roofing
RAIN NOISE REDUCTION in commercial, industrial and residential applications,
WITH METAL DECK ROOFING install 75mm Bradford ACOUSTICON™.
A common problem of steel roofing is that of rain For residential applications, ensure the correct rating of
noise, particularly in tropical climates with high levels of thermal insulation is achieved for roof insulation in your
rainfall. Rain falling on metal deck roofing can cause region. At least R2.0 Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
unacceptably high noise levels in the space below the roof. Ceiling Batts should be installed between ceiling joists in
The impact causes the stiff lightweight roof sheeting to conjunction with a Bradford ACOUSTICON™.
vibrate, thus emitting noise. Damping the vibration of the CSR Bradford Insulation and CSR Gyprock® have
roof sheeting reduces the emitted noise. conducted many tests using various foil faced roofing
Rockwool and glasswool blanket products have insulation blankets, ceiling tiles and fixed plasterboard
exceptional noise absorbing properties providing effective ceilings. The results of these are shown in Table 5.
damping of the steel roof sheeting. In tropical climates, roofing insulation is generally
CSR Bradford Insulation in conjunction with CSR installed foil face up, ie. the foil in direct contact with the
Gyprock® have constructed a rain noise testing facility to metal deck roof sheeting. This reduces the insertion loss
simulate rain noise using conventional 0.42mm thick of the roofing blanket by 2dB. The use of Bradford
BHP Trimdek Hi-Ten metal roof cladding. The rain Rockwool™ ACOUSTICON™ is therefore recommended.
noise test rig has four nozzles spraying water at high Rain noise tests were conducted using the same
pressure simulate high intensity rainfall. Continuous noise thickness/density glasswool blanket and varying the
levels of 89dB(A) were created inside the test rig, this surface density of foil. It was found that the mass of the
noise level was used for controlled testing purposes. foil has no effect on the rain noise insertion loss achieved
Figure 4 shows the rain noise insertion losses achieved by the insulation.
by using Bradford Insulation Blankets faced with ACOUSTICON™ and ANTICON™ roofing blankets
Thermofoil 729. All tests used 0.42mm BMT BHP should be installed so the blanket is firmly in contact with
Trimdek Hi-Ten steel roofing. the steel roofing as shown in Figure 5. This has the
added benefit of damping the metal roof sheeting and
FIG 4 reducing rain noise.
RAIN NOISE REDUCTION INSERTION LOSSES –
FOIL FACED ROOFING BLANKETS.
FIG 5.
REDUCTION OF RAIN NOISE – METAL DECK ROOF.
50mm Bradford Rockwool

Metal Deck Roofing


75mm Bradford ACOUSTICON Optimum

50mm Glasswool blanket


Bradford
Acousticon Bradford Thermofoil
50mm Polyester Blanket Vapour Barrier
Support Mesh
(when specified) Purlin

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Insertion Loss db(A)

20 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TABLE 5. NOISE REDUCTION CEILING SYSTEMS.
Ceiling System Description Rain Noise
Reduction Level
dB(A)
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under metal deck roof 15
• Bradford ACOUSTICON™ hard under metal deck roof 18
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool ACOUSTICON™
19
hard under metal deck roof
• Rondo Suspended Concealed Grid Ceiling System.
22
• 1 layer x 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under metal deck roof
• Rondo Suspended Exposed Grid Ceiling System. 25
• CSR Gyprock Ecophon™ 20mm Lay-in Ceiling Tiles.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under the roof.
• RONDO Suspended Exposed Grid Ceiling System. 30
• CSR Gyprock CELOTEX™ 16mm Lay-in Ceiling Tiles.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under the roof.
• RONDO Suspended Exposed Grid Ceiling System. 34
• Gyprock 13mm Lay-in Ceiling Tiles.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under the roof.
• RONDO Suspended Concealed Grid Ceiling System. 37
• 1 layer x 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under the roof.
• RONDO Suspended Concealed Grid Ceiling System.
45
• 1 layer x 13mm Gyprock Plasterboard CD.
• Bradford R1.5 GOLD BATTS or R1.5 Glasswool Building Blanket laid over the ceiling.
• Bradford ANTICON™ R1.5 Blanket hard under the roof.
• RONDO Resiliently Mounted Suspended Concealed Grid Ceiling System.
51
• 2 layers x 13mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ Plasterboard.
• Bradford R1.5 GOLD BATTS or R1.5 Glasswool Building Blanket laid over the ceiling.
Refer to the CSR Gyprock® Fire & Acoustic Design Guide (‘The Red Book’) for additional information on rain noise
reduction ceiling systems. See comments regarding: Tropical climate applications in Bradford ACOUSTICON™ brochure.

Products for Metal Deck Roofing Systems. ceiling cavity, the better the low frequency noise
• Bradford Glasswool Acousticon 75mm. (R1.8)
™ reduction.
• Bradford 50mm Commercial Grade Anticon™. The ceiling can be an important area of a room to
place sound absorption particularly, when the remainder
• Bradford Glasswool R1.5 Anticon™ 55mm.
of the rooms contains hard reflective surfaces. Rooms
• Bradford Glasswool R2.0 Anticon™ 75mm. having no sound absorbent surfaces typically have high
• Bradford Glasswool R2.5 Anticon™ 95mm. reverberation times. This results in poor acoustics,
• Bradford 50mm Rockwool ACOUSTICON™. particularly if communication is required within the
room.
CEILINGS.
Generally commonly used plasterboard ceilings,
Fixed plasterboard ceilings generally provide better
whether fixed or lay in ceiling tiles are not very effective
sound transmission loss (ie. higher STC) than lightweight
at absorbing sound.
suspended ceiling tiles and even plasterboard ceiling tiles.
This is because the fixed plasterboard ceiling is better Typically, sound absorptive ceilings generally consist
sealed and has less gaps. Multiple layers of plasterboard of:
with resilient mounting and rockwool or glasswool batts • ceiling tiles made of high density rockwool or
in the cavity can provide high STC rating. The larger the glasswool (typically NRC 0.70 – 0.95),

21 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
• perforated plasterboard or perforated metal pan ceilings FIG 6. IMPROVING SOUND TRANSMISSION
with Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool insulation CONTROL THROUGH CEILING AREA WITH
BRADFORD INSULATION.
(faced with a black tissue) above (good sound
Poor sound privacy caused by sound flanking
absorption NRC 0.60 – 0.90), through lightweight suspended ceiling

• Mineral fibre ceiling tiles (average sound absorption


NRC 0.50 – 0.60). Ducting
Note that better low frequency acoustic absorption
results when ceiling tiles are installed with an air cavity. Ducting
The larger the air cavity, the better the low frequency
acoustic absorption.
In many commercial office buildings, noises such as
conversations, telephones ringing etc can be heard from
one office to another (also known as ‘Crosstalk’). This can
cause disruption, annoyance, and decreased productivity.
Crosstalk usually occurs from sound flanking via the
ceiling.
In commercial office buildings, the walls are built up
Improved privacy with Bradford Rockwool or
to the underside of the lightweight suspended ceilings Glasswool Ceiling Batts in ceiling space over wall
(usually a metal grid), not to the concrete slab above. The
lightweight ceilings tiles used generally have a low STC
Ducting
rating. The void above wall and ceiling allows sound to
‘flank’ from one room to the next via the acoustically
Ducting
weak ceiling tiles. Ideally, the wall should be built up to
the underside of the floor above without gaps for sound
to pass from one side to the other.
To reduce the amount of sound flanking when a wall
does not continue to the underside of the floor above, it
is recommended that Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
Ceiling Batts be installed between the wall/ceiling and the
underside of the floor above. The more compressed the
insulation is when installed in this way, the better the
acoustic performance. refer to Figure 6. Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
Ceiling Batts compressed
Alternatively, to reduce flanking via the ceiling, install between ceiling and slab above
Bradford Acoustilag™ from the underside of the concrete
slab to the ceiling below as shown in Figures 7 and 8.
Products - Ceilings.
• Bradford Rockwool Ceiling Batts R1.5, R2.0, R2.5,
R3.0.
• Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Batts R2.0, R2.5, R3.0,
R3.5, R4.0.
• Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Panel Overlays (optional
Black Matt Facing, or ULTRAPHON™)
• Bradford Glasswool Absorption Blanket (optional
Black Matt Facing or ULTRAPHON™ Bradford
Ducting Cabling Rockwool or
• Bradford Fibertex™ Rockwool (optional Black Matt Glasswool
Partition Batts
Facing or ULTRAPHON™)

NOTE: Care must be taken when passing cables through


insulation material due to possible overheating. Consult
your electrician for more details.

22 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG 7. IMPROVING SOUND TRANSMISSION
CONTROL THROUGH CEILING AREA WITH
BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG CURTAIN.
Floor/Ceiling Noise
Control Systems.
Multi-storey buildings with hard flooring such as
timber, parquetry or tiles etc., can efficiently transmit both
airborne and impact noise (structure borne vibration) to
C-track or timber
batten fixed to soffit the rooms below if appropriate techniques are not
100mm
incorporated at the time of construction. Installing carpet
minimum Bradford Acoustilag and underlay on the floor can significantly reduce the
curtain continuous in
ceiling area impact noise to the room below.
Installing R2.0 or greater, Bradford Rockwool or
Glasswool batts between the floor joists will reduce
250mm minimum
airborne noise by approximately STC 4 – 6.
At the time of printing this guide, The Building
Code Of Australia (BCA) ‘Sound Insulation of Floors
Suspended ceiling Between Units’ stated ‘a floor separating sole occupancy
tiles/plasterboard
units must have an Rw of not less than 45’. (Note: Rw
FIG 8. JOINTING A 45 approximately equals STC 45). Floors must also
BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG CURTAIN. provide insulation against impact generated sound.
75mm It should be noted that STC 45 is not always adequate
Bradford
Reinforced in reducing airborne sound through floors and walls. For
Aluminium
Tape better acoustic privacy, it is preferable to use a higher
rating of say Rw 50 or preferably Rw 55.
RETRO-FIT OF VIBRATION
Bradford ISOLATED FLOOR.
Acoustilag
curtain To reduce impact noise transmission through
floor/ceiling systems on existing timber, concrete or
tiled floors, a floating floor can be constructed on top of
the existing floor.
The floating floor should use a resilient damping
material. Dense Bradford Rockwool, Glasswool or rubber
50mm min.
overlap materials can be used but care is needed to choose a
material with the correct stiffness for the application and
PENETRATIONS THROUGH
BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG CURTAIN.
static load. The services of an acoustic consultant should
be engaged to solve floor impact noise problems and for
Cut Bradford Acoustilag A tight fit should be the design of ‘floating floors’.
curtain to allow installation maintained to ensure
around pipes, ducting etc. acoustic integrity
Floating floors should not be mechanical fixed (nailed
or screwed) to the existing floor as this will couple the two
floors resulting in very little damping. The resilient
material should also be used between the edges of the
floating floor and the walls of the building. Skirting
boards should also be isolated or separated from the
floating floor.
Note the floor/ceiling and floor/door heights may be
affected by the use of a floating floor. Doors may also need
undercutting if a floating floor is retro-fitted. Therefore
where clearances are important, the floating floor height
should be kept to a minimum.

23 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
REDUCING NOISE TRANSMISSION REDUCING NOISE TRANSMISSION
THROUGH TIMBER THROUGH CONCRETE
FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEMS. FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEMS.
1. Fit Bradford R2.0 (or greater) Floor Batts, or For concrete floor ceiling constructions, use vibration
Rockwool/Glasswool Ceiling Batts tightly between isolated ceiling hangers or resiliently mounted furring
ceiling joists. channels to support the plasterboard ceiling.
2. Fix one layer of 13mm or 16mm Gyprock Fyrchek™ Products.
plasterboard to furring channels.
• Bradford Floor Batts.
3. For better acoustic performance (to reduce airborne
noise), choose a ceiling with more mass ie. multiple • Bradford Glasswool R2.0, R2.5, R3.0, R3.5, R4.0
layers of Gyprock® plasterboard CD or Gyprock Ceiling Batts.
Fyrchek™ plasterboard. • Bradford Rockwool R1.5, R2.0, R2.5, R3.0
4. CSR Gyprock® Resilient Mounted Furring Channels Wall/Ceiling Batts.
will further improve acoustic performance as well as • Bradford Glasswool Quietel™ (for impact isolation).
impact isolation. FIG 10. TYPICAL METHODS FOR IMPROVING
ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF A CONCRETE
5. To improve impact isolation of floors, use carpet and
FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEM.
good quality thick underlay over timber flooring.
Carpet and underlay

FIG 9. TYPICAL METHODS FOR IMPROVING Concrete slab floor


ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF A TIMBER
FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEM.

SYSTEM STC/Rw
19/20mm Timber Flooring,
Bradford Rockwool or
200 x 50 Timber Joists at 450mm Glasswool Insulation
35
centres, 1 layer x 13mm Gyprock Suspended ceiling system
plasterboard CD.
Gyprock resilient mount
Add Bradford R2.0 GOLD BATTS™
39
between joists.
Add Gyprock Resilient Mounts and Furring channel
Furring Channels at 600mm centres 52 Higher density Gyprock
plasterboard (Soundchek or
between joists and plasterboard. Fyrchek) and/or multiple layers

Add Carpet and Underlay. Add second


55
layer of 13mm Gyprock plasterboard CD Floors.
Improved air-borne sound reduction and impact
Carpet and underlay
Timber flooring
isolation can be achieved by using floating floors as shown
in Figures 11, 12 and 13.
Bradford
Glasswool or High density, resilient Bradford Rockwool or
Rockwool
Insulation Glasswool Quietel™ can break the sound and vibration
transmission paths while having sufficient compressive
Timber joists strength to support the floating floor and the room
Furring channel contents. Vibrational energy is absorbed in the resilient
material rather than transmitted to the building structure.
Gyprock resilient mount
Not only does a floating floor achieve effective structure-
Use higher density Gyprock plasterboard
(Soundchek or Fyrchek) and/or multiple layers borne sound control, but it also reduces the air-borne
sound transmission to and from the room below.
A large range of floor/ceiling systems incorporating The Bradford Fibertex™ Rockwool or Glasswool
alternative acoustic upgrades is detailed in Appendix B of Quietel™ board are laid flat on the floor, ensuring all joints
this publication. are tightly butted. At the edges of the rooms, the batts
Refer to the CSR Gyprock® Fire & Acoustic Design continue up the walls. For the concrete floor, waterproof
Guide ‘The Red Book’ for additional information on film is then used to cover the batts and a concrete screed
floor/ceiling systems. floor of suitable thickness is poured.

24 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
All equipment is then mounted on the screed floor VIBRATION RESISTANCE.
which is acoustically isolated from the main building As Bradford Fibermesh™ Rockwool is stitched to
structure. wire mesh, the blankets are especially resistant to fallout
under conditions where vibration is present.
Bradford Fibermesh ™ is particularly suitable for
FIG 11 TYPICAL FLOATING FLOOR – TIMBER OVER applications involving both vibration and high
CONCRETE.
temperature where standard bonded insulation materials
Particleboard are less resistant to the effects of vibration.
or timber board flooring
Products.
• Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™.
Timber
battens • Bradford FIBERTEX™ HD Rockwool.
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ HD (High Density) Rockwool.
Plywood • Bradford FIBERMESH™ Rockwool.
Sheeting

Bradford
Fibertex Rockwool Air gap at wall
Plumbing.
Structural floor Noisy pipe work is a common problem in many
or Glasswool Quietel
buildings. These days, pipe work building trends
FIG 12 TYPICAL FLOATING FLOOR – CONCRETE commonly use inexpensive, lightweight, easily to install
OVER CONCRETE. mater ials with thin wall thicknesses which are
unacceptably noisy. Offices, hotels, apartments and
50mm Floor domestic houses can all benefit from reduced soil and
Concrete finish
waste pipe noise levels. Designers, hydraulic consultants,
engineers, plumbers, owners and occupants of buildings
should all take steps to insulate pipes and ducts to reduce
noise.
Wire mesh Water flowing through commonly used PVC soil and
waste pipes is predominantly high frequency noise. To
effectively reduce pipe noise, lag the pipes with Bradford
Bradford
Fibertex Rockwool Acoustilag™ 20, 23 or 26 pipe insulation. The 20, 23, and
or Glasswool Quietel
Structural floor Waterproof film 26 indicate the ‘A-weighted’ [dB(A)] insertion loss
achieved by lagging PVC pipes with each of the Bradford
FIG 13 TYPICAL FLOATING FLOOR – TIMBER OVER Acoustilag™ product respectively. (Refer to Appendix B
TIMBER JOIST CONSTRUCTION. for additional information).
Plywood Note, the 20, 23 and 26dB(A) insertion losses only
Timber sheeting
flooring Bradford
apply to water flowing through PVC pipes which have
Quietel Board been correctly lagged with Acoustilag. Using Acoustilag
for lagging other noise sources, eg., a fan casing or sheet
metal air ducts, will generally result in lower insertion
losses to those quoted, as these noise sources have more
low frequency noise energy.
To achieve the insertion losses quoted, Bradford
Plywood Acoustilag™ should be installed with all joins of the
sheeting
Gyprock lagging overlapped or butted, tightly and taped with
plasterboard Bradford Glasswool/Rockwool
ceiling Ceiling Batts Bradford 493 reinforced foil tape. Minimising all the
gaps increases the acoustic performance of the lagging.
NOTE: The upper plywood layer should not be nailed
or screw fixed to the timber below. Instead, it should ‘float’ The Building Code of Australia (BCA) states that: ‘Soil
on the base floor to effectively damp vibration. The floor and waste pipes are to be separated if a soil or waste
should also be isolated from the walls. CSR Bradford pipe, including a pipe that is embedded in or passes
Insulation recommends consulting an acoustic engineer through a floor, serves or passes through more than one
for the design of floating floor systems. sole-occupancy unit:

25 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
(a) The pipe must be separated from the rooms of any of lightweight plastic pipe to substantially reduce
sole-occupancy unit by construction with an STC not plumbing noise. The heavier, stiffer walls of cast iron
less than: pipes effectively reduce noise.
(i) STC 45 if the adjacent room is a habitable room • If plastic waste water pipes must be used, use Bradford
(other than a kitchen); or ACOUSTILAG™ to effectively reduce noise.
(ii) STC 30 if the adjacent room is a kitchen or any • Insulate all pipes and plumbing that are chased into
other room’. brick walls.
The Bradford ‘ACOUSTILAG™ Pipe Insulation’ • Select quieter plumbing equipment and appliances eg.
brochure provides systems using CSR Gyprock ® cisterns, washing machines, clothes dryers etc.
plasterboard to achieve the STC noise criteria specified by
Products.
the BCA. The STC 50 system specified in that brochure
is intended for applications requiring better acoustic • Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 20, 23 or 26.
isolation from waste pipe noise than is specified in the BCA • Bradford 493 reinforced foil tape.
eg., board rooms, offices, apartments and hotels etc. • ARMAFLEX® insulation.
To achieve the STC’s specified in Table 6, it is
imperative that the pipes be correctly lagged (no gaps to
allow noise leakage), and the plasterboard ceiling and walls
Quietening Box Gutters
above be airtight with no gaps into the next room. & Downpipes.
It is recommended the services of an acoustic Box gutters should be insulated with Bradford
consultant or acoustic engineer be used to achieve FLEXITEL™ or SUPERTEL™ Glasswool (25mm thick)
specified STC ratings. Penetrations, ducting, light fittings, faced with heavy duty foil. Insulation can be attached to
gaps in ceilings etc., can degrade the acoustic rating of the gutters using 45mm long Bradford self-adhesive fasteners
lagging and ceiling system. and washers at 300 mm centres. Insulation should be held
To minimise annoyance from plumbing noise, it is firmly against the metal surface for maximum dampening.
advisable, at the design stage, to avoid placing bathrooms For better noise reduction, use Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 20.
and laundries etc., adjacent to noise sensitive areas. Noisy downpipes should be insulated with Bradford
Methods for minimising plumbing noise include: Glasswool Sectional Pipe Insulation faced with Heavy
• Select vibration isolated pipe hangers to support pipes Duty Thermofoil. Alternatively a 25mm wall thickness
and minimise transmission of vibration into the ARMAFLEX ® pipe insulation or Bradford
building structure. These will reduce ‘water hammer’ ACOUSTILAG™ 20 can be fitted around downpipes.
noise when turning the water taps on or off.
Products.
Alternatively use ARMAFLEX® insulation between
pipes and the building structure. • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™ or SUPERTEL™.
• Use water supply and drain pipes that are oversized, this • Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 20.
may reduce line pressure and minimise flow noise.
• Where possible, use cast iron waste water pipes in place

TABLE 6. ACOUSTIC INSULATION SYSTEMS FOR PLUMBING.


System STC/Rw Bradford CSR Gyprock® Bradford
Nº Rating. ACOUSTILAG ™
Plasterboard Insulation
BAS 01 30 ACOUSTILAG™ 20 1 layer 10mm Nil
Gyprock CD™
BAS 02 45 ACOUSTILAG™ 20 2 layers 13mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock CD™ Glasswool R1.5
BAS 03 45 ACOUSTILAG™ 23 2 layers 10mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock CD™ Glasswool R1.5
BAS 04 50 ACOUSTILAG™ 23 2 layers 13mm CSR 100mm Bradford
Gyprock CD™ Glasswool, R2.0
BAS 05 50 ACOUSTILAG™ 26 2 layers 13mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock CD™ Glasswool R1.5
Refer to the Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ brochure for additional information.

26 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Insulation Cladding of FIG 14. BASIC NOISE CONTROL METHODS.

Insulation
Pipes, Tanks & Vessels. Absorbent Lining
reduces sound level
within enclosure
reduces sound
flow to outside

The insertion loss achieved by cladding pipes, tanks


and vessels will depend on a number of factors such as the
frequency of the fluid in the pipe the type and mass of Vibration Damping of fan
casing reduces sound
the cladding material, the thickness and density of the emission
(rockwool or glasswool) insulation. Vibration Isolation
Mounting reduces
It should be noted that some of these cladding systems vibration transmission
to floor
can actually amplify the noise at lower frequencies,
particularly if insulation with a high density is used. This
generally happens as the tank now has a larger radiating
surface. Therefore it is difficult to predict the insertion loss
of cladding systems.
It should be noted that Bradford Rockwool or REVERBERATION CONTROL.
Glasswool SPI (sectional pipe insulation) will reduce pipe Factories and engineering workshops usually are
noise but not as effectively as Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ reverberant spaces due to the lack of sound absorption
or insulation with a mass barrier. Higher density, means within the space. Areas with multiple noise sources, such
it is less resilient than Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ and as factories, engineering workshops, bottling plants,
more efficiently transfers noise and vibration from the pipe machine halls, plant rooms etc usually have a high level
to the cladding/barrier. Note: Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ of reverberant noise often exceeding the safe regulatory
is not recommended for high temperature applications. noise level of 85dB(A).
Refer to the CSR Bradford Industrial Insulation The use of sound absorbing materials (such as
Design Guide for installation details of cladding and pipe glasswool and rockwool) to reduce reflected or reverberant
lagging. sound is the most effective means of reducing overall
sound levels in enclosed areas.
Factories & Engineering CSR Bradford Insulation manufacture a range of
rockwool and glasswool products with outstanding sound
Workshops. absorption properties. These products have been tested
The basic methods by which industrial noise may be in acoustic reverberation rooms to determine the sound
controlled are: absorption coefficients presented in the technical data
• Sound absorption – absorbing the noise using mineral section.
fibre materials which can dissipate the sound energy A range of factory-applied facings is available, the
as heat. most common being:
• Sound insulation (enclosing) – containing the noise in • black fibreglass tissues (BMF), or ULTRAPHON™
one area so that it does not cause annoyance in other • THERMOFOIL™ laminates (solid and perforated).
areas.
An extremely effective acoustic absorber for walls
• Vibration damping – damping vibrating surfaces to and ceilings is Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ – a roll
reduce air borne sound emission. formed panel, factory lined with Bradford FIBERTEX™
• Vibration isolation – preventing acoustic energy from 350 Rockwool. Each panel interlocks with its neighbour
entering the building structure. forming a structurally reinforced joint.
These processes are illustrated in Figure 14. As the Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ offers excellent test
figure shows, treatment of a factory noise problem often results with NRC ranges from 0.9 to 1.05. Contact CSR
involves a combination of the basic processes. Bradford Insulation for a brochure or refer to Appendix
C for the Bradford ACOUSTICLAD ™ absorption
coefficients in 1/3 octave bands.

27 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TABLE 7. ACOUSTICLAD TEST RESULTS. ™

Acousticlad™ Test Sample Configuration Noise Reduction


Perforated Coefficient
% Open Area NRC Rating
15% 50mm thick Bradford FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool
(60kg/m3) Insulation with black matt facing (BMF) 1.00
between the Rockwool and Acousticlad face.
25% as above 0.95
40% as above 1.00
15% 23mm thick Mylar film between unfaced Bradford
FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool and ACOUSTICLAD™ 0.90
perforated aluminium.
15% 50mm thick Bradford FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool
Insulation with black matt tissue between the
1.05
Rockwool and perforated aluminium. Timber spacers
supporting panels with average air gap 30mm.
Notes – All acoustic tests were conducted with ACOUSTICLAD™ perforated aluminium panels (0.7mm thick), with Bradford 50mm thick
FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool (60kg/m3) insulation.
– Acoustic tests were conducted in the reverberation room at the National Acoustic Laboratories, Chatswood, Sydney, Australia.
– See Appendix C for absorption coefficients at each 1/3 Octave band frequency.

Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ perforated metal is A commonly used cost effective method for fixing
available with percentages of open area ranging from insulation (generally faced with perforated foil) on walls
10% to 55% and in a number of finishes including: and ceilings uses drive pins and speed clips. These
• galvanised steel, eliminate the need for battens or furring channels. The
drive pins are fixed to the wall usually at 450mm centres.
• powder coated steel,
The insulation is pushed through the pins and held onto
• stainless steel and the pin by the speed clips of a suitable size.
• aluminium. Rigid facings such as perforated metal or pegboard are
Fixing details for Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ are unsuitable for this application method. The advice of
available from your nearest Bradford office. adhesive suppliers should be sought before using
Bradford Rockwool and Glasswool insulation is adhesively fixed pins in lieu of drive pins.
available with a range of facings, including: Ceilings may be lined by the same methods as walls.
• perforated metal or expanded metal. An alternative approach is to use a fully exposed metal
• perforated foils, suspension grid which makes it a simple matter to achieve
any air gap required behind the batts
• pegboard,
Factories contain noise which predominantly has most
• wire,
energy at low frequencies which is difficult to absorb
• plastic mesh. unless very thick insulation is used. To increase the low
Any perforated sheet facing should have an open area frequency sound absorption of perforated noise absorbers
greater than 10% to maximise acoustic absorption. (such as Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™), introduce an air gap
Other common methods for acoustic wall treatment behind the insulation. This can be achieved by using larger
involve: battens or furring channels with chicken wire to retain the
• fixing timber battens or steel furring channels or ‘Z’ batts in position, as shown in Figure 15 below. Better
sections at a spacing to suit the facing sheets. Bradford acoustic absorption results when the depth of the air cavity
Rockwool and Glasswool batts are cut to size if is at least as thick as the insulation.
necessary and friction fitted between the supports. The Alternatively, rockwool or glasswool insulation greater
protective facing (e.g. perforated or expanded metal, than 75mm can be used with acoustically transparent
plastic mesh, pegboard, wire etc.) is fixed to the facings mentioned above.
furring sections or battens by nails, screws, or rivets
as appropriate. Cover strips are used to improve the
appearance.

28 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG 15. FIG 16.
ABSORPTIVE LINING WITH AIR GAP TO BOOST BRADFORD ‘ACOUSTIC BAFFLES’ USED TO
LOW FREQUENCY ABSORPTION (PLAN VIEW). ABSORB SOUND FROM NOISY EQUIPMENT.

Chicken wire Structual wall Air gap

Bradford Facing Battens


Fibertex eg. perforated
Batts metal

Products.
• ACOUSTICLAD™ with perforated metal facing is
available in various thicknesses and open area
percentage to accommodate acoustic absorption
requirements.
The following Bradford products can also be used:
• Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450. Installation Method 1.
• Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL , SUPERTEL , ™ ™
The baffles can be individually suspended from the
ULTRATEL™ with perforated metal, expanded metal, roof structure using ‘S’ hooks, galvanised wire or fine
wire, meshes or perforated heavy duty grade foil facings. chain. In this case, suspend baffles approximately 1
metre below the ceiling level if possible.
Bradford Acoustic Baffles. FIG 17.
Large factories or buildings may need a greater area of ACOUSTIC BAFFLES SUSPENDED AND ARRANGED
acoustic absorbing insulation than just the wall area, or may IN A CROSS-HATCH PATTERN.
need it concentrated in a particularly noisy section of the
Roof framing
building.
Bradford Rockwool Acoustic Baffles may be suspended
in any desired pattern to achieve extra sound absorption
in a building. Refer to Figure 16 and 17. Suspension
'S' Hook
wire or chain
Sound absorption coefficients of Bradford Rockwool
Acoustic Baffles are shown in Table 8.
BAFFLE INSTALLATION.
Two popular methods of installation are detailed.
Baffles may be installed at any height, and do not need
to be all in the same plane. A regular pattern such as
parallel rows or a staggered, cross-hatched pattern is most
Bradford Acoustic Baffles
easily installed using a suspended ceiling grid. in cross-hatch pattern

Determine the number of acoustic baffles to be


installed to meet the noise reduction required. The typical
number of baffles is 1 baffle per square metre of ceiling
area. Allowance should be made for lights and sprinklers.

TABLE 8. SOUND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS OF BRADFORD ACOUSTIC BAFFLES.

Product Density Thickness Facing Frequency (Hz)


(kg/m3) (mm) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC
Bradford Acoustic Baffle 60 50 30µm 0.18 0.44 0.83 1.25 1.14 0.96 0.94 0.90
plastic film

29 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Installation Method 2. noise level by about 5dB more than a 1mm sheet steel
Inverted 50mm x 12mm aluminium U-channels are enclosure, assuming all other conditions are equal.
fixed to the underside of a ceiling grid. The baffles are Enclosures do not attenuate all frequencies of sound
then secured to the U-channel using self tapping screws. equally, so the transmission loss achieved will depend on
the frequency spectrum of the noise source. High
frequency noise is more easily attenuated than low
FIG 18. frequency noise.
ACOUSTIC BAFFLES FIXED IN ALUMINIUM TRACK
AND ARRANGED IN A PARALLEL PATTERN. Thus, while a lightweight enclosure may provide
effective transmission loss for a high frequency noise
source, it could however be inadequate for low frequency
Main
suspension noise sources.
grid
Flanking transmission paths permit sound to by-pass
the acoustic enclosure. Typical examples are air gaps,
windows, doors, service penetrations etc. To avoid severe
Aluminium
channel reductions in insulation performance, steps should be
taken to eliminate these flanking paths as far as practical.
Caulking of air gaps and penetrations, use of door seals
or even double doors, resiliently mounted double glazing,
Bradford Acoustic Baffles
use of flexible couplings on pipes and ducting which
arranged in parallel pattern penetrate the enclosure are all means of reducing flanking
transmission.
Products. Flanking through the floor of an enclosure can limit
• Bradford Rockwool Acoustic Baffles. the transmission loss. Sound and vibration entering the
floor on the noisy side of the enclosure can be re-radiated
to some extent on the other side.
Acoustic Enclosures. The sound insulation performance of lightweight
Enclosures are an effective method of reducing noise enclosures may be significantly improved by the use of
emitted from a particular machine or noise source. They double-leaf construction with a core of sound absorbing
should be constructed of solid materials such as bricks, rockwool or glasswool as shown in Figure 20. The
sheet steel, timber, plasterboard etc. Enclosures reduce performance will be further enhanced if the two leaves
noise more effectively when they are airtight, with no are of different surface densities eg: one leaf may be
gaps or openings. This is not always possible as the 1.6mm steel sheet while the other is 1.2mm steel sheet.
machinery inside may need to be accessed by other This reduces resonant coupling between the sheets.
machines or people, or require air flow for cooling.
The sound reduction achieved depends on the surface
Enclosures built around machiner y actually density of the enclosure. Heavy materials like steel sheet
concentrate the noise inside the enclosure. Therefore it greater than 1.0mm, 16mm plywood or 19mm particle
is good practice to line the inside of enclosures with board are typically used.
Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool to reduce reverberant
As well as trapping sound, enclosures of the type
noise levels inside.
shown in Figure 19 and 20 will also trap heat. It is often
A simple acoustic enclosure is shown in Figure 19. It necessary therefore to ventilate these enclosures to avoid
has three main components: overheating of the enclosed machinery. Ventilation
(i) an internal lining of sound absorbent rockwool or openings must also be acoustically treated to reduce the
glasswool insulation to reduce the noise level inside escape of sound through these openings. The use of
the enclosure. packaged attenuators, insulation lined ducts or acoustic
(ii) a heavy barrier to reduce sound transmission to the louvres are commonly used.
outside. Absorptive treatment may include not only lining
(iii) a resilient pad of felt or rubber to isolate the enclosure the walls and ceiling of an enclosure but also the use of
from the floor (optional). discrete screens or baffles. The latter are of particular
Broadly speaking, the sound transmission loss of an value where it is important that the absorptive treatment
enclosure improves by about 5dB for every doubling of does not interfere with the dissipation of heat. Where heat
the surface density (mass per square metre or kg/m2). could cause a problem, then Bradford Rockwool Acoustic
Thus, a 2mm thick sheet steel enclosure will reduce the Baffles are specially designed for suspension below existing

30 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG 19. factory roofs. Their sound absorption performance is
ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE. detailed in the previous section. Baffles will not however
Bradford Fibertex 450 Heavy Gauge be as effective at reducing noise as an enclosure.
Rockwool or Ultratel Steel Sheet
An example of an acoustic enclosure for very high
acoustic insulation is detailed in Fig 21. It shows a room
within a room. These rooms are vibration isolated from
each other.
INSTALLATION DETAILS.
Rubber Mounting Installation of the sound absorbing rockwool or
glasswool batts to the inside surfaces of the enclosure
proceeds in a similar manner to that previously described
for reverberation control.
FIG 20. Where double-leaf construction is employed a larger
ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE WITH number of variations are possible. One simple yet effective
DOUBLE-LEAF CONSTRUCTION. procedure follows:
Bradford Fibertex 450 Heavy Gauge Construct a suitable frame using steel angles, channels,
Rockwool or Ultratel Steel Sheet
or box sections to provide at least 63mm clearance
between the two leaves. (Note the wider the cavity, the
better the low frequency sound transmission loss). Mount
this frame on a continuous thick rubber mat.
The outer steel sheeting should then be fixed to the
Rubber Mounting
frame as shown in Figure 21, using rubber strips to
reduce sound transmission from the frame to the sheet.

FIG 21.
ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE WITH VERY HIGH ACOUSTIC INSULATION.

Heavy duty flexible pipe


connection, and resilient
Minimum mounted pipe/ductwork
cavity of
200mm

Bradford
Insulation
Blanket
Two steel
soundproof
doors with all
edges sealed

Existing
window

Small
double Bradford
glazed Insulation
viewing Blanket in
window cavity

Main structure of
building
Resilient/floating floor
system

31 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Fix 50mm thick FIBERTEX R350 to the inside of
™ FIG 22.
the sheeting using weld pins and speed clips. Bend over A PARTIAL ENCLOSURE.

the ends of the pins if necessary to avoid contact with the


inner steel sheeting when installed.
The inner sheeting may now be fixed to the frame,
again as shown in Figure 21. The sound absorbing
rockwool or glasswool batts may now be fixed to the
inside of the inner sheet using weld pins, speed clips, and
a suitable facing (wire, meshing, perforated foil).
Alternatively, a perforated metal (such as Bradford
ACOUSTICLAD™) or expanded metal can be used, or
for an aesthetically pleasing finish.
Any gaps, openings or joins in the outer leaf of the
enclosure, should be caulked and doors should use
acoustic door seals.
Products.
• Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450.
• Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™,
ULTRATEL™.
• Bradford ULTRAPHON™ facing.
FIG 23.
TYPICAL NOISE PROBLEM WITHOUT
Partial Enclosures ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE .

& Screens.
It is not always practical to totally enclose a noisy
machine. However, the use of a partial enclosure or
screening will still achieve some reduction in noise levels
particularly close to the screens. The previous discussion
on total enclosures also applies to partial enclosures.
However the overall noise reduction of partial enclosures
will not be as great, due to the openings.
As far as is practical, employee work stations should
be located in the shadow zone of the screening and not
in line with the openings in the enclosure. Reflective
surfaces near openings in a partial enclosure should be
treated with rockwool or glasswool insulation to absorb
noise.
Where a particular noise source contr ibutes FIG 24.
IMPROVED NOISE CONTROL
significantly to the overall noise level in a room, it may WITH A PARTIAL ENCLOSURE.
be controlled by a partial enclosure of the type shown in
Figure 22. Much of the sound produced within the
enclosure is absorbed, thus reducing the amount of sound
radiated into the room.
Partial enclosures can be simply fabricated by
sandwiching FIBERTEX™ Rockwool or Glasswool Batts
between an outer sheet of plywood and an inner lining
of pegboard. Alternatively, plain hardboard, particleboard,
plasterboard, or sheet metal may be used for the outer
sheet, while the inner lining may be perforated or
expanded metal. The effectiveness of a partial enclosure
depends in part on the weight of the outer sheet and the
percentage of the machinery that is enclosed.
32 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION
A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
The choice of which type of Bradford FIBERTEX ™
concerned. However, local absorption permits reduction
Rockwool or Glasswool to use should be based on the in sound levels without significantly altering the room
frequency spectrum of the noise source. Select the reverberation time.
material with the highest sound absorption for the Figures 23 and 24 show a typical application of a
dominant frequency bands of the noise source. High partial enclosure to reduce noise reaching an operator.
frequency sound absorption will be affected by the inner Figure 23 and 24 illustrate the use of partial acoustic
lining. Should the dominant frequency bands of the enclosures in a car assembly line application.
noise source be above 1000 Hz, the inner lining should
have a perforated open area of 11% or more to ensure Products.
optimum sound absorption. • Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450.
The effect of local absorption will be limited by the • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™,
need to provide access or ventilation to the equipment ULTRATEL™.
• Bradford ULTRAPHON™ or HD Perf. facings.
FIG 25.
TYPICAL NOISE PROBLEM WITHOUT ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE.

FIG 26.
TYPICAL PARTIAL ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE APPLICATION.

33 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
ACOUSTIC SCREENS.
Simple acoustic screens may be fabricated as shown in
Vibration Damping.
Vibrating surfaces such as fan casings, pipes, and
Figure 27, and these may be supported in any framing
ducting can be a major source of noise. Lagging these
suitable to the particular application. Screens can act in
surfaces will significantly reduce the noise radiated from
three ways:
the sources. When treating such surfaces in this manner,
• As local sound absorbers (i.e. a simple partial
it is essential that lagging be applied over the entire
enclosure),
sound-radiating surface. It is also necessary to avoid
• As reverberation control (i.e. more absorption is bridging connections between the radiating surface and
introduced to the room), the outer cladding. Otherwise, the vibration will be
• As a partial barrier (i.e. an acoustic shadow zone is transmitted directly to the cladding which will itself
created behind the screen). become a sound-radiating surface.
For maximum effect, acoustic screens should be
located as close as practical to the noise source or to FIG 28.
FIXING STEEL SHEET TO MINIMISE
people affected by the noise. They should be as large as NOISE TRANSMISSION.
possible, at least the height or width of the machine or
noise source. Air flow requirements should be considered.
Products.
• Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450.
• Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™, ULTRATEL™. Enclosure
Frame
• Bradford ULTRAPHON™ facing. Other steel
Sheet

FIG 27.
A SIMPLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN. Fixing Rubber Grommet
Screw

Decorative,
non-reflective
fabric
VIBRATION ISOLATION.
Heavyweight Vibration isolation involves the isolation of vibrating
plywood or metal
core machinery from the building structure. In practice this is
achieved by using flexible, resilient mountings, such as
Fibertex Rockwool
or Glasswool rubber-in-shear rubber or steel springs. Where equipment
is mounted on inertia blocks, there are often advantages
Protective
metal edges in using a continuous layer of dense rockwool or rubber
as the vibration isolator.

FIG 29.
FIBERTEX™ ROCKWOOL AS A
VIBRATION ISOLATOR.

NOTE: Where the noise level emitted by a factory is


above acceptable community standards, it is wise to
engage the services of a noise control engineer.
Environmental noise legislation is quite complex, and
failure to comply with the relevant noise criteria may Resilient
Fibertex
result in severe penalties. Each situation presents its own Rockwool HD
Inertia Block
unique problems which must be identified and then
corrected. Z-Section
Waterproof
Film

Plant Room Floor

34 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
By acting equally under the entire area of the block, FIG 31.
the layer of rockwool dampens the rocking motion that TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF ARMAFLEX®
(a) PIPE SUPPORT.
may be present and eliminates point loading on the
structural floor. The static deflection characteristics of
CSR Bradford Insulation products are shown in Product
Guides.
The use of rockwool as an isolator is not
recommended where the required static deflection
exceeds 10mm. In such cases it is advisable to use rubber
or steel springs.
VIBRATION RESISTANCE.
Bradford FIBERMESH™ is particularly suitable for
applications involving both vibration isolation as well as
high temperature, where standard bonded insulation
materials are less resistant to the effects of vibration.
Bradford FIBERMESH™ rockwool is stitched to wire FIG 32. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF ARMAFLEX®
mesh making the blankets especially resistant to fallout (b) PENETRATION THROUGH
under conditions where vibration is present. SOUND INSULATING WALL.

FIG 30.
DENSE GLASSWOOL BOARD USED FOR VIBRATION
ISOLATION OF MACHINES.
Sound
Use vibration absorbing Insulating
flexible couplings on all Wall False flange
rigid connections to the (must not
vibration source contact pipe)
Pipe

Flexible Mastic
(sealing gap
Bradford Armaflex between flange
Flexible Pipe and pipe)
Insulation

INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS.
Installation commences with the laying of a suitable
water proof film on the plant room floor. The
FIBERTEX™ Rockwool batts are laid flat on the film,
Bradford Quietel ensuring all joints are tightly butted. The area covered by
Glasswool Board for
vibration isolation the batts should exceed the dimensions of the inertia
block by at least 50mm on each side. The waterproof film
Isolation of machinery from the floor structure will should be wrapped around the outer edges of the
not achieve its design performance if flanking vibration FIBERTEX™ Rockwool batts and retained in position by
paths remain. All connections to the equipment, such as metal U-channels, timber battens, or other suitable
piping, ductwork, and electrical conduits, should protective treatment.
incorporate a vibration absorbing flexible coupling, and The edging material, when installed, must allow for
should also be isolated from the building structure by a 3mm gap between itself and the inertia block. This gap,
flexible mounts. and any gaps or joins in the edging material should be
ARMAFLEX® flexible pipe insulation, a closed cell sealed with a flexible, waterproof mastic.
nitrite rubber tubing, provides an excellent vibration
isolation gasket for piping and conduit. Typical
applications are shown in Figures 31 and 32.

35 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Air Conditioning based on the selected Noise Rating number plus
corrections for the characteristics of the room and the
Noise Control. distance to the nearest occupant. If the design goals have
not been achieved, the additional attenuation needed at
Noise arises in air handling systems principally from fans
each frequency band must be designed into the system.
and from air flow generated noise in both ducts and
Duct attenuators can be used, however the most
through registers. It is sometimes necessary to deal with
economical approach where space permits is using
sound transmitted along a duct from one room to another.
internal duct liners.
This section provides methods and data to assist in the
design of internal duct lining to control noise. FAN NOISE.
The fan in air conditioning systems is generally the main Generally the fan manufacturer will provide data on
noise source. The types of fans used are either axial type fan noise characteristics. However if no data is available,
or centrifugal type fans. Axial fans generate a higher the following empirical formulae developed by Beranek
proportion of high frequency noise but less low frequency may prove useful:
noise than centrifugal fans of similar duty. The fan SWL = 77 + 10 log kW + 10 log P
manufacturer should be able to supply sound power SWL = 25 + 10 log Q + 20 log P
spectrums of fan noise.
SWL = 130 + 20 log kW - 10 log Q
Noise also arises from airflow generated in both the
Where:
ducts and registers (also known as regenerated noise).
Usually the greater the velocity of the air through the ducts, SWL = overall fan sound power level, dB
the higher the regenerated noise level. kW = rated motor power, kW
NOISE CRITERIA. P = static pressure developed by fan, mm w.g.
Noise Criteria curves (NC) and Noise Rating Q= volume flow delivered, m3/h
numbers (NR) have been developed to approximate Octave band sound power levels are then found by
loudness contours and speech interference levels at subtracting correction factors from the overall sound
particular frequencies. These criteria graphs indicate a power level calculated by any one of the above formulae.
sound pressure level at each frequency that will be Maximum noise usually occurs from the blade tip
appropriate in a particular environment. Noise Rating frequency of the fan. This is determined from the number
numbers are covered by Australian Standard AS1469 : of blades on the fan rotor multiplied by the number of
1983 ‘Acoustics – Methods For The Determination Of revolutions per second. The octave band in which the
Noise Rating Numbers’. blade tip frequency falls will have the highest sound
Sound levels are often expressed in A-weighted power level and therefore the smallest correction factor
decibels. Australian Standard AS2107 : 1987 ‘Acoustics to be subtracted from the overall sound power level.
– Recommended Design Sound Levels And A fan’s rotating blades produce tones at the blade pass
Reverberation Times For Building Interiors’ covers the frequency (BPF).
recommended background sound levels for occupied
rpm x 60
spaces makes use of the dB(A) weighting. It is BPF =
recommended that design calculations of noise reduction N
use Noise Rating numbers and then convert to dB(A) at Where:
the end of the calculations.
BPF = blade pass frequency (Hz)
GENERAL PROCEDURE. rpm = revolutions per minute
The fan sound power level is first established, then N = number of fan blades
each duct path is examined separately. Noise generated
Har monics and sub-har monics may result at
by 90° elbows and branches is estimated using data from
frequencies which are multiples of the blade pass
the Sound and Vibration section of the ASHRAE Guide
frequencies.
and Data Book and added to the fan noise. From this is
deducted any branch take-off losses and the natural The recommended correction factors are indicated in
attenuation due to straight runs of duct work, elbows and Table 9.
end reflections losses, again using the data tabulated in the
ASHRAE Guide. The resultant sound power level
represents the noise reaching the conditioned space. This
is compared to the design requirements for the space

36 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TABLE 9. CORRECTIONS FOR FAN SOUND POWER LEVELS.
Blade Tip Frequency 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Fan Type Band Octave Octave Octave Octave Octave Octave
Centrifugal Backward Curved Blades 4 6 9 11 13 16 19
Forward Curved Blades 2 6 13 18 19 22 25
Radial Blades 3 5 11 12 15 20 23
Axial 7 9 7 7 8 11 16
Mixed Flow 0 3 6 6 10 15 21

DUCT ATTENUATION. The most important octave bands where fan noise is
Air handling duct work is internally lined using concerned are the 125Hz and 250Hz bands. Ducts
rockwool or glasswool insulation boards or blankets faced internally lined with a suitable length and at least 50mm
with an acoustically transparent facing to provide adequate thickness of Bradford Glasswool or FIBERTEX ™
sound absorption by the insulation. In addition the facing Ductliner can effectively reduce the low frequency
must provide minimal airflow resistance inside the duct component of fan noise. The thicker the internal duct
and may also need to act as a vapour barrier. For liner, the better the low frequency sound absorption.
maximum sound absorption, the duct liner’s facing should The thermal performance of the insulation for air
be as light and porous as possible to allow sound to conditioning ducts can be calculated using the data in the
penetrate it. CSR Bradford Insulation Air Conditioning Design
Internal duct liners commonly use Bradford R-rated Guide.
Ductliners, SUPERTEL™ or ULTRATEL™ Glasswool faced with: Table 10 is a guide to the attenuation achieved by
• Bradford ACOUSTITUFF™ lining two opposite sides of a duct with Bradford
• Bradford ULTRAPHON™ woven glass fabric, Glasswool ULTRATEL™ at 50mm and 100mm thickness.
The distance ‘D’ is the depth in mm between the linings.
• Lightweight THERMOTUFF™ ,
It is assumed that any facing material used is deemed
• Heavy Duty 750P THERMOFOIL™ perforated, acoustically transparent.
• Black or clear fibreglass tissue or If the duct is to be lined on all four sides, the total
• Fine, lightweight polyester films (Mylar or Melinex). attenuation may be obtained by arithmetically adding the
Appendix C, Table C7, Contains comparative noise attenuation achieved by lining the other two opposite
reduction coefficients for Bradford products. sides.

TABLE 10. CALCULATED LINED DUCT ATTENUATION, dB/m.


Lining Depth Between Linings ‘D’ Frequency (Hz)
Thickness mm 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
50mm 200 1.3 4.5 10.8 15.8 15.4 7.7
300 1.2 3.3 7.7 9.2 6.8 3.4
400 1.2 2.6 5.8 8.0 3.8 1.9
600 1.0 1.5 3.5 3.4 1.6 0.9
800 0.6 1.2 2.4 2.0 1.0 0.4
1000 0.5 1.1 2.0 1.1 0.6 0.3
100mm 200 4.3 8.8 14.5 15.8 15.4 7.7
300 3.2 6.5 10.2 9 6.8 3.4
400 2.1 5.4 7.9 8.0 3.8 1.9
600 1.7 3.8 5.2 3.4 1.6 0.9
800 1.3 2.9 4.0 2.0 1.0 0.4
1000 0.8 2.0 3.1 1.1 0.6 0.3
Limit of Attenuation 26 31 38 42 50 60
Table 10, shows that the smaller the duct dimensions, the higher the attenuation per length of duct.
1
Sound Research Laboratories, Noise Control in Building Services, Pergamon Press, First Edition 1988.

37 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TABLE 11. ATTENUATION OF UNLINED DUCTS.
Straight Duct Duct Dimensions Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)
Circular/Oval or
Rigid Walled (unlined) ‘x’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB/metre run
75 – 200 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.33 0.33 0.33
x 200 – 400 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.23 0.23 0.23
400 – 800 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.16 0.16 0.16
800 – 1500 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
Straight Duct Duct Dimensions Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)
Rectangular (unlined)
‘x’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB/metre run
x
75 – 200 0.16 0.33 0.49 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
200 – 400 0.49 .66 0.49 0.33 0.23 0.23 0.23
x 400 – 800 0.82 0.66 0.33 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
800 – 1500 0.66 0.33 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.07

TABLE 12. IN-DUCT ATTENUATION WITHIN EXTERNALLY LAGGED DUCTS.


Straight Duct Duct Dimensions Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)
Circular/Oval or
(externally lagged) ‘x’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB/metre run
75 – 200 0.14 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.33
x 200 – 400 0.14 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.23 0.23 0.23
400 – 800 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.20 0.16 0.16 0.16
800 – 1500 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.14 0.07 0.07 0.07
Straight Duct Duct Dimensions Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)
Rectangular
(externally lagged) ‘x’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB/metre run
x
75 – 200 0.33 0.66 1.00 0.66 0.33 0.33 0.33
200 – 400 1.00 1.32 1.00 0.66 0.23 0.23 0.23
x 400 – 800 1.64 1.32 0.66 0.32 0.16 0.16 0.16
800 – 1500 1.32 0.66 0.32 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.07

TABLE 13. ATTENUATION OF RADIUS BENDS.


Straight Duct Duct Dimensions Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)
Circular/Oval or
Rigid Walled (unlined) ‘D’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB
D 150 – 250 - - - - 1 2 3
250 – 500 - - - 1 2 3 3
500 – 1000 - - 1 2 3 3 3
D
1000 – 2000 - 1 2 3 3 3 3

For more examples of duct losses, refer to ASHRAE There are positive steps that can be taken to counter
(American Society Of Heating Refrigeration Engineers) the effect of flanking transmission but for the purpose of
publications. this guide it is recommended that, in using these Tables,
It should be noted, that a limit to the attenuation of reliance should not be placed on achieving attenuation in
sound in duct work may be imposed by flanking excess of the limiting values shown. If attenuation beyond
transmission or noise breakout. This particularly occurs these limits is required, it should be achieved by other
when the aim is to achieve high attenuation in a short acoustic treatment or lining at a location remote from the
length of straight duct. length of duct under consideration.

38 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
TABLE 14. ATTENUATION OF MITRE (90°) BENDS.

Mitre Bend Duct Dimension Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)


(unlined)
‘D’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Attenuation dB
75 – 200 - - - - 1 7 7
D
100 – 150 - - - - 5 8 4
150 – 200 - - - 1 7 7 4
200 – 250 - - - 5 8 4 3
250 – 300 - - 1 7 7 4 3
300 – 400 - - 2 8 5 3 3
400 – 500 - - 5 8 4 3 3
500 – 600 - - 6 8 4 3 3
600 – 700 - 1 7 7 4 3 3
700 – 800 - 2 8 5 3 3 3
800 – 900 - 3 8 5 3 3 3
900 – 1000 - 5 8 4 3 3 3
1000 – 1100 1 6 8 4 3 3 3
1100 – 1200 1 7 7 4 3 3 3
1200 – 1300 1 7 7 4 3 3 3
1300 – 1400 2 8 7 3 3 3 3
1400 – 1500 2 8 6 3 3 3 3
1500 – 1600 3 8 5 3 3 3 3
1600 – 1800 5 8 4 3 3 3 3
1800 – 2000 6 8 4 3 3 3 3

Mitre Bend Duct Dimension Octave Band Centre Frequency Hz)


(lined)
D ‘D’ (mm) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k
Lining Thickness = 10
Attenuation dB
Lining to extend 75 – 200 - - - - 2 13 18
distance 2D or greater
100 – 150 - - - 1 7 16 18
150 – 200 - - - 4 13 18 18
200 – 250 - - 1 7 16 18 16
D
250 – 300 - - 2 11 18 18 17
300 – 400 - - 4 14 18 18 17
400 – 500 - 1 5 16 18 16 17
500 – 600 - 1 8 17 18 16 17
600 – 700 - 2 13 18 18 17 18
700 – 800 - 3 14 18 17 16 18
800 – 900 - 4 15 18 18 17 18
900 – 1000 - 5 16 18 17 17 18
1000 – 1100 1 7 17 18 16 17 18
1100 – 1200 1 8 17 18 16 17 18
1200 – 1300 1 10 17 18 16 18 18
1300 – 1400 2 11 18 18 16 18 18
1400 – 1500 2 12 18 18 16 18 18
1500 – 1600 3 14 18 18 17 18 18
1600 – 1800 4 15 18 18 17 18 18
1800 – 2000 5 16 18 17 17 18 18

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
MEASURED SOUND ATTENUATION FIG 34.
IN DUCTS. SOUND ATTENUATION IN DUCT SIZE 406 x 813mm.

CSR Bradford Insulation has carried out extensive 60

research to establish the real performance of duct liners


in reducing noise levels. Tests have been carried out on 50

Bradford Insulation 25mm and 50mm duct liners using


different duct sizes and lengths of lined duct. 40

Insertion Loss (dB)


Figures 33, 34 and 35 have been plotted from
measurements of sound levels taken in standard sheetmetal 30

ducts using 25mm duct liners. The graphs present a


conservative guide to the performance of all Bradford 20 Bend

Glasswool and Fibertex™ Rockwool duct liners at 25mm


4.9m
thickness. Four different lengths of lining are shown for 10 3.7m
2.4m
1.2m
each of three duct sizes.
0
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
Frequency (Hz)

FIG 33. FIG 35.


SOUND ATTENUATION IN DUCT SIZE 254 x 305mm. SOUND ATTENUATION IN DUCT SIZE 508 x 610mm.
60 60

50 50

40 40
Insertion Loss (dB)

Insertion Loss (dB)

4.9m
30 30

3.7m
20 20
2.4m Bend

Bend
1.2m 4.9m
10 10 3.7m
2.4m
1.2m

0 0
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

TABLE 15. INSERTION LOSS CHARACTERISTICS OF FACED DUCTLINERS.


(INTERNAL DUCT LINING)
Insertion Loss (dB loss 600x600x4000 test duct)
Product Facing Thickness Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz)
mm 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
Bradford Glasswool BMF 50 1.4 4.6 16.8 53.2 51.6 32.4 24.4
DUCTLINER THERMOFOIL ™
50 1.6 5.3 18.9 53.4 48.3 31.8 24.6
32 kg/m3 HD Perf.
23µm Melinex
+ THERMOFOIL™ 50 1.9 5.7 21.1 26.6 16.7 12.9 12.8
HD Perf.
ACOUSTITUFF™ 50 2.5 4.7 21.3 46.8 39.3 23.3 17.4
ULTRAPHON ™
50 2.0 5.0 20.9 51.5 46.6 30.3 27.5
Bradford Premium
Ductliner ULTRATEL ACOUSTITUFF™ 50 – 4.9 14.2 39.0 37.0 22.4 18.6
48 kg/m3
Bradford FIBERTEX™ THERMOFOIL™
DUCTLINER HD Perf. 50 2.8 5.8 19.9 56.6 49.1 32.4 24.6
60 kg/m 3

40 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Research has also been carr ied out on sound Constraints
attenuation characteristics of different facing materials accuracy = ± 10%
used on duct liners. Insertion Loss measurements carried
frequency range, 250 to 2000Hz
out in accordance with Australian Standard AS1277 :
1983 ‘Acoustics - Measurement Procedure For Ducted α ≤ 0.8
Silences’ demonstrate the effect of typical facing materials for circular ducts, Diameter > 0.15m
on the acoustic performance of Bradford Glasswool and for rectangular ducts, width or height ≤ 900mm and
FIBERTEX™ duct liners, as shown in Table 15. width
0.5 < <2
An alternative rough indication of attenuation height
achieved by the lining of ductwork can be found by use
The location of duct lining can be a critical factor. It
of the ‘Sabine’ formula. This gives reasonable results for
is normally placed at the start of a duct system to attenuate
straight ducts at low frequencies provided the smallest duct
fan noise and near the outlets to correct air flow generated
dimension is within the range 150 mm to 450 mm and
noise from dampers and fittings, and to restrict noise
the width is no greater than three times the depth.
transmission from adjacent areas through the air
1.07 Pα1.4
Attenuation (dB/m) = conditioning duct.
A
Where: D a
P = inside perimeter of lined duct, m
A = internal cross-sectional area, m2
α = absorption coefficient of the duct liner at the b

frequency concerned.

TABLE 16.
SOUND ABSORPTION OF BULK INSULATION DUCTLINERS .
Product Facings Thickness Frequency (Hz)
(mm) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC*
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL ™
25 0.08 0.39 0.73 1.02 1.12 0.84 0.75 0.81
DUCTLINER/ HD Perf. 50 0.23 0.71 0.99 1.09 0.97 0.78 0.59 0.94
SUPERTEL™ BMF 25 0.07 0.26 0.65 0.93 1.04 1.03 1.00 0.72
32kg/m3 50 0.24 0.62 1.00 1.07 1.12 1.15 1.17 0.95
ULTRAPHON™ 25 0.10 0.39 0.79 1.00 1.01 1.00 0.95 0.81
50 0.30 1.01 1.31 1.20 1.05 0.97 0.95 1.14
ACOUSTITUFF™ 25 0.14 0.45 0.99 0.97 0.55 0.29 0.25 0.75
50 0.33 1.01 1.17 0.99 0.64 0.34 0.28 0.95
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.12 0.31 0.81 1.09 1.09 0.91 0.89 0.83
Premium HD Perf. 75 0.69 1.19 1.15 1.09 1.03 0.92 0.90 1.12
DUCTLINER/ ACOUSTITUFF™ 25 0.05 0.55 0.65 0.90 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.70
ULTRATEL™ 48kg/m3 50 0.30 0.75 0.90 0.85 0.65 0.50 0.60 0.79
Bradford THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.14 0.38 0.87 1.07 1.06 0.90 0.79 0.85
FIBERTEX™ HD Perf. 50 0.31 0.83 1.16 0.99 0.90 0.78 0.73 0.97
DUCTLINER BMF 25 0.15 0.33 0.74 0.94 1.03 1.04 0.98 0.76
60kg/m3 50 0.36 0.76 1.19 1.09 1.03 1.04 0.90 1.01
Bradford
FIBERTEX™ 450 ULTRAPHON™ 50 0.43 0.99 1.09 1.11 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.06
80kg/m3 ACOUSTITUFF ™
50 0.54 0.99 1.07 0.81 0.57 0.33 0.25 0.85
* NRC: Arithmetic average of absorption coefficients of frequency 250, 500, 1000 and 2000Hz.

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
ATTENUATION OF LINED BENDS. FIG 37.
SOUND ATTENUATION IN LINED PLENUM.
The application of acoustic lining to bends can be very
effective in attenuating duct-borne sound. Square elbows
are preferred to radius bends. The lining should have a
thickness at least 10% of D, the clear width between the θ

two linings (refer diagram), and the length of lining


should extend a distance not less than 2D before and after d
the bend.
Table 17 gives attenuation in dB achieved by square
elbows without tur ning vanes when lined as
recommended.

FIG 36.
SOUND ATTENUATION BY LINED SQUARE ELBOWS. AIR FRICTION.
The energy absorbed by frictional losses in the air
handling system may be significant, particularly for high
velocity systems. The following information will assist the
designer in assessing the effect of duct liners upon
frictional losses.
The usual procedure for determining friction losses in
air ducts is by use of the Air Friction Charts published by
2D
Acoustic
D the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and the IHVE
Lining
Thickness Lining Guide. These charts provide friction losses for sheet
(10% of D min.)
metal ducts of standard construction. These losses must
be multiplied by a factor to correct for the influence of
TABLE 17. ATTENUATION BY LINED duct liners.
SQUARE ELBOWS, dB.
The following graph shows correction factors for the
D Frequency (Hz) Bradford range of Glasswool and FIBERTEX™ Rockwool
(mm) 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 duct liners. It is based on actual tests on a lined duct of
125 1 6 12 14 16 460 x 200mm internal dimensions, equivalent to a
280mm diameter circular duct. To adjust the correction
250 1 6 12 14 16 18
factor selected for ducts of other dimensions, increase by
500 1 6 12 14 16 18 18 up to 10% for circular equivalent sizes down to 150mm
1000 1 6 12 14 16 18 18 18 and decrease by up to 10% for circular equivalent sizes up
to 1000mm.
ATTENUATION BY LINED PLENUMS.
The acoustical lining of fan discharge and suction FIG 38. AIR FRICTION CORRECTION FACTOR.
plenums is often the most economical and convenient 2.0
approach to achieving a major part of the sound
attenuation required in a system. The following formula
Correction Factor

1
gives an approximate value of the attenuation achieved by
this means (refer diagram). 1.5

(cosθ) 1–α 2
Attenuation = 10 log10 [So + So ]
(2πd2) αSw
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20
Where: Air Velocity (m/s)
α = absorption coefficient of the lining
1 = Black Matt tissue (BMF) Faced Ductliners.
So = area of outlet opening, m2 2 = THERMOFOIL™ Perforated Foil Laminate Faced
Sw = total plenum wall area, m2 Ductliners.
d = slant distance, centre inlet to centre outlet, m
θ = angle of incidence at the outlet, degrees.

42 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
RESISTANCE TO AIR EROSION AND DUCT BREAK OUT-NOISE.
RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES Noise breakout from ducts can occur from:
Bradford Glasswool and FIBERTEX™ Rockwool • Fan noise passing through the duct
ductliners have been tested for surface erosion at extreme
• Aerodynamic noise (also know as re-generated noise),
velocities by the quantitative method developed by the
from obstructions fittings etc in the duct
CSR Building Materials Research Laboratories, based on
Underwriters Laboratory Standard UL181-1990. The • Turbulent airflow causing duct walls to vibrate and
products were subject to velocities up to 40m/s and then rumble radiating low frequency airborne noise.
a safety factor of 0.4 applied in accordance with the Solutions to reduce noise breakout from ducts:
Underwriters Laboratory test. On the basis of these • Stiffer ducts (circular ducts are better than square or
results and typical air friction correction factors from rectangular). External bracing of ducts increases
ASHRAE, the following maximum design velocities are stiffness, however it can improve the radiation
recommended. efficiency of the duct cancelling the benefit of
TABLE 18. increased stiffness.
MAXIMUM DESIGN VELOCITY. • Using heavier material for duct walls and increasing
Product Maximum Design damping (ie. thicker steel sheeting).
Velocity (m/s) • Adding damping (spray on or self adhesive
compounds).
Bradford Glasswool
Covered with Perforated Metal 23 • Acoustic lagging, preferably with a heavy limp
impervious layer isolated or decoupled from the duct
Faced with Perforated Foil 18
with either glasswool (such as Bradford
Faced with Black Matt Tissue (BMF) 22 ACOUSTILAG™) or rockwool.
Faced with ACOUSTITUFF™ 30
The solutions to reduce noise breaking out from
Faced with ULTRAPHON™ 26
ducts can be expensive. Therefore it is more cost effective
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool to avoid noise break out problems than to try to correct
FIBERTEX™ Ductliner CF covered them later.
with Perforated Metal 23
FIBERTEX™ Ductliner with Perforated Foil18 DUCT BREAK-IN NOISE.
Noise inside ceiling plenums or from air conditioning
FIBERTEX™ Ductliner faced with
equipment, plant rooms etc, can break into ducts,
Black Matt Tissue (BMF) 22
particularly flexible ducts and then be carried into rooms
EXTERNAL DUCT LAGGING. or spaces below.
External lining (lagging) of air conditioning ducts Flexible ducts, due to their light weight, flexibility,
with foil faced rockwool or glasswool reduces duct speed and ease of installation, are commonly used in air
breakout noise by damping the duct. Some of the noise conditioning systems. Noise can more easily penetrate
which breaks out through the lagged duct is absorbed by flexible ducts because of their lightweight nature.
the surrounding insulation. The sound attenuation To avoid break-in noise, the following can be used:
achieved inside the duct is also enhanced by duct lagging • Where possible, avoid ducts passing through noisy
particularly at low frequencies, up to about 500Hz. areas as this can significantly increase noise through the
Air handling ducts are commonly lagged using: air conditioning system.
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Ductwrap • Replace lightweight flexible ducts with heavier
• Bradford Glasswool MULTITEL™ or FLEXITEL™ ducting such as sheet steel.
with Medium or Heavy Duty THERMOFOIL™. • The flexible ducts can be enclosed in a solid enclosure
• Bradford Glasswool THERMOGOLD™ Ductwrap. constructed from timber, plasterboard or sheet steel,
etc.
Before enclosing flexible ducts, it should be noted that
noise in the ceiling cavity will most likely penetrate the
ceiling. This will happen more so if lightweight lay-in tiles
using metal grids are used. Fixed plasterboard ceilings give
better acoustic performance than lightweight ceiling tiles.

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FLOW GENERATED NOISE. FIG 39.
LOCATION OR DUCT ATTENUATOR.
Turbulent noise in ducts is generated from the following:
• Objects such as dampers, grilles, rods, etc. Noise break-out from
noisy side of attenuator
• Constrictions in duct cross sectional area, orifice
plates, silencer splitters etc. Plant Room
• Jet noise, inlet or discharge noise flowing through
orifices.
• Boundary layer turbulence, air passing over the inner
surface of the duct.
• Flow around bends and duct take offs (branches).
Bad location
These sources cause turbulence in ducts and this noise
is also known as re-generated noise. The intensity of the
re-generated noise depends upon the velocity of the air
in the duct.

END REFLECTIONS. Plant Room


At the end of a duct (register, diffuser grille etc.) the
air meets a large increase in volume. This allows expansion
of the air providing useful sound energy losses at the low
Noise break-In
frequencies. This is termed ‘end reflection loss’. to quiet side of
attenuator
A higher number of small registers spaced well apart
will transmit less low frequency noise into a room than Bad location
one large single register.

DUCT ATTENUATORS OR DUCT


SILENCERS.
Duct attenuators or silencers are used where high
Plant Room
attenuation is required. These silencers usually consist of
sheet steel duct housing containing sound absorbent
‘splitters’ usually made of rockwool or glasswool. The
silencer’s attenuation is normally quoted as an insertion
loss in octave frequency bands.
Silencers cause a pressure drop across them and also
Ideal (but ‘impractical’) location
regenerated noise through the splitters, which increases
with the air velocity through the ducts.
Silencers should ideally be located where the duct
leaves the plant room (see Figure 39). Care must be
taken to avoid plant room noise from entering the quiet
side of the silencer. Plant Room

Standard silencers incorporate a perforated metal


screen backed by Bradford Glasswool or Bradford
FIBERTEX™ Rockwool faced with black fibreglass tissue
(BMT).
An alternative design, particularly for smaller systems,
is to face the r ig id insulation with Bradford Good practical location

ULTRAPHON™ wrapped or taped around the edges and


glued into the C-channel supporting the frame.
Test results are shown in Appendix C, Table C9.
Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool is recommended
for high temperature attenuation such as hot gas exhausts.

44 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FLANKING THROUGH AIR Products – Internal Duct Lining:
CONDITIONING DUCTS.
The following glasswool blankets are generally used for
Where two rooms are served by common ducts, internal duct lining:
sound (ie speech, machinery noise etc) can travel from
• Bradford SUPERTEL™ Glasswool (32kg/m3).
one room and into the next room via the duct. In some
buildings, speech can be heard through ducts. This is also • Bradford R-rated Ductliner (32kg/m3).
known as ‘crosstalk’. • Bradford FIBERTEX ™ Rockwool Ductliner
‘Crosstalk’ or sound through ducts can be attenuated (60kg/m3).
by: The above Glasswool blankets can be faced with:
• internally lining ducts with rockwool or glasswool. • ULTRAPHON™ (black glass cloth fabric)
• increase the length of internally lined duct between • ACOUSTITUFF™ (lightweight foil facing)
offices. (Refer to Figure 40). • Heavy Duty THERMOFOIL™ 750P perforated,
• increase the amount of end reflection (more smaller (optional: Mylar film between blanket and foil to
registers are preferable to fewer larger registers). prevent fibre release).
• fitting duct silencers. • Fine, lightweight polyester films (Mylar or Melinex).
• modifications to room layouts to reduce ‘crosstalk’. • Black or clear fibreglass tissue.
Products – External Duct Lagging:
• Bradford THERMOGOLD™ Ductwrap (18kg/m3).
• Bradford MULTITEL™ Glasswool (18kg/m3) with
Medium Duty THERMOFOIL™.
• Bradford FLEXITEL™ Glasswool (24kg/m3) with
Medium Duty THERMOFOIL™.
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Ductwrap (50kg/m3)
with Medium Duty THERMOFOIL™.
• Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 20 or 23.

FIG 40. DUCTWORK LAYOUT TO REDUCE CROSSTALK.

Layout To Be Avoided
Air Flow Crosstalk

Crosstalk Crosstalk Crosstalk Crosstalk


path path path path

Preferred Layout

Air Flow

45 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E

Bradford Acoustic Solutions for


Specialty Applications.
Home Cinema. • Ceilings should include increased mass to increase
their STC rating. Multi layers of CSR Gyprock®
The current trend in households today is the use of plasterboard can be used with Bradford Rockwool or
timber floors or tiled floors which are hard and Glasswool Ceiling Batts above.
acoustically reflective. These together with reflective
• Floors should be insulated with Bradford Floor Batts
walls and ceilings result in long reverberation times not
particularly if the cinema room is upstairs. (see
suited to home cinema systems.
Floor/Ceiling Noise Control Systems, Appendix B).
Under these circumstances, home cinema systems
• Windows should be double glazed with preferably
will require more sound absorption in the room to lower
different size laminated glass panes to provide better
the reverberation time closer to the optimum level suited
damping. Large air gaps between the glass panes, and
to amplified music and speech. Note that too much
properly sealed around the perimeter of the frame also
absorption will make the room ‘dead’ and result in poorer
increases the window’s acoustic rating. Laminated
quality sound.
single pane glass is the next best choice.
To lower the reverberation time of a room, install:
• Doors should be solid core timber or metal with
• Decorative fabric faced rockwool or glasswool absorbers good quality door seals. Preferably double doors or an
on the walls. insulated sound lock should be used.
• Velour coated high density rockwool or glasswool on Note that if the room has ducted air conditioning, then
the walls. flanking can occur through the ducting and sound can pass
• Perforated timber, Gyprock® plasterboard or perforated into the next room.
metal pan ceiling with rockwool or glasswool insulation
Bradford Products for –
above.
Walls:
• Rugs, carpet, curtains and soft furniture in the room.
• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts.
The acoustic reproduction of many modern home
cinema systems is very good, and they can generate high • Bradford SoundScreen™.
levels of bass sound which penetrates building materials
more easily. Low frequency sound is also more difficult Ceilings:
to absorb.
• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ceiling Batts.
Therefore the home cinema system room may be a
source of noise for others in the household or neighbours, • Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Panel Overlays.
particularly if the volume is loud. • Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450.
These rooms should be treated or ‘sound proofed’ if • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™,
they are likely to cause disturbance to others. The ULTRATEL™.
following treatments should be considered: • Bradford Glasswool Absorption Blanket.
• Brick veneer walls should use mutli-layers of CSR
Gyprock® Fyrchek™ or Soundchek™ plasterboard to
add mass and increase the STC of the walls. Ideally,
the wall should have two separate studs with Bradford
Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts inside the
cavity walls. Bradford batts inside cavity partitions
can increase the walls acoustic rating by STC 10. If this
is not possible then staggered studs or the widest stud
cavity available should be used and filled with Bradford
Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts.

46 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Auditoriums. • Sound absorbing panels consisting of fabric faced
Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool. The decorative
Auditoriums are a specialised area of room acoustics facing chosen should be acoustically transparent (with
with many books written on the subject. The acoustic low flow resistance) to maximise sound absorption
design of auditoriums should be undertaken by an within the insulation. Decorative open weave fabrics
experienced acoustic consultant. This is a simplified are suitable for these acoustic applications.
guide to the acoustic requirements of auditoriums.
• Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ is ideal broad band
The shape and size of an auditorium can have a great industrial grade absorber which can be used in
influence of the acoustics of the space. It is also very auditoriums.
important to control the auditorium’s reverberation time
• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool behind spaced
so the users can experience good acoustics. General
timber panels (slotted or slatted). The sound travels
purpose auditoriums can have multiple uses such as
through the gaps in the timber and is absorbed by the
speech and amplified music which have conflicting
insulation.
reverberation times.
• Alternative treatments include fixing the sound
The acoustic designer needs to determine the
absorbing batts behind perforated panels, such as
auditorium’s optimum reverberation time for its intended
plywood, Gyprock® plasterboard or metal. The use of
use. Computer software is available that allows modelling
a BMF (Black Matt Facing) tissue or Bradford
the optimum reverberation time for the room. Sound
ULTRAPHON™ on the insulation is recommended
absorbing materials are added to the rooms surfaces to fine
for aesthetic reasons.
tune and optimise the room’s reverberation time. Artificial
reverberation can be added either acoustically or • Membrane or panel absorbers – typically solid,
electronically to modify the sound. reflective panels (timber, plasterboard etc.) fixed to
walls on studwork. Panel absorbers can be tuned to
The relationship between reverberation time and
resonate (absorb) sound within a narrow frequency
sound absorption is given by the Eyring’s equation (refer
range. Adding rockwool or glasswool insulation in the
to Reverberation Control, page 63).
air cavity of panel absorbers, increase their absorptive
There are a number of methods used to absorb sound frequency range.
in an auditorium. These include:

FIG 41.
TYPICAL ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS FOR AUDITORIUM WALLS AND CEILINGS.

Acoustic Absorbing
Panels on walls
Bradford Partition Batts

Bradford Acousticon
Roofing Blanket

Bradford
Ceiling Batts

47 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
• Cavity absorbers – are usually an enclosed volume of Products.
air with a small neck/opening (often known as • Bradford Glasswool or Rockwool Partition Batts.
Helmholtz resonators. Cavity absorbers provide a
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool.
very narrow band of sound absorption, which can be
expanded with the use of rockwool or glasswool in the • Bradford Glasswool MULTITEL™, FLEXITEL™,
air space. These absorbers have specialised acoustic SUPERTEL™ or ULTRATEL™.
applications such as studios and auditoria, and for • Bradford FIBERTEX ™ Rockwool Ductliner
pure tone absorption. (60kg/m3).
• Perforated metal ceiling panels with rockwool or • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™.
glasswool insulation above. The size, number of • Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ceiling Batts.
perforations, insulation type, thickness and density • Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™.
can affect the frequency at which maximum
• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ductliner.
absorption occurs.
• Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 23 or 26.
On occasions, auditoriums have dual uses, for example
speech and amplified music. It is possible to introduce Insulation facings:
absor ption into these auditor iums to lower the • Bradford THERMOFOIL™ (Light, Medium and
reverberation time to suit the acoustic requirements. Heavy Duty or Heavy Duty perforated).
Temporary absorbing panels can be introduced in the
• Bradford THERMOTUFF™ foil.
form of sliding acoustic doors, or portable architecturally
designed sound absorptive structures to suit the decor of • Bradford ULTRAPHON™.
the auditorium. • Bradford ACOUSTITUFF™.
Sound absorption is often required on the rear wall of • Black or clear fibreglass tissue.
the auditorium to stop unwanted reflection of sound. The
personal address system amplifier, type and size of
microphones, number of speakers, sound delay, etc., also
Sports Complexes.
need to be considered. Sporting complexes can suffer from poor acoustics due
to the high reverberation times caused by the lack of
It is important to stop unwanted noise from entering
sound absorptive finishes within the space. This can result
the auditorium from people, air conditioning, road and
in difficulty understanding speech.
rail traffic, aircraft, public amenities, foyers, rain etc.
Sporting complexes therefore, require sound
To reduce extraneous noise from entering the
absorptive material to be added to achieve a lower
auditorium:
reverberation time suitable for speech. (Refer to Table A5,
• Fill any wall cavities with Bradford Rockwool or page 64).
Glasswool Partition Batts.
The following describes ways to add sound absorption
• Install Bradford ACOUSTICON™ foil faced roofing in a sporting complex:
blanket under steel roofing to reduce rain noise by up
• Fabric faced rockwool or glasswool acoustic absorbers
to 18dB(A). Refer to Rain Noise Reduction with
for the walls.
Metal Deck Roofing, page 20.
• Velour coated high density rockwool or glasswool
• Internally line air conditioning ducts with rockwool or
absorbers for the walls.
glasswool (either using foil facing, fine fibreglass tissue,
Bradford ACOUSTITUFF™ or ULTRAPHON™. • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ wall/ceiling absorber.
Externally lag ducts with rockwool or glasswool faced • Porous absorbers such as rockwool or glasswool
with Bradford Thermofoil™ facing. Consider the use of insulation with a perforated facing of; metal, timber,
duct silencers to reduce air conditioning noise levels. or Gyprock® plasterboard etc. The use of a fine
• Locate the plant room of the air conditioning system fibreglass tissue facing BMF (Black Matt Facing) tissue
away from the auditorium. If this is not possible, then or Bradford ULTRAPHON™on the insulation can be
acoustically treat the plant room with high STC walls, used for aesthetic reasons and eliminates fibre release.
roof/ceiling, floors, doors etc. Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ wall and ceiling absorber
is durable and its high acoustic absorption is an
• Lag waste pipes inside auditorium with Bradford
excellent choice for sports complexes.
Acoustilag™ 23 or 26.
ACOUSTICLAD™ offers excellent test results with
• Install acoustic door seals on door perimeters or NRC ranges from 0.9 to 1.05.
absorbent ‘sound locks’.

48 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG 42.
TYPICAL ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS FOR SPORTS COMPLEX.

Bradford Acoustic
Partition Batts Absorbing
Panels
Bradford
Acousticon Bradford
Roofing Acoustic
Blanket Baffles

Bradford
Wall Batts

• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool behind spaced It is advisable to consult an acoustic consultant for
timber panels (slotted or slatted). The sound enters the vibration isolated flooring systems.
insulation through the gaps in the timber and is If the sports complex is on a second storey of a
absorbed by the insulation. building, install Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ceiling
To reduce rain nose under metal roofing, install Batts beneath the complex’s floor in the floor/ceiling
Bradford ACOUSTICON™ foil faced roofing blanket cavity.
under the metal deck. This can reduce rain noise by up
Bradford Products.
to 18dB(A) and improve the STC rating of the roof.
To reduce timber floor impact noise, use a resilient • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ wall/ceiling absorber.
materials such as rubber, dense rockwool or glasswool, • Bradford FIBERTEX™ ROCKWOOL.
rubber/cork compounds etc., beneath the battens or • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™ or
floor joists and the floor supports. ULTRATEL™ with optional BMF, ULTRAPHON™or
For existing floors, a floating floor can be constructed THERMOFOIL™ facings.
above the existing floor with a resilient material layer • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™.
between the two flooring systems. The correct stiffness • Bradford Glasswool ACOUSTICON™.
of the damping layer should be selected for both the
• Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ceiling Batts.
static and dynamic loads. The two floors should not be
mechanically fixed with nails or screws as this would
make the damping material redundant.

49 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


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Canteens/Restaurants. Fyrchek on walls and ceilings, with Bradford Rockwool

or Glasswool Partition/Ceiling Batts installed. Heavier


Canteens and restaurants that have hard floors, walls glazing and addressing flanking paths should also be
and ceilings, are very reverberant, especially when full of considered. (Refer to additional information detailed for
diners and music. Noise is generated from voices and Walls, Roof/Ceilings and Floors).
cutlery. Often soft music is used to provide an ambience
and some acoustic masking. Products.
These noise sources make communication difficult, • Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool.
and people tend to raise their voices to be heard, which • Bradford Glasswool or Rockwool Partition Batts.
in-turn increases the noise level in the room. • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™ SUPERTEL™ or
Canteens and restaurants can benefit from added ULTRATEL™ with BMF or ULTRAPHON™.
sound absorption in the room to control reverberation. • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™.
To lower the reverberation time within a canteen or • Bradford ACOUSTICON™.
restaurant, install:
• Fabric faced rockwool or glasswool absorbers on the
walls.
Karaoke & Nightclubs.
Karaoke Rooms and Nightclubs will require
• Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ perforated metal wall
reverberation times optimised for music. Amplified music
absorber with rockwool or glasswool insulation
played in these venues has considerable low frequency
(encapsulated in a thin polyester film such as Mylar or
‘bass’ energy. To optimise the acoustics, the reverberation
Melinex to stop fibre release).
times should be slightly longer at the lower frequencies.
• Perforated timber, Gyprock® plasterboard or perforated
To control reverberation in these rooms use:
metal pan ceiling with rockwool or glasswool
insulation above. Insulation should be encapsulated to • Porous absorbers – Fabric faced rockwool or glasswool
stop fibre release. absorbers for the walls.
Note that too much absorption may make the room • Perforated timber, Gyprock® plasterboard or perforated
acoustically ‘dead’, and can result in a lack of acoustic metal pan ceiling with rockwool or glasswool
privacy for diners. insulation above.
If the canteen or restaurant has a noise sensitive area • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™ perforated metal panel
above, below or adjacent to it, the facades should have ceiling system.
higher acoustic performance (STC ratings) to stop noise • Membrane or panel absorbers.
‘breaking-out’, ie. multi-layers of heavier Gyprock®

FIG 43. TYPICAL ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS FOR FIG 44. TYPICAL ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS FOR
CANTEEN/RESTAURANT APPLICATIONS. KARAOKE ROOM/NIGHTCLUB APPLICATIONS.

Bradford Bradford
Insulation in Insulation in
partition walls partition walls

Bradford Bradford
Acoustic Wall Acoustic Wall
Absorbers Absorbers

Bradford
Acousticon Bradford Insulation
under metal above perforated
deck roof ceiling system

Bradford Insulation
above perforated
ceiling system

50 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


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Karaoke rooms and nightclubs can cause disturbance Flanking paths should also be considered when
for others nearby as music sound levels inside can reach acoustically isolating rooms requiring high STC ratings.
or exceed 100dB(A). These rooms should be ‘sound Sometimes these flanking paths can be the limiting factor
proofed’ if they are likely to cause disturbance to others. in obtaining acoustic privacy from room to room.
To do this, building envelopes with very high STC It is advisable to engage the services of an acoustic
ratings are required. consultant to design sound proofing for rooms with very
The following acoustic treatments are recommended. high noise levels, in particular, Karaoke rooms and
nightclubs.
WALLS.
Use multiple layers of CSR Gyprock Fyrchek ™ Products.
plasterboard to add mass and increase the STC of the • Bradford Rockwool FIBERTEX™ 350, 450.
walls. (The more mass that is used, the higher the STC • Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™,
rating). Ideally, the wall should have two separate studs ULTRATEL™.
with Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts
• Bradford Glasswool Absorption Blanket.
inside the cavity of the walls for an increase of up to 10
STC. If this is not possible, then staggered studs or the • Bradford Glasswool Ceiling Panel Overlays.
widest possible stud cavity should be used (to reduce • Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts.
low frequency sound transmission) and filled with • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™.
Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts.
CEILING. Shopping Centres.
Ceiling should have extra mass added to increase the In shopping centres, the designers should look at
STC. Multi layers of CSR Gyprock® plasterboard can be noise control in the following areas:
used with Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Ceiling
• Between shops to provide acoustic privacy – refer to
Batts above. Beneath the plasterboard ceiling, a suspended
sections in this book on wall and ceiling insulation.
perforated metal pan ceiling can be used to provide
sound absorption in the room. • Reverberation control – within the shopping centre
open areas (ie. stage and dining areas).
WINDOWS. • Rain noise under steel roofing – install Bradford
Windows should be double glazed with preferably Acousticon™ hard under steel deck roofing.
different size laminated glass panes (laminated glass has
• Air conditioning and mechanical services noise –
better damping). Air gaps between the glass panes should
acoustically treat plant room, internally line and
be properly sealed around the perimeter. Thicker
externally lag air conditioning and air extraction ducts,
laminated single pane glass is the next best choice.
particularly where they are exposed. Plant rooms should
DOORS. use high STC rating walls, ceilings and floors if next to
Doors should be solid core timber or metal with noise sensitive areas. Plant room walls should be lined
good quality acoustic door seals. An insulated ‘sound with Bradford Acousticlad™ to absorb noise.
lock’ using acoustically treated doors will provide better • Carpark noise – avoid steel speed humps which work
acoustic performance. lose with time and become noisy.
Note that for higher STC walls, ceilings and floors, Products.
flanking must be considered. (Refer to ‘Flanking Paths’,
page 59). • Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition Batts.

Some Karaoke restaurants/clubs have many Karaoke • Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool.


booths which require acoustic isolation from each other. • Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™, ULTRATEL™.
It is recommended that high STC rating walls are used • Bradford ACOUSTICON™.
to acoustically isolate these rooms from each other. Refer • Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™.
to the CSR Gyprock Fire & Acoustic Design Guide,
NºGYP500 to choose a wall system.

51 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


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Music Rooms, FIG 45.
OPTIMUM REVERBERATION TIMES FOR
MUSIC/TV/RADIO STUDIOS.
Recording Studios, 1.6

Radio & Television Rooms. 1.4

The optimum reverberation time required in a music 1.2

Reverberation Time (sec)


studio depends on the size of the room. Music recording io
1.0 ud
studios and radio or television broadcasting rooms require St
u sic
very short reverberation times or a ‘dead’ acoustic 0.8 M

environment. To achieve shorter reverberation times tudio


alk S
0.6 TV/T
with smaller room volumes, more sound absorption is
0.4
required.
The reverberation times for the room should be set for 0.2

each octave or more accurately each 1/3 octave band. 0


50 0 0 00 00 0
Generally for music, the lower frequencies require higher 10 30 10 50 00
10
reverberation times. For speech the reverberation time Room Volume (m3)
should be approximately equal across frequency bands.
The relationship between reverberation time and sound If steel roofing is used for these rooms, insulate the roof
absorption is given by the Eyring’s equation (refer to with Bradford ACOUSTICON™ to reduce rain noise
‘Reverberation Control’ page 63). transmission. Ceilings should also use multi layers of
Sound absorbers do not absorb sound equally in each CSR Gyprock® Fyrchek™ resiliently mounted to the
frequency band. Therefore it is common practice to use furring channels.
a combination of different types of absorbers. Windows should be double glazed with preferably:
There are various types of sound absorbers, including: • Different size laminated glass panes (laminated glass has
• Porous type absorbers eg. Acousticlad , fabric faced
™ better damping).
absorbers, perforated metal pan ceilings and moulded • Large air gap between the glass.
foam etc. • Properly sealed around the perimeter of the frame.
• Panel absorbers (Refer to ‘Room Acoustics’, page 64). Doors should be solid core timber or metal with
• Cavity absorbers (Helmholtz resonators). good quality door seals. Preferably double doors or an
The above types add sound absorption inside the insulated sound lock should be used.
room, and are required, to tune the reverberation time as Recording studios, radio and television broadcasting
close to optimum for music or recording purposes. rooms should also be vibration isolated from the main
It is imperative that extraneous noise does enter into building structure. This will reduce the transfer of low
recording studios, radio or television broadcasting rooms. frequency noise into the space which can affect the
Therefore it is imperative that these rooms are properly acoustics of these rooms. Roads, railway lines, industry
sealed or ‘sound proofed’. Very high STC walls, doors, etc, can be sources of low frequency noise and vibration.
windows, roof/ceilings are required. It is advisable to engage the services of an acoustic
Walls should use mutli-layers of CSR Gyprock ® consultant to design sound proofing for TV/Radio/Music
Fyrchek™ with preferably two separate studs to support Studios.
the walls. Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool Partition
Batts should fill the cavity of the walls for an increase of
up to 10 STC.

TABLE 19. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM BACKGROUND SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL


FOR STUDIO APPLICATIONS.
Octave Band Sound Pressure Level (Hz)
31.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
Studio Use Recommended Maximum Background Sound Levels [dB]
Drama and Music Studios 65 47 37 29 24 20 17 15 13
Television and Talk Studios 70 52 42 34 29 25 22 20 18

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FIG 46. TYPICAL ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS FOR Products.
TV/RADIO/MUSIC STUDIO APPLICATIONS.
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool.
Bradford Insulation • Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ or ULTRATEL™.
treatment to air
conditioning ducts
• Bradford ACOUSTILAG™.
• Heavy duty perforated THERMOFOIL™.

OEM.
CSR Bradford Insulation supplies the full range of
glasswool and rockwool products to original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs).
Bradford insulation is used for acoustic or thermal
purposes, and adds value to OEMs’ products. Glasswool
can be used for the following requirements:
• Thermal.
• Acoustic.
• Fire resistance.
CSR Bradford Insulation supplies many OEMs, and
each has unique requirements for rockwool and glasswool
Bradford Insulation Bradford Acoustic
in high STC partition Absorbers to control insulation products.
walls reverberation
OEMs should contact the CSR Bradford Insulation
Office in their reg ion to discuss their specific
Products.
requirements.
• Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™, SUPERTEL™,
ULTRATEL™. Products.
• Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool. • Bradford Rockwool.
• Bradford ACOUSTICLAD™. • Bradford Glasswool.

Heavy Plant. References.


Engine compartments of plant and machinery should 1 Sound Research Laboratories, Noise Control in Building
be lined with Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool faced Services, Pergamon Press, First Edition 1988.
with Bradford Heavy Duty 750P THERMOFOIL™ 2 Bruel & Kjaer, Noise Control, Principles & Practice,
Perforated to absorb engine and ancillary noise. As engine Naerum Offset, Second Edition, 1986.
noise has most energy at low frequencies, insulation 3 D.A Bies & Hansen, Engineering Noise Control, E
thickness should be at least 75mm. The thicker the & FN Spon, Second Edition, 1996.
insulation, the better the low frequency sound absorption. 4 L.L Beranek, Noise And Vibration Control, Institute
Lightweight sheet steel casings can often vibrate and of Noise Control, Revised Edition, 1988.
emit noise. To damp these casings, Bradford
ACOUSTILAG™ can be used. The glasswool side of the
Acoustilag should be secured firmly to the outside of the
sheet steel to increase the panel’s mass. The mass of the
loaded vinyl, damps the vibrating panel, and reduces noise.
Operators cabins should also be fully enclosed and well
sealed to stop noise from entering. Dust inside an operator
cabin is a good indication the cabin is poorly sealed.
Cabins should also be vibration isolated for operator
comfort and safety, and also to minimise re-radiated noise
from lightweight materials. The cabin can be lined with
rockwool or glasswool insulation with a suitable facing
such as perforated THERMOFOIL™ to absorb noise
within the cabin.

53 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
APPENDIX A.

The Nature of Sound.


Introduction. sounds with frequencies above 15kHz, and frequencies
above 10kHz are rarely significant for sound control
For most of us, sound is simply something we hear. purposes.
It is the sensation which results from vibrations in the air Sound waves are not limited only to the audible range.
interacting with the hearing mechanism of our ears. Higher frequency sound -’ultrasound’- (greater than
Noise is by definition, unwanted sound. It may be 20kHz) has many applications in medicine and industry,
unwanted because it is damaging, dangerous, annoying, while lower frequency sound – ‘infrasound’ (lower than
or detracts from wanted sounds. 20Hz) appears as undesirable structural vibrations.
‘Sound’ is also used as a general term to describe the
FIG A1.
vibrations or pressure variations which give rise to the
VIBRATION CREATES SOUND WAVES.
‘sound’ we hear. Throughout this guide, sound will be
used in the general sense.
Sound moves through the air as a longitudinal pressure
wave. These waves are caused either by vibrating surfaces
or fluctuations in air flow. The process may be illustrated Air moves towards Air pushed away from
load speaker as cone loudspeaker as cone
by considering what happens when we listen to sound moves backwards. moves forwards.
from a radio, TV set, or public address system.
The loudspeaker is made to vibrate by an electrical
signal. This causes a sympathetic vibration in the air as
shown in Figure A1. When the air borne vibration
reaches the ear drum, the reverse process applies, causing
FIG A2.
the ear drum to vibrate, stimulating the hearing system.
TYPES OF TRAVELLING WAVES.
Sound flow is described as a wave, because it is the
vibration that moves through the air. Individual air (a) Longitudinal Wave
particles only vibrate on the spot with no net movement. Direction of wave travel

This is similar to what happens when a stone is thrown


into a pool of water. Ripples move outwards through the
water, but individual particles of water only move up and Vibration of particles

down as the ripples pass. This is evidenced by observing


any objects floating on the pool surface, and noting that
they remain stationary. Sound waves are said to be (b) Transverse Wave
Direction of wave travel
longitudinal because the movement of air particles is in
the same plane as the direction of flow as shown in
Figure A2(a). This is different from water waves, where
the movement of water particles is perpendicular to the
direction of flow as shown in Figure A2(b). Water waves Vibration of particles
are known as transverse waves.
The basic characteristics of sound are discussed below.

Frequency. With the exception of musical notes, sounds consisting


of only one frequency are extremely rare. Most of the
Frequency is the rate of vibration. It has the units of
sounds encountered in everyday life are a complex
Hertz (Hz) or ‘cycles per second’ where a cycle is one
combination of many frequencies. It is totally impractical
complete vibration to and fro. The range of human
to characterise a complex sound by all its frequencies, so
hearing - the so-called ‘audible range’ - extends from 20
the concept of frequency ‘bands’ is introduced. The most
to 20,000Hz (20kHz). In practice, few adults can hear
common of these is the octave band, which has its upper
frequency band exactly double the lower band.

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All frequencies between these bands are then grouped The Sound Power Level is generally denoted Lw.
together into the octave band. An octave band is described Abbreviations such as SWL or PWL are also used. It is
by its centre frequency which is the geometric mean of defined as:
the upper and lower bands. The octave bands used for Equation Nº1
sound measurement are listed in Table A1.
Sound power source (W)
Lw = 10 log10
TABLE A1. Reference power (1 x 10-12 W)
STANDARD FREQUENCY BANDS.
and expressed in decibels (dB)
Band Limit 1/3 Octave Octave Band A Sound Power of 10 Watts therefore has a sound
Frequency Centre Frequency Centre Frequency
(Hz) (Hz) (Hz) power level of:

44 10
50 Lw = 10 log10
57 63 63 1 x 10-12 W
71
88 80
113 100 = 10 log 1013
141 125 125
160 = 130dB
176 200
225 Similarly, a sound power of 1 Watt corresponds to a
250 250
283 sound power level of 120dB, and a sound power of 1
353 315
440 400 milliwatt corresponds to a sound power level of 90dB.
500 500
565 630 Intensity is a measure of sound power flow per unit
707 800
880 area and is expressed in units of Watts per square metre
1130 1000 1000
1250 (W/m2). It is sound intensity at the ear which determines
1414
1760 1600 how loud a particular noise seems – the greater the
2250 2000 2000 intensity, the louder the noise heard.
2500
2825 3150
3530
4400
5650
4000
5000
4000
Sound Pressure.
7070 6300 Sound intensity cannot be directly measured.
8800 8000 8000
10000 However, sound intensity is related to sound pressure
11300
(which is easily measured) according to Equation Nº2.
Equation Nº2
Energy, Power I =
p2

and Intensity. z

Sound waves transmit energy from a source to a Where:


receiver, e.g. from a loudspeaker to a listener’s ear. In some I = Intensity.
cases this is desirable, e.g. Iistening to music. In others, p = Pressure due to sound wave.
the emission of sound energy indicates inefficient machine z = ρc = Acoustic impedance of air.
operation, and is harmful or annoying to exposed people. ρ = Density of air.
The rate at which a sound source emits energy is c = Speed of sound (344 m/s).
called its sound power, measured in Watts (W). The The sound pressure can be measured using a
sound power range is extremely large, ranging from microphone which converts the pressure wave to an
about 1 nanowatt (1 x 10-9 W or 0.000000001 W) for electrical signal that can be easily measured with a
rustling leaves to well over 1 megawatt (106 W or galvanometer. Instruments are built specially for this
1,000,000 W) for violent explosions. purpose and are known as Sound Level Meters.
This range of over 1015 W is difficult to handle, so a
more suitable scale has been devised. This scale is the
Sound Power Level scale which measures sound power
logarithmically. This is especially appropriate, as the
human ear responds to ratio changes in sound power,
rather than to magnitude changes. To the ear, a change
from 10 Watts to 1 Watt is equivalent to a change from
1 Watt to 0.1 Watt.

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Like sound power, sound pressure is expressed on a high frequency sounds. Sound pressure levels measured
logarithmic scale known as the Sound pressure level, with an ‘A’ – weighting network are expressed in
generally denoted Lp. Sometimes the abbreviation SPL is A – weighted decibels or dB(A). Because the ‘A’ –
also used. Sound Pressure Level is defined as: weighted sound pressure levels takes account of the ear’s
Equation Nº3 sensitivity to sound, most noise control legislation is
written in terms of dB(A) levels.
20 log sound pressure (measured in Pa)
Lp = Where noise levels fluctuate markedly with time (such
Reference sound pressure (2 x 10-5 Pa)
as stamping machines, traffic on a busy roadway, etc.) it
and, like sound power level, is expressed in decibels (dB). is now common to measure an ‘equivalent continuous
The reference sound pressure of 2x10-5 Pa represents sound pressure level’, denoted Leq. This is the sound
the ‘threshold of hearing’. Thus a sound pressure level of pressure level of a steady sound which, over a given time
0dB indicates the quietest sound likely to be detected by period, would have conveyed the same acoustic energy
young, healthy ears. At the other end of the scale, a as did the time-varying sound. Many sound level meters
sound pressure level of 130dB (a sound pressure of 63 Pa) are able to automatically measure equivalent sound
represents the ‘threshold of pain’. Some typical sound pressure level.
pressure levels are shown in Table 2. Other measures of sound level that are applicable to
long-term variable noise (such as motor traffic) are
TABLE A2. denoted Lx where x is a number between 1 and 100.
TYPICAL SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS. This is the sound pressure level which is exceeded for
Noise Source Sound Pressure x% of the time. The L1, L10, L50 and L90 levels are the
Level (dB re 20 µPa) most commonly encountered. These statistical levels can
be measured with more sophisticated portable sound
Near Air Force Jet at take off 140
level meters. Alternatively, statistical analysis or graphical
(Threshold of pain) 130 techniques can be used to determine the statistical levels.
Pneumatic chisel 120
Angle grinding metal 110 Addition of Decibels.
As the decibel scale is logarithmic, two noise levels Lp1
Electric train crossing bridge 100
and Lp2 values cannot be added in the same way as
Petrol lawn mower 90 ordinary numbers. Consider for example, the sound
Average road traffic 80 power level of two machines, each with a sound power
level of 120dB. From Equation Nº1 it can be calculated
Ringing telephone 70
that the actual sound power of each source is 1 Watt. Thus
Conversational speech 60 their combined power will be 2 Watts which, according
Analytical laboratory 50 to Equation Nº1, corresponds to 123dB. Doubling the
sound power results in an increase of 3dB in the sound
Professional office 40
power level.
Residential area at night 30 Adding a third machine of the same power would
Rustle of leaves 20 increase the total sound power to 3 Watts, which gives a
sound power level of 125dB, while a fourth machine
Breathing 10
bringing the total sound power to 4 Watts would increase
(Threshold of hearing) 0 the sound power level to 126dB. Note again that doubling
the sound power from 2 Watts to 4 Watts also increased
The sound pressure level then is used as the basic the sound power level by 3dB (123dB to 126dB).
measure of quantity of sound. Levels can be measured
This may seem complicated but there is a simple rule
right across the whole audible frequency range or in
of thumb which is sufficiently accurate for all practical
discrete octave or third-octave bands. ‘Weighted’ sound
purposes:
pressure levels may also be measured, of which the most
common is the ‘A’ – weighted sound pressure level. ‘A’
– weighting adjusts the sound pressure to allow for the
frequency response of the human ear. The ear is less
sensitive to lower frequencies than to frequencies in the
middle to high range. ‘A’ – weighting therefore decreases
the level of low frequency sounds relative to middle and

56 CSR BRADFORD INSULATION


A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG A3.
Difference between Add to higher BEHAVIOUR AT SOLID BOUNDARIES.
noise levels level (dB)
0 or 1 3
2 or 3 2 Re
fle
cte
dS
4 to 9 1 ou
nd Absorbed
d
Sound un
10 or more 0 d So
itte
n sm
Tra
Incident Sound
For the example above, Tra
nsm
120dB + 120dB 0dB difference itte
dS
ou
Add 3dB to 120dB = 123dB nd nd
S ou
ted
flec
123dB + 120dB 3dB difference Re

Add 2dB to 123dB = 125dB

125dB + 120dB 5dB difference


Add 1dB to 125dB = 126dB

Behaviour of Sound.
Sound from a theoretical point source will radiate
equally in all directions. As a result, the sound intensity will
Sound Transmission.
Sound striking a solid surface can cause the surface to
be inversely proportional to the square of the distance from
vibrate, just as the ear drum vibrates when it is met by a
the source. This means the sound pressure level will
sound wave. This vibration which is of the same
reduce by 6dB for each doubling of distance from the
frequency as the sound wave may set up another air-borne
source. This generally applies outdoors in the free field.
sound wave on the other side of the solid.
Thus, if Lp = 80dB at 4 metres from the source, it will be
74dB at 8 metres, 68dB at 16 metres, 62dB at 32 metres, The ability of a solid structure to resist sound
as shown in Figure A2. transmission is called ‘acoustic insulation’. This is
analogous to thermal insulation being the ability of a
This assumes that there is no interference with the
material to resist heat flow and electrical insulation being
sound flow such as buildings etc, and the further one gets
the ability to resist the flow of electricity. It is important
from the source the more likely it is that some interference
to note that the mechanism involved in resisting these
will occur.
various flows is not universal.
The most common interference is provided by a solid
The fact that a material is a good thermal insulation
boundary. Sound striking a solid boundary may be either
does not indicate whether it is of any use as an electrical
transmitted, reflected, or absorbed, as shown in Figure A3.
or acoustic insulator.
Acoustic insulation is expressed as the difference in
FIG A2. decibels between the sound pressure levels on the source
SOUND RADIATION FROM POINT SOURCE. and receiving sides of the structure. When discussing
the performance of building elements, acoustic insulation
is referred to in terms of ‘sound transmission loss’ (STL)
or ‘sound reduction index’.
For all practical building elements, the sound
transmission loss varies with frequency (Figure A5). There
are essentially three modes:
1. At very low frequencies the sound reduction depends
on the stiffness of the partition and natural resonances
80dB @4m in the structure. The stiffer the panel, the more
resistant it is to bending. As the frequency increases,
74dB @8m
the stiffness effect diminishes and the onset of
resonances occur in the panel which lowers the
acoustic performance of the panel.
68dB @16m

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
2. At mid frequencies sound reduction increases by FIG A5.
approximately 6dB for each doubling of frequency THE ‘MASS LAW’ OF SOUND INSULATION.

(6dB per octave) or mass per unit area.


60
3. At high frequencies sound transmission is influenced
by the ‘coincidence dip’, which is a form of coupling 55

between the sound waves in the air and the bending 50


waves in the panel, resulting in efficient transfer of

Average Sound Transmission Loss (dB)


45
sound energy. The coincidence effect is a form of
resonance which occurs at the critical frequency and 40

tends to reduce the acoustic performance of the


35
building element.
30
FIG A4.
TYPICAL SOUND TRANSMISSION LOSS 25
CHARACTERISTIC FOR BUILDING PARTITIONS.
20

15
Coincidence
6dB per octave Dip
10
Transmission Loss

0
Stiffness 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 20 40 50 70 100 200 300 400 500 700 000
controlled 1
Surface Density (kg/m2)
Mass
controlled

Critical
frequency
Resonances recently released AS/NZS1276.1:1999 ‘Acoustics -
Frequency Hz Rating of Sound Insulation in Buildings and of Building
Elements, Part 1-1999 Airborne Sound Insulation’ refers
The frequency at which this coincidence occurs is to Weighted Sound Reduction Index (Rw) instead of the
called the critical frequency, and is a function of the commonly used STC.
particular materials used in the partition. STC is der ived from sound transmission loss
Sound transmission loss depends heavily on the surface measurements over 16 test frequency bands between
density (mass per square metre of surface) of a building 125Hz and 4000Hz. Rw is calculated from frequencies
element. For every doubling of surface density the sound ranging from 100Hz to 3150Hz. Rw is considered
transmission loss increases by about 5.6dB. This is known numerically equivalent to STC, but can vary by about 1
as the ‘Mass Law’ and is shown graphically in Figure A5. point.
Higher transmission losses than those expected by A noise reduction of 1dB (decibel) is approximately
the Mass Law can be obtained by using double-leaf equal to a 1 STC or 1 Rw. Note this does not apply to
structures, such as stud walls. Further improvement can lower frequency sound sources. The higher the STC or
be achieved by using wide cavities, which is not always Rw of a partition the more effective it will be at reducing
practical. Significant transmission loss gains are obtained sound transmission
by using insulation such as Bradford Rockwool or A reduction of 3dB in noise level is a noticeable
Glasswool in the cavity. improvement, and a 10dB reduction in noise level is
The sound transmission loss of a building element may perceived as being half as loud.
be expressed as the decibel reduction in sound pressure Some STC examples are given below.
level measured at the standard one-third (1/3) octave • 2 layers 16mm Gyprock each
frequency bands. side of 64 mm steel studs STC = 47
A more convenient means of expressing sound • As above + 75mm GW batts STC = 57
transmission loss is by use of a single number acoustic
• Double Brick Wall 250 mm STC = 54
rating called ‘Sound Transmission Class’ (STC). This
rating system is described in detail in AS1276-1979: • Brick Wall single layer 110mm STC = 44
‘Methods for Determination of Sound Transmission Class • Sheet steel 0.8mm thick STC = 27
and Noise Isolation Class of Building Partitions’. The • Aluminium window 5 mm glass STC = 22

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
Flanking Paths. Sound Reflection.
Noise will always take the easiest path around a barrier Sound may also be reflected from a solid surface in
under question. This is known as flanking. Consider much the same way as a ball bounces from a wall.
noise to be like a liquid that can pass through small Reflected sound will increase the sound level on the
openings. Flanking can severely reduce the theoretical source side of the solid. The most common example of
sound transmission loss of a building element. this is a noise source such as a machine located above a
Air borne sound control is limited by flanking hard concrete floor. Sound will radiate equally in all
transmission paths which permit sound to bypass the directions from the machine. However, sound travelling
barrier. Some of the more common flanking transmission downwards will strike the floor and be reflected upwards
paths are shown in Figure A6. as shown in Figure A7. The sound level above the floor
FIG A6.
will be the sum of both the direct sound and the reflected
COMMON FLANKING TRANSMISSIONS PATH. sound.
1. Ceiling plenums, floors, walls. 4. Heating and ventilation ducting.
2. Poor seals between structural
elements and around service
penetrations.
5. Rigid plumbing connections and
penetrations.
6. Back-to-back cabinets and
Sound Absorption.
3. External air-borne paths. switches/power outlets.
Sound may also be absorbed by the solid. The acoustic
energy is converted to heat energy as a result of frictional
forces within the solid. Large amounts of sound may be
absorbed with little effect on the temperature of the
absorbing material.
Most hard solid surfaces are highly sound reflective.
Open cell or porous materials are the most effective
sound absorbers. The long, narrow, twisting air paths give
rise to considerable friction between vibrating air particles
and the fibres or cell walls. The friction converts much
of the sound energy into heat and the process is referred
to as ‘sound absorption’.
Increasing the thickness or density of a porous material
As the required performance of the wall or ceiling will increase its sound absorption. Increasing the thickness
system increases eg. for systems over STC 45, attention is the most effective method of increasing the sound
to sealing of gaps to stop noise leaks is critical. Even absorption of a material, particularly at the lower
very small gaps will derate performance significantly. frequencies.
Flanking can be a limiting factor in achieving the higher A material’s ability to absorb sound is expressed by its
STC ratings for building elements in the field, especially sound absorption coefficient, which is sometimes denoted
for STC ratings greater than 55. by α and defined as:
STC ratings measured in the laboratory are usually
higher than what is achieved in the field. Designers and
specifiers of building facades need to be aware that in the
α = 1– ( Sound energy reflected from surface
Sound energy incident on surface )
field, flanking of noise at doors, windows, ventilation The sound absorption coefficient is reported as a
ducting, air gaps at ceiling, wall and floor intersections, decimal, e.g. α = 0.75 would mean that 75% of the
and poor workmanship may result in lower acoustic STC incident sound energy was absorbed while 25% was
performance. For these reasons CSR Bradford Insulation reflected.
cannot guarantee the field STC ratings of specific A more convenient method of describing sound
construction shown in this Acoustic Design Guide and absorption is to use the single number NRC (Noise
other CSR Bradford Insulation brochures. Reduction Coefficient). NRC is the arithmetic average
Maximum sound transmission loss can be achieved by of the sound absorption coefficients at the four frequency
eliminating penetrations in walls, caulking gaps, and of 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz and 2000Hz. NRC is usually
staggering electrical outlet or other necessary penetrations rounded to the nearest 0.05 as per Australian Standard
through the wall. For optimum acoustic performance, AS1045 : 1988 ‘Acoustics - Measurement of Sound
wall cavities should be filled with either rockwool or Absorption in a Reverberation Room’.
glasswool insulation. Pipes, conduits and other outlets
should have insulation tightly fitted around them.

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
For many porous absorbers such as rockwool and octave band, or more preferably for each one third octave
glasswool, sound absorption coefficients or NRCs are band. The sound absorption coefficients of some typical
commonly greater than 1.00. For example: building materials are listed in Table A3.
• 75mm thick Bradford Glasswool Supertel™ Sound absorption coefficients may be determined in
(32kg/m3) NRC = 1.09 an acoustic laboratory by two different methods. The
simplest of these uses a device called an ‘impedance tube’
• 50mm thick Bradford Fibertex™ 350 Rockwool
and its use is covered by AS/NZS1935 ‘Acoustics –
(60kg/m3) NRC = 1.05
Determination of Sound Absorption Coefficient and
Although it is theoretically impossible to have sound Impedance in Impedance Tubes’. A more involved
absorption coefficients greater than 1, as this would mean method uses a specifically constructed room known as a
that more sound is absorbed by the material than is reverberation room. This method is set down in AS1045
incident on it, NRCs greater than 1 do occur in : 1988 ‘Acoustics – Measurement Of Sound Absorption
laboratory testing as a result of the measuring techniques Coefficients In A Reverberation Room’.
and the sound field within the testing facility. The impedance tube method being simpler, and
Sound absorption coefficients are measured on a linear therefore cheaper, has been favoured by some
scale and so do not relate directly to decibels. The effect manufacturers of acoustic products. It has a major
of sound absorption on sound pressure level is discussed limitation however in that it only allows for normal
under ‘Reverberation Control’. incidence of sound as shown in Figure A8(a). In practice,
Sound absorption materials do not absorb equal sound will impinge on the sound absorbent material
amounts of sound in all frequencies. Thus it is necessary from all directions.
to determine the sound absorption coefficient for each

TABLE A3. TYPICAL VALUES OF SOUND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS.


Typical Building Materials Frequency (Hz)
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 NRC
Reflective Sound Absorption Coefficients (α)
Terrazzo Flooring on concrete 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Concrete 100mm 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02
Exposed Brick 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05
Fibrous Cement 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.05
Timber Floor 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.10
Plasterboard 0.30 0.20 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10
Glass window 4mm 0.30 0.25 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.05 0.15
Hardboard 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.15
Suspended Plasterboard Ceiling 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.15
Aerated lightweight concrete 0.01 0.15 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Absorptive
Thick Pile Carpet 0.15 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.50
Open Cell Polyurethane Foam 25mm 0.10 0.25 0.55 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.55
Polyester 25mm 0.10 0.25 0.55 0.60 0.75 0.75 0.55
Perforated Metal Pan Ceiling with Glasswool backing 0.30 0.65 0.55 0.65 0.70 0.60 0.65
Bradford Flexitel Glasswool 25mm

0.10 0.33 0.66 0.90 1.03 0.79 0.75
Bradford Supertel Glasswool 50mm

0.25 0.66 1.01 1.04 1.10 1.13 0.95
Bradford 50mm Fibertex 350 Rockwool

0.21 0.69 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.05
Refer to Appendix C for ‘Sound Absorption Coefficients’ of Bradford Insulation products.

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
The reverberation room allows for this random mid to high frequencies. Low frequency absorption is
incidence as shown in Figure A8(b). For some applications influenced by the thickness of the material. The sound
such as ceilings and air conditioning ducts or glazing, absorption coefficients of Bradford Rockwool and
glancing incidence as shown in Figure A8(c) Glasswool products are shown in Appendix C of this
predominates. As can easily be seen, data obtained by guide.
using normal sound incidence will be totally inappropriate Further improvement in low frequency sound absorption
for evaluating performance in glancing incidence may be achieved by using Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
situations. thicknesses greater than 50mm or by using an air space
It is important therefore to check by which method, behind. For optimum acoustic absorption particularly at low
published sound absorption coefficients have been frequencies, the air space should be at least as thick as the
determined. All leading Australian manufacturers publish rockwool or glasswool insulation.
data measured in accordance with AS1045-1988 The sound absorption for a surface is the product of
‘Acoustics – Measurements of Sound Absorption in a the sound absorption coefficient and the area of the
Reverberation Room’. Some imported products may surface. The unit is the Sabin, where 1 Sabin is the
claim performance on the basis of overseas standards. amount of absorption provided by 1 square metre of
Such performance data is not necessarily in accordance surface with an absorption coefficient of 1. There is a
with the Australian standard. trend to replace the Sabin with ‘equivalent absorption
FIG A7. area’. The calculation is still the same, however units of
DIRECT AND REFLECTED SOUND. square metres are used.

Reverberation.
When sound is produced within an enclosed space
such as a room, the first sound which a listener hears is
Sound Direct Sound that which arrives directly from the source. The next
Source
sound to be heard will be that which has been reflected
from one wall of the enclosure. After this, sound which
und
has been reflected from two, three, or more surfaces will
So
ed successively arrive.
fl ect
Re
These multiple reflected or reverberant sounds
combine with each other and the direct sound to form
FIG A8. the resulting sound field as shown in Figure A9. Not only
TYPES OF SOUND INCIDENCE. does the reverberant sound increase the level of sound, it
(a) (b) (c)
Normal Random Glancing
also increases its duration. This causes distortion of the
Incidence Incidence Incidence sound with particularly detrimental effects on speech
and music. When long delays occur between the arrival
of direct and reflected sound, distinct echoes can be
heard.
Sound can take 2 paths in a room: the direct sound and
the reflected sound. The total sound level is the sum of
Sound absorption coefficients may also be calculated the direct and reflected sounds. The reflected sound will
empirically from the flow resistivity of porous or fibrous lose energy when striking the boundaries of the room.
absorbers. The flow resistivity is usually measured by an Some of this reflected sound will be transmitted and
American Standard test method, ASTM C522-73, as some absorbed, so that the amount of sound reflected will
there is no Australian Standard for this test. be less than that striking the boundary.
The use of flow resistivity data enables prediction of the For a continuous noise source, a steady-state situation
sound absorption coefficients for composite materials and will develop where the rate of sound energy entering the
thus minimises the number of laboratory tests required. As room from the noise source will be balanced by the rate
with all empirical calculations, predictions should be of sound energy leaving the room by transmission and
compared to actual test data to ensure the validity of the absorption.
calculations.
Fibrous materials such as Bradford Rockwool and
Glasswool are extremely efficient absorbers of sound at

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
FIG A9. TABLE A4.
DEVELOPMENT OF REVERBERANT SOUND. OPTIMUM REVERBERATION TIMES.
Room Reverberation Typical Example
Acoustics Time (sec)
Dead 0.6 Hotel and airport lounges,
Surgeries and consulting
Rooms, Kindergarten.
Sound
Source
Medium Dead 0.6 - 0.9 Classrooms, Restaurant,
Large open-plan offices.
Medium 0.9 - 1.1 Lecture rooms, General
Offices, Hospital Wards.
Medium Live 1.1 - 1.4 Board Rooms,
Direct Sound = Reflected Sound = Conference Rooms,
Assembly Halls.
REVERBERATION TIME.
Reverberation Time (RT) is the time it takes a sound Live 1.4 Music Rooms,
to travel from its source to and from reflecting surfaces and Concert Halls.
gradually become inaudible. More technically speaking, Figure A10 from Australian Standard AS2107 : 1987
RT60 is the time taken for the reverberant sound pressure shows optimum reverberation times for various rooms.
level to decrease by 60dB after the direct sound has Reverberation times are usually quoted for frequency of
ceased. 500Hz or 1kHz. Ideally, the reverberation time at higher
The reverberation time of any room depends primarily frequencies should be the same as that at 500Hz, but in
upon the degree of sound reflection from the room practice some reduction in reverberation time at
boundaries and objects within the room. The more frequencies above 2000Hz is almost inevitable. For good
reflective surfaces in the room, the longer will be the music listening condition the reverberations time at
reverberation time. Room dimensions also have an effect. frequencies below 500Hz should increase while for speech
As sound levels fall due to absorption and transmission there should be little deviation from the value at 500Hz.
at solid boundaries, it follows that where sound has to REVERBERATION CONTROL.
travel further between reflections (ie larger rooms), it
will take longer for the sound pressure level to fall, Increasing the amount of sound absorption within a
resulting in longer reverberation times. room reduces both the reverberant sound pressure level
and the reverberation time.
Rooms used for different purposes need different
reverberation times. Churches, concert halls and music The effect on reverberant sound pressure level is a 3dB
studios may require reverberation times of up to 2 or 3 reduction for each doubling of absorption. Thus, in a
seconds, while for broadcasting studios and open plan highly reflective room the addition of small amounts of
offices appropriate reverberation times may be below sound absorbing materials will have a marked effect on
0.5 seconds. the sound pressure level, while in a highly absorptive
room the addition of large amounts of sound absorbing
Reverberation time affects both the room acoustics
materials may have little effect.
and the noise level. Short reverberation times result in
lower noise levels and what is commonly called ‘dead’ Reverberation control as a means of noise control is
acoustics, while long reverberation times result in higher limited by two factors. Firstly, it is not possible to reduce
noise level, or ‘live’ acoustics. For everyday purposes, the total sound pressure level below that due to direct air
reverberation time criteria can be classified as shown in borne sound transmission from source to receiver.
Table A4. The optimum reverberation time depends Secondly, very large amounts of sound absorption may
upon the intended use of the room. make the room unacceptably ‘dead’ by reducing the
reverberation time too much.
The reverberation time depends on the room volume
and the total sound absorption present in the room. It may
be calculated by:

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FIG A10. MEAN REVERBERATION TIMES (FROM AS2107 : 1987).
3.0

2.0
Midfrequency Reverberation Time (sec)

s
che
h ur
C
ls
al
t H
c er
on
C es
nd ous
a
os aH
i er
ud Op
St
c
u si
M

s
ium
1.0 itor
ud
chA
ee
Sp
s
re
e at
0.7 t Th
en
m
rt ain
n te s
yE dio
t Stu
r ie dT
V
s Va an
ch Studio Film
Spee

0
50 100 500 1000 10000 100000

Room Volume (m3)

Equation Nº5 Note: Equation Nº5 shows that doubling the


amount of absorption in the room halves the
0.162 V
T = reverberation time.
A
For highly sound absorbent rooms such as recording
studios, the reverberation time is more correctly calculated
Where:
by:
T = reverberation time (sec)
Equation Nº6
V = room volume (m3)
0.162 V
A = Sα total absorption (Sabins) T =
– S ln (1 – α)
Where:
S = room surface area (m2)
The use of CSR Bradford Rockwool or Glasswool
α = average sound absorption coefficient
insulation is the most effective means of absorbing sound
for room surfaces
and reducing overall sound levels in enclosed areas.

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Room Acoustics. REVERBERATION CONTROL
IN BUILDINGS.
While legislation sets noise limits for industrial exposure, it is Hard surfaces are excellent reflectors of sound which
left to the architect or consultant to set appropriate noise levels magnifies the effect of the initial noise source.
for rooms. The Standards Association of Australia provides a
Where the overall noise level depends mainly on a
comprehensive list of recommendations in AS2107 : 1987
build-up of reflected sound within the room, a significant
‘Acoustics - Recommended Design Sound Levels and
reduction in noise level may be achieved by increasing the
Reverberation Times for Building Interiors’. A guide to suitable
total sound absorption in the room. This may be achieved
background sound levels is given in Table A5.
most simply by using absorptive rather than reflective
materials at room boundaries.
TABLE A5. Increasing the sound absorption within a room will
RECOMMEND MAXIMUM
BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS. also reduce its reverberation time. In most cases this will
be desirable as a high level of reflected noise generally
Type of Activity Recommended Ambient
indicates excessive reverberation time. The reverberation
Sound Level dB(A)
time should not be shortened too much as it would
Board and conference rooms 30-35 make the room unnaturally ‘dead’ for the purpose for
Computer rooms 45-55 which it is used. However if the space contains unwanted
noise, maximum absorption is desirable.
General office areas 40-45
FIG A11.
Private offices 35-40 SOUND ABSORPTION OF DIFFERENT
TYPES OF ABSORBERS.
Small retail stores 45-50
1.4
Supermarkets 50-55
Hotel lounges 45-55 1.2
Libraries - reading areas 40-45
Sound Absorption Coefficient (α)

1.0
Restaurants 40-45
Dissipative
Absorber
Airport lounges 45-60 0.8

Places of worship 30-35


0.6
Court rooms 25-30
Surgery and consulting rooms 40-45 0.4

Hospital wards 30-40 Membrane


Absorber
0.2
Classrooms 35-40 Cavity
Absorber
Laboratories - Teaching 35-40
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
Laboratories - Working 40-50 Frequency (Hz)

Lecture theatres - up to 250 seats 30-35


Lecture theatres - more than 250 seats 25-30 Absorbing or controlling noise within a space can be done
using materials called ‘sound absorbers’ which can be
Bowling alleys 50-55
grouped into 3 categories; porous or dissipative absorbers,
Squash courts 50-55 membrane or panel absorbers and cavity absorbers (see
Figure A11).

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A C O U S T I C D E S I G N G U I D E
POROUS OR DISSIPATIVE ABSORBERS. FIG A13. BROAD-BAND SOUND ABSORBER.
Plan View.
Porous or dissipative absorbers, (eg. rockwool or glasswool
insulation) which work by converting sound energy from Wall
Chicken
Wire
Airspace should be at least
the thickness of the cavity
the moving air particles into heat through friction. This insulation

occurs in the material’s many tiny narrow fibrous airways.


The thicker and denser the porous absorber is, the better
the sound absorption. (Refer to Figure A12). Porous
absorbers are often faced for support and/or decorated
with: Bradford Glasswool or Gyprock plasterboard, Timber
Fibertex Rockwool perforated hardboard, Framing
• Perforated facings - foil, metals (such as Bradford expanded metal or
Bradford Thermofoil HD
Acousticlad), timber or plasterboard. Perforated

• Bradford Ultraphon™, FIG A14. TIMBER PANELLING FOR


• Black tissue facing, LOW FREQUENCY ABSORPTION.
Plan View.
• Thin polyester film or
• Fabrics. Wall

FIG A12.
POROUS ABSORBERS – EFFECT OF THICKNESS.

1.0 100 Bradford Glasswool Timber Panelling Timber


Building Blanket or Batten
Fibertex Rockwool

0.8 80
Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient (x)

CAVITY ABSORBERS.
Cavity absorbers are usually an enclosed volume of air
s
ness

nes

ness

with a small neck opening. The moving air particles


hick

0.6 60
Absorption (%)
Thick

hick

produce a type of pumping action in the neck of the


mT

ess
mT
50mm

25m

Thickn

cavity, converting the sound energy into heat. Most


12m

0.4 40
common type of cavity absorber is a Helmholtz resonator.
6mm

Cavity absorbers provide a very narrow band of sound


0.2 20 absorption, which can be expanded with the use of
rockwool or glasswool insulation in the enclosed space.
These absorbers have specialised acoustic applications
0 0
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 such as studios and auditoria and for pure tone absorption.
Freqencey (Hz) The excellent sound absorbing properties of Bradford
Rockwool and Glasswool can be used to great advantage
in reverberation control.

MEMBRANE OR PANEL ABSORBERS. REVERBERATION CONTROL


IN BUILDINGS.
Sound is transferred into vibrational energy in the face
Some typical examples include:
of the panel with maximum absorption occurring at the
resonant frequency of the panel (see Figure A13). The UNDER-ROOF.
resonant frequency is affected by surface density of the Where condensation protection is required, install
panel, the size and stiffness of the airspace behind the Bradford Anticon™ or Acousticon™ with foil facing under
panel and the spacing of the panel supports. the steel roof.
As the airspace or mass of the panel are increased, the For better acoustic absorption, install 50mm to
frequency of maximum absorption, (ie. the resonant 100mm Bradford Fibertex™ Rockwool or Bradford
frequency) decreases. Adding rockwool or glasswool Glasswool (Flexitel™, Supertel™ or Ultratel™) blanket
insulation in the air cavity of panel absorbers, increase faced with CSR Bradford Thermoplast™ 980 perforated
their absorptive frequency range. Typical examples are foil. This is an effective way to add significant sound
solid, reflective panels (timber, plasterboard etc.) panel on absorptive insulation.
studwork, lightweight partitions on studwork, suspended
ceilings and windows.

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FIG A15. SUSPENDED BAFFLES.
ABSORPTIVE WALL TREATMENT IN SCHOOL HALL.
Black Matt Faced FIBERTEX™ An alternative treatment which maximises absorptive
Retained Behind Spaced Timber Strips. area is to install Bradford Rockwool Acoustic Baffles.
Baffles may be installed at any height and do not
need to be all in the same plane. A regular pattern is most
easily installed using a suspended ceiling grid. Inverted
aluminium U-channels are fixed to the underside of the
grid. The baffles are then secured to the U-channel using
self tapping screws. Alternatively, individual baffles may
be suspended using galvanised wire and ‘S’ hooks.

WALLS.
Sound absorbing walls may be constructed by retaining
rockwool or glasswool behind spaced timber panels as
shown in Figure A15. Alternative treatments include
fixing the sound absorbing batts behind perforated
plywood, perforated Gyprock® plasterboard or metal.
The use of a black matt tissue finish or Bradford
Ultraphon™ on the batts is recommended for aesthetic
reasons.
CEILINGS. Sound absorbing panels may also be fixed to walls as
The use of black-faced Bradford Glasswool Blanket as shown in Figure A17. The decorative facing chosen
an acoustic overlay for slatted timber, metal strip, and should be acoustically transparent (with low flow
perforated metal pan ceilings is illustrated in Figure A15. resistance) to maximise the amount of sound reaching the
The non-reflective black finish significantly enhances insulation behind. Open weave fabrics are suitable for
the appearance of these ceilings while the glasswool these applications.
absorbs noise that would otherwise be reflected back
into the room. FIG A17.
ABSORPTIVE WALL PANELLING RIGID BOARD
An alternative approach is to use a fully exposed metal
WITH DECORATIVE FACING.
suspension grid to support the ceiling which also achieves
an air gap behind the batts to boost low frequency sound
absorption.

FIG A16.
SOUND ABSORPTIVE TREATMENT OF
METAL PAN CEILING.

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TABLE A6.
INSULATION FOR NOISE REVERBERATION CONTROL.
Application Product Comment
Sports/Community Centre Bradford Glasswool Blanket faced with Cost effect way to add large
Walls/Roof. Thermoplast™ 980 Perforated Foil. quantity of absorption.
Insulation over Perforated Bradford Glasswool Blanket BMF High absorption capacity
Plasterboard or Perforated Metal. or Flexitel™ BMF/Ultraphon™ . enhanced by air space behind
ceiling.
Absorption Behind Cinema Screens. Bradford Supertel™ BMF/Ultraphon™ Optimum sound absorption
over all frequencies.
Cinema Wall. Bradford Supertel™ or Ultratel™ - Absorptive and
Front Runner faced. aesthetic facing.
Bottling/Canner Plant. Bradford Acoustic Baffles. Convenient way to add
absorption to reverberant
areas where conventional
methods are not available.
Acoustic Enclosure. Bradford Acousticlad™ For industrial noise control
(Fibertex™ 350 + Perforated Metal). Fibertex™ Rockwool products are
excellent acoustic absorbers.
Sound Recording Studio. Bradford Fibertex™ 350 Rockwool For high level of sound
BMF or Ultraphon™ faced or absorption at low frequencies,
Bradford Glasswool Ultratel™ use 100mm thickness.
Conference Room. Bradford Ductel™ faced . High absorption with
with front runner compression resistance and
aesthetic surface.
BMF = Black Matt Facing

Industrial Acoustic Some of the many means by which noise can be


controlled will be discussed in this brochure.
Design Criteria. The costs of noise control may appear high, especially
Industrial noise is a by-product of the mechanical when correcting existing problems, but the costs of
age. Its nuisance value has long been tolerated as an workers compensation, non-compliance with legislation,
unavoidable consequence of labour-saving plant and and industrial disharmony, in the long term, can be
equipment. much more expensive. The fatiguing aspects of noise
may lead to lowered productivity and the cost of this in
But we now know that excessive noise is not just
an ongoing situation is also high.
annoying - it is also dangerous. It causes both temporary
and permanent hearing damage, body fatigue, nervous NOISE LEVELS.
stress, and adversely affects workplace safety by masking The first criterion considered here is usually noise
communication and warning signals. Hearing loss cannot legislation. There are essentially two components:
be cured. (i) the noise level to which employees may be exposed,
It is now generally accepted that continued exposure i.e. Occupational Noise.
to noise levels of 80dB(A) or more will result in hearing (ii) the noise level that the factory may emit to the
loss. Already researchers are suggesting the danger level surrounding community.
may be even lower. The increasing number of people
In Australia The NSW ‘Occupational Health & Safety
suffering from noise induced hearing loss underlines the
Regulation 1996’ (effective 31 May 1997) states ‘a place
importance of controlling noise in factories.
of work is unsafe and a risk to health if any person is
Noise levels can be reduced and excessive noise should exposed to noise levels’:
no longer be considered an ‘occupational hazard’.

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a) that exceed an 8 hour noise level equivalent of CONCENTRATION.
85dB(A) or High noise levels are known to affect concentration
b) ‘Peak’ noise levels of 140dB (Lin) or more. which leads to increased errors in machine operation
For every 3dB(A) above 85dB(A), the exposure time and failure to detect quality defects in product. Lack of
is halved, so that four hours exposure would be permitted concentration can also be a safety hazard resulting in
at 88dB(A) and two hours at 91dB(A) and so on. injury to employees and equipment damage.
Conversely, every 3dB(A) lowering of the noise levels Each situation will have its own peculiarities so it is
doubles the time for which employees may be exposed. not possible to set a universal permissible noise level for
Therefore 16 hours of exposure would permitted at all factories. Consideration of the above factors, together
82dB(A). Compliance with noise legislation does not with the costs involved, should permit a responsible
therefore automatically ensure that employees will not target noise level to be set.
suffer noise induced hearing loss.
Permitted noise emission levels depend upon the Speech Privacy.
location of the factor y and it’s proximity to The need to preserve confidentiality of conversation
residences/offices nearby. The Environment Protection arises in many situations. Discussions in conference rooms
Authority (EPA) sets noise criteria for noise emissions and executive offices should not be overheard. People
from industry. waiting in airport lounges or hotel lobbies wish to
The character of the noise is also important. High converse freely. Intimate diners do not wish to share
frequency sounds are more annoying than sounds of low their conversation with others in the restaurant. Acoustical
frequency, while noise with prominent tonal components privacy is paramount in residential situations where walls
is more annoying than broad band noise of the same or floors abut adjoining residences. Bedrooms in one
intensity. The hours of operation also affect the permitted residence need to be acoustically isolated from rooms in
noise emission levels. Lower levels apply at night than other residences to avoid annoyance. Similarly impact
during the day. noise on hard floors can irritate people in rooms below.
Other aspects affected by noise level include: The level of speech privacy required will depend on
the particular situation. Three categories may be
SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY.
considered:
High noise levels above 70dB(A) can make verbal
communication extremely difficult and loss of speech 1. Partial coherence – small portions of the conversation
intelligibility can occur. This leads to misunderstandings may be intelligible to an uninvolved listener, but
which can result in inefficient process operations, product he/she will not be able to follow the conversation as
losses, unsafe working practices, and industrial unrest. a whole,
2. Incoherent – an uninvolved listener can hear the
MACHINE OPERATION. sound of conversation but it is not intelligible,
The sounds emitted by many machines convey 3. Inaudibility – no sound whatever can be heard by an
important information to operators on the functioning uninvolved listener.
of the machine. Excessive background noise may mask
Speech privacy is a two-way consideration. It may be
these sounds, preventing early detection of machine
required to protect the confidentiality of conversation (eg.
malfunction. Expensive repairs and loss of productivity
a boardroom meeting) or on the other hand, to avoid
may result.
distraction of uninvolved listeners (eg. office workers or
WARNING SIGNALS. people in a library).
Many warning signals or alarms rely on sound to Typically in commercial applications, noises such as
attract people’s attention. Most alarms now incorporate conversations, telephones ringing etc can be heard from
both visual (e.g. flashing lights) and audio signals, but it one office to another (also known as ‘crosstalk’). This can
is important to note that visual signals are only effective cause disruption, annoyance, and decreased productivity.
for the line of sight, while audio signals are designed to Crosstalk usually occurs from sound flanking via the:
attract attention regardless of where an employee may be • light weight ceilings (refer to ‘Ceilings’, page 18 for
looking. High background noise levels may mask these diagrams showing installation ).
warning signals, resulting in unsafe work practices and • Air conditioning ducts (refer to ‘Air Conditioning
inefficient process operation. Noise Control’, page 36).
• Windows and doors.

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APPENDIX B.

Floor/Ceiling Systems.
TABLE B1.
FIRE AND ACOUSTIC CEILING SYSTEMS
UTILISING CSR BRADFORD INSULATION AND CSR GYPROCK PLASTERBOARD.
Detailed information on these and alternative CSR Fire and/or Acoustic Rated Ceiling Systems and Wall Systems
is published in the CSR Gyprock Fire and Acoustic Design Guide, NºGYP500.

Framing System Fire Weighted Impact BRADFORD Insulation Material


Method Nº Resistance Level Sound Insulation GYPROCK® Plasterboard Ceiling Lining
FRL Rw Class

CSR 800 –/–/– 27 – No insulation


No plasterboard
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 801 –/–/– 38 – 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 802 –/–/– 42 – 2 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
30/30/30 No insulation
CSR 805 36 –
+ BCA FPC 1 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 806 44 –
+ RISF 30 2 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 809 + RISF 60 48 – 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
90/90/90 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 807 48 –
+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
120/120/120 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 808 47 –
+ RISF 60 3 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


CSR 811 –/–/– 44 – 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
30/30/30 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 815 + BCA FPC 46 – 1 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 816 + RISF 30 47 – 1 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 819 60/60/60 50 –
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 817 90/90/90 52 –
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
120/120/120 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 818 + RISF 60 55 – 3 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


CSR 821 –/–/– 53 67 1 x 13 GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 823 –/–/– 53 67 1 x 10 SOUNDCHEK Plasterboard
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 824 –/–/– 57 70 2 x 10 SOUNDCHEK Plasterboard
30/30/30 R1.5 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 825 53 – 56 48 – 67 1 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
+ BCA FPC
60/60/60 R1.5 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 826 + RISF 30 54 49 – 68 1 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

CSR 829 60/60/60 57


R1.5 Bradford GOLD BATTS
50 – 70 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
+ RISF 60
90/90/90 R1.5 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 827 + RISF 60 57 51 – 70 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
RISF = Resistance to Incipient Spread of Fire. BCA FPC = Building Code of Australia Fire Protective Covering.

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TABLE B1.
(continued)
Framing System Fire Weighted Impact BRADFORD Insulation Material
Method Nº Resistance Level Sound Insulation GYPROCK® Plasterboard Ceiling Lining
FRL Rw Class
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 831 –/–/– 48 – 1 x 13 GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 833 –/–/– 48 – 1 x 10 SOUNDCHEK Plasterboard
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 832 –/–/– 53 – 2 x 13 GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 834 –/–/– 53 – 2 x 10 SOUNDCHEK Plasterboard
30/30/30 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 835 48 –
+ BCA FPC 1 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 836 + RISF 30 51 – 1 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 839 60/60/60 55 –
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 837 90/90/90 55 –
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 838 120/120/120 58 –
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 3 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


CSR 841 –/–/– 54 67 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
30/30/30 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 845 54 67
+ BCA FPC 1 x 13mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 846 + RISF 30 58 70 1 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 849 60/60/60 62 70 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
CSR 847 90/90/90 62 73 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard
120/120/120 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS
CSR 848 + RISF 60 62 75 3 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

R1.5 Bradford Glasswool ANTICON over purlins


CSR 860 –/–/– 50 – 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD
R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS on ceiling

90/90/90 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


CSR 865 49 –
+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

60/60/60 R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


CSR 870 44 –
+ RISF 60 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

CSR 871 90/90/90 44 – R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

CSR 875 60/60/60 49 – R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


+ RISF 60 1x13mm+1x16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

CSR 876 90/90/90 49 – R2.0 Bradford GOLD BATTS


+ RISF 60 2 x 16mm Gyprock FYRCHEK Plasterboard

RISF = Resistance to Incipient Spread of Fire. BCA FPC = Building Code of Australia Fire Protective Covering.

NOTE: Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Batts.


When using Bradford FIBERTEX™ Rockwool Batts in the systems detailed in Table B1, Rw or STC rating is
generally increased by 1 to 3 units. Please refer to the CSR Bradford Insulation Acoustic Design Guide or contact
your regional CSR Bradford Insulation office for more information.

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APPENDIX C.
CSR BRADFORD INSULATION PRODUCT DATA.

Bradford Acoustilag. ™

CSR Bradford Insulation offers three types of Acoustilag™: Acoustilag™ 20, Acoustilag™ 23 and Acoustilag™ 26

TABLE C1. BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG SPECIFICATIONS.


Product SoundLagg™ Insulation Standard Roll Noise Reduction
Mass (kg) Thickness (mm) Size dB(A)*
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 20 3.0 25 5m x 1200mm 20dB(A)
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 23 4.5 50 5m x 1200mm 23dB(A)
Bradford ACOUSTILAG™ 26 8 50 3m x 1200mm 26dB(A)
* ‘Noise Reduction’ refers to Insertion Loss which is the difference between the sum of the A-weighted Sound
Power Levels of the lagged and unlagged pipes.
The Acoustilag Noise Reductions of 20 23 and 26dB(A) ONLY apply to water flowing through PVC pipes.

Table C2 details CSR Bradford’s Acoustilag systems using CSR Gyprock® plasterboard to achieve the strict STC noise
requirements specified by the BCA (Building Code of Australia).
TABLE C2. BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG™ SYSTEMS.
System STC Bradford CSR Gyprock® Bradford
Acoustilag Plasterboard Insulation
BAS 01 STC 30 ACOUSTILAG™ 20 1 layer 10mm CSR
Gyprock® Plasterboard -
BAS 02 STC 45 ACOUSTILAG™ 20 2 layers 13mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock® Plasterboard Glasswool R1.5
BAS 03 ACOUSTILAG™ 23 2 layers 10mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock® Plasterboard Glasswool R1.5
BAS 04 STC 50 ACOUSTILAG™ 23 2 layers 13mm CSR 105mm Bradford
Gyprock® Plasterboard Glasswool, R2.0
BAS 05 ACOUSTILAG™ 26 2 layers 13mm CSR 75mm Bradford
Gyprock® Plasterboard Glasswool R1.5

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TABLE C3. BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG™ INSERTION LOSSES.


Product Sound Insertion Loss Insertion
(Octave Band Centre Frequency HZ) Loss
125* 250* 500* 1000* 2000* 4000* 8000* Overall*
ACOUSTILAG™ 20 4 -1 4 14 21 30 29 20
ACOUSTILAG™ 23 1 -4 8 17 27 42 50 23
ACOUSTILAG™ 26 3 -2 10 20 29 43 50 26
* Sound Insertion Loss is the difference in sound power levels of a bare (unlagged) pipe versus the lagged (insulated) pipe in 1/3 octave bands
from 100Hz to 10kHz. Noise source: water flowing through PVC pipes. National Acoustic Laboratories (NAL) test reports are available on
request.

FIG C1. BRADFORD ACOUSTILAG™ INSERTION LOSSES.

60

50

40
Souond Power Levels (dB)

30
re: 1 pW

20 Bare Pipe

AcoustilagTM 20

10 AcoustilagTM 23

AcoustilagTM 26

-10
10000
1000

1250

1600

2000

2500

3150

4000

5000

6300

8000
100

125

160

200

250

315

400

500

630

800

Frequency (Hz)

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Bradford Acousticlad.

TABLE C4. ACOUSTICLAD™ TEST CONFIGURATIONS AND ACOUSTIC TEST RESULTS.


All five Bradford Acousticlad™ samples tested and detailed in Tables C4 and C5 use perforated aluminium panel with
Bradford 50mm thick Fibertex™ 350 Rockwool -(60kg/m3) Insulation.
Test Report Acousticlad Test Sample Configuration Noise Reduction
Number Perforated Coefficient
% Open Area NRC
ATF 771 15% (60kg/m3) Insulation with black matt
tissue between the rockwool and
Acousticlad™ face. NRC 1.00
ATF 772 25% as above NRC 0.95
ATF 773 40% as above NRC 1.00
ATF 774 15% 23µmm thick Mylar film between unfaced
Bradford Fibertex™ 350 Rockwool and
Acousticlad™ perforated aluminium. NRC 0.90
ATF 775 15% 50mm thick Bradford Fibertex 350 Rockwool

Insulation with black matt tissue between the


rockwool and perforated aluminium. Timber spacers
supporting panels with average air gap 30mm. NRC 1.05
Note: – All acoustic tests in Table above conducted with Acousticlad™ perforated aluminium panels (0.7mm thick), with Bradford 50mm
thick Fibertex™ 350 Rockwool (60kg/m3) insulation.
– Acoustic tests (ATF 771-775) were conducted in reverberation room at the National Acoustic Laboratories, Chatswood, Sydney,
Australia.

TABLE C5. ACOUSTICLAD™ ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS IN 1/3 OCTAVE BANDS.


NAL Test Report Number ATF 771 ATF 772 ATF 773 ATF 774 ATF 775
Frequency Acoustical Acoustical Acoustical Acoustical Acoustical
Hz Absorption Absorption Absorption Absorption Absorption
100 0.20 0.25 0.20 0.40 0.35
125 0.30 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.35
160 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.65 0.55
200 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.85 0.90
250 0.85 0.80 0.80 0.90 1.10
315 1.00 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.10
400 1.05 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.15
500 1.05 1.05 1.10 1.00 1.10
630 1.05 1.00 1.05 1.05 1.10
800 1.05 1.10 1.00 0.95 1.00
1000 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 1.00
1250 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 1.00
1600 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.80 0.95
2000 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80 1.00
2500 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.75 1.05
3150 1.00 1.00 1.05 0.70 0.95
4000 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.65 0.95
5000 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.60 0.90
Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.90 1.05

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Sound Absorption Coefficients.


TABLE C6. NOISE REDUCTION COEFFICIENTS BRADFORD ROCKWOOL PRODUCTS.
Bradford Insulation Rockwool products exhibit the following sound absorption coefficients when tested in accordance
with AS1045 - 1988, Reverberation Room Method.

Product Facing Thickness Frequency (Hz)


mm 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC*
Bradford Rockwool
Ceiling Batts R 2.0 Nil 80 0.57 1.00 1.20 1.06 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.10
R 2.5 100 0.75 1.20 1.19 1.07 1.10 1.09 1.10 1.15
Bradford Rockwool
Building Blanket R1.2 Nil 50 0.24 0.73 0.93 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.14 0.96
R1.2 BMF 50 0.30 0.75 0.90 0.95 0.95 1.00 1.00 0.90
R1.2 THERMOFOIL™
HD Perf. 50 0.20 0.80 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.85 0.95
Bradford Rockwool
Wall & Floor Batts R1.5 Nil 75 0.22 0.49 0.96 0.96 1.02 1.08 1.09 0.85
R 2.0 95 0.57 1.00 1.20 1.06 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.10
Bradford Rockwool
FIBERTEX™ 350 Nil 25 0.18 0.29 0.69 0.86 1.05 1.20 1.16 0.72
R-rated Ductliner 50 0.21 0.69 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.14 1.03
THERMOFOIL™
HD Perf. 25 0.14 0.38 0.87 1.07 1.06 0.90 0.79 0.85
50 0.31 0.83 1.16 0.99 0.90 0.78 0.73 0.97
BMF 25 0.15 0.33 0.74 0.94 1.03 1.04 0.98 0.76
50 0.36 0.76 1.19 1.09 1.03 1.04 0.90 1.01
Bradford Rockwool
FIBERTEX™ 450 Nil 25 0.11 0.20 0.80 1.10 10.2 1.12 1.20 0.77
50 0.29 0.76 1.07 1.10 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.01
THERMOFOIL™
HD Perf. 25 0.12 0.27 0.80 1.17 1.16 0.80 0.86 0.85
50 0.27 0.78 1.23 1.17 1.13 1.00 0.94 1.08
ULTRAPHON™ 50 0.43 0.99 1.09 1.11 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.06
ACOUSTITUFF™ 50 0.54 0.99 1.07 0.81 0.57 0.33 0.25 0.85
Bradford Rockwool
FIBERTEX™ 650 Nil 25 0.21 0.29 0.52 1.14 1.02 0.97 1.06 0.74
50 0.59 0.97 1.18 1.00 1.04 1.02 1.03 1.05
Bradford Rockwool
Acoustic Baffle Mylar 50 0.17 0.41 0.87 1.22 1.12 0.95 0.90 0.91
* NRC: Arithmetic average of absorption coefficients of frequency 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz and 2000Hz.

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TABLE C7. NOISE REDUCTION COEFFICIENTS BRADFORD GLASSWOOL PRODUCTS.


Bradford Insulation Glasswool products exhibit the following sound absorption coefficients when tested in accordance
with AS1045 : 1988, Reverberation Room Method.

Product Facing R-Value Frequency (Hz)


(Thickness) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC*
Bradford Glasswool Nil R 2.0 0.60 0.98 1.03 1.05 1.14 1.10 1.09 1.05
GOLD BATTS™ for Ceilings (105mm)
Bradford Glasswool Gold Nil R2.0 0.57 0.78 0.97 0.91 0.96 1.00 0.95 0.91
Batts for Walls & Floors (95mm)
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL™ R 1.5 0.34 0.86 1.04 0.41 0.20 0.07 0.04 0.66
ANTICON™ LD Plain (55 mm)
Roofing Blanket THERMOFOIL™ R 2.0 0.60 1.21 0.90 0.41 0.28 0.10 0.12 0.70
LD Plain (75 mm)
THERMOFOIL™ R2.5 0.72 1.43 0.82 0.43 0.26 0.14 0.08 0.75
` LD Plain (95 mm)
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL™ R 1.8 0.14 1.02 0.82 0.42 0.38 0.29 0.38 0.66
ACOUSTICON™ LD Plain (75 mm)
Bradford Glasswool Nil R1.2 0.25 0.65 0.80 0.90 0.90 1.00 1.05 0.80
Building Blanket (50 mm)
Nil R1.8 0.35 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.90 1.10 1.05 0.85
(75 mm)
THERMOFOIL™ R1.2 0.30 0.65 0.90 1.00 0.90 0.85 0.85 0.86
HD Perf (50mm)
THERMOFOIL™ R1.8
HD Perf (75 mm) 0.35 0.75 1.00 1.10 0.95 0.85 0.85 0.95
BMF 50 mm 0.25 0.70 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.95 1.05 0.84
BMF 75mm 0.35 0.75 0.85 0.85 0.90 1.00 1.05 0.86
Bradford Glasswool Nil 50 mm 0.34 0.86 1.04 0.41 0.20 0.07 0.04 0.65
Ceiling Panel Overlays
Bradford Glasswool Nil 25 0.12 0.74 1.07 0.52 0.26 0.14 0.08 0.65
MULTITEL™ 18kg/m3
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.10 0.33 0.66 0.90 1.03 0.79 0.76 0.75
FLEXITEL™ 24kg/m3 HD Perf. 50 0.39 0.84 1.08 1.20 1.06 1.01 0.95 1.05
BMF 25 0.09 0.33 0.57 0.73 0.90 0.99 1.01 0.65
50 0.27 0.69 1.08 1.06 1.11 1.10 1.09 1.00
* NRC: Arithmetic average of absorption coefficients of frequency 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz and 2000Hz.

NOTE:
Data included in this Acoustic Design Guide may be used as a guide for design purposes. However, CSR Bradford
Insulation recommends that an acoustic consultant be referenced for critical design applications, or where
interpolation of data may be required.
Acoustic testing is subject to variation from laboratory to laboratory.

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TABLE C7. (continued)
NOISE REDUCTION COEFFICIENTS BRADFORD GLASSWOOL PRODUCTS.
Bradford Insulation Glasswool products exhibit the following sound absorption coefficients when tested in accordance
with AS1045 : 1988, Reverberation Room Method.

Product Facing Thickness Frequency (Hz)


mm 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 5000 NRC*
Bradford Glasswool Nil 25 0.12 0.41 0.63 0.90 1.01 0.99 0.94 0.74
SUPERTEL™ 32 kg/m3/ 50 0.27 0.75 1.12 1.12 1.07 1.04 1.03 1.01
Ductliner 75 0.52 0.94 1.24 1.13 1.06 1.09 1.02 1.09
THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.12 0.56 1.18 0.53 0.17 0.10 0.12 0.60
HD Plain 50 0.46 1.10 0.92 0.46 0.19 0.09 0.06 0.65
THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.08 0.39 0.73 1.02 1.12 0.84 0.75 0.81
HD Perf. 30 0.12 0.48 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.94 0.87 0.81
50 0.23 0.71 0.99 1.09 0.97 0.78 0.59 0.94
75 0.52 1.02 1.15 1.07 1.02 0.90 0.83 1.06
BMF 13 0.09 0.14 0.29 0.56 0.72 0.87 0.90 0.40
25 0.07 0.26 0.65 0.93 1.04 1.03 1.00 0.72
50 0.24 0.62 1.00 1.07 1.12 1.15 1.17 0.95
THERMOFOIL HD Perf
+ Mylar™ film 50 0.32 1.14 0.94 0.48 0.22 0.06 0.03 0.70
Perforated Metal 25 0.13 0.32 0.59 0.83 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.68
50 0.31 0.74 1.00 1.09 1.06 1.03 0.98 0.95
ULTRAPHON™ 25 0.10 0.39 0.79 1.00 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.81
30 0.13 0.52 0.97 1.08 0.96 0.90 0.90 0.88
50 0.30 1.01 1.31 1.20 1.05 0.97 0.95 1.14
ACOUSTITUFF™ 25 0.14 0.45 0.99 0.97 0.55 0.29 0.25 0.75
30 0.16 0.46 0.86 0.95 0.45 0.25 0.18 0.71
50 0.33 1.01 1.17 0.99 0.64 0.34 0.28 0.95
Bradford Glasswool Nil 25 0.03 0.24 0.65 0.98 1.07 1.03 1.01 0.74
Premium Ductliner/ 50 0.34 0.65 1.23 1.11 1.08 1.02 0.98 1.02
ULTRATEL™ THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.12 0.31 0.81 1.09 1.09 0.91 0.89 0.83
48kg/m3 HD Perf. 75 0.69 1.19 1.15 1.09 1.03 0.92 0.90 1.12
BMF 25 0.08 0.30 0.71 0.99 1.07 1.08 1.16 0.77
50 0.25 0.70 1.13 1.13 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.01
ACOUSTITUFF™ 25 0.05 0.55 0.65 0.90 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.70
50 0.30 0.75 0.90 0.85 0.65 0.50 0.60 0.79
Bradford Glasswool Nil 13 0.06 0.08 0.28 0.62 0.86 1.06 1.04 0.46
QUIETEL™ 130 kg/m3 25 0.07 0.28 0.74 1.04 1.13 1.09 1.11 0.80
50 0.36 0.81 1.12 1.18 1.11 1.12 1.22 1.05
Bradford Glasswool Nil 50 0.42 0.74 1.10 1.12 1.08 1.00 0.97 1.00
THERMATEL™ 44 kg/m3 75 0.51 1.10 1.18 1.08 1.02 1.03 1.07 1.09
Bradford Glasswool THERMOFOIL™ 25 0.06 0.38 0.93 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.87 0.88
DUCTEL™ 80 kg/m3 HD Perf. 50 0.35 0.91 1.15 1.12 1.08 0.93 0.85 1.06
* NRC: Arithmetic average of absorption coefficients of frequency 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz and 2000Hz.

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Insertion Loss Data.


TABLE C8. STATIC INSERTION LOSS OF INTERNAL DUCT LININGS.
Bradford Rockwool exhibits the following when tested in accordance with Static Insertion Loss as internal duct linings
AS1277 : 1983 ‘Acoustics - Measurement Procedure For Ducted Silencers’. Test Report 300610/1-97.
Insertion Loss (dB loss 600x600x4000 test duct)
Product Facing Thickness Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz)
mm 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000
Bradford Glasswool BMF 50 1.4 4.6 16.8 53.2 51.6 32.4 24.4
DUCTLINER THERMOFOIL™
3
50 1.6 5.3 18.9 53.4 48.3 31.8 24.6
32 kg/m HD Perf.
23µm Melinex
+ THERMOFOIL™ 50 1.9 5.7 21.1 26.6 16.7 12.9 12.8
HD Perf.
ACOUSTITUFF™ 50 2.5 4.7 21.3 46.8 39.3 23.3 17.4
ULTRAPHON ™
50 2.0 5.0 20.9 51.5 46.6 30.3 27.5
Bradford Premium
Ductliner ULTRATEL ACOUSTITUFF™ 50 – 4.9 14.2 39.0 37.0 22.4 18.6
48 kg/m 3

Bradford FIBERTEX™ THERMOFOIL™


DUCTLINER HD Perf. 50 2.8 5.8 19.9 56.6 49.1 32.4 24.6
60 kg/m3

TABLE C9: INSERTION LOSS DATA FOR ULTRAPHON SILENCERS.


Bradford Ultraphon™ facing exhibits the following characteristics when tested to AS1277 : 1983 ‘Acoustics -
Measurement Procedure For Ducted Silencers’.
TABLE C9(a). Static Insertion Loss in dB of Silencer utilising two (2) modular side splitters, 150mm thick
ULTRAPHON™-faced Glasswool with a single 300mm wide throat with two (2) test lengths of 1200mm and
2400mm in a 610 x 610mm test duct.
Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 1.2m 2.5 9.8 11.7 16.0 14.5 12.8 11.5 11.3
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 2.4m 5.3 15.1 23.6 28.3 24.4 20.0 16.4 15.3
TABLE C9(b). Static Insertion Loss in dB of Silencer utilising two (2) modular side splitters, two (2) 50mm thick
ULTRAPHON™-faced Glasswool and two (2) 100mm thick double-sided ULTRAPHON™-faced splitters with
three (3) 100mm wide throats with two (2) test lengths of 1200mm and 1800mm in a 610 x 610mm test duct.
Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 1.2m 1.5 4.3 17.3 35.1 45.7 33.6 31.3 33.0
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 2.4m 2.0 6.1 19.1 40.1 53.9 42.0 32.7 27.3
TABLE C9(c). Static Insertion Loss in dB of Silencer utilising two (2) modular side splitters, 100mm thick
ULTRAPHON™-faced Glasswool with a single 180mm wide throat with two (2) test lengths of 1200mm and
1800mm in a 510 x 380mm test duct.
Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 1.2m 2.0 6.8 18.5 29.2 28.1 20.4 16.8 16.2
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 2.4m 3.7 9.2 26.7 36.2 37.3 27.9 22.4 19.6

BRADFORD ROCKWOOL FIBERTEX 450 80kg2


TABLE C9(d). Static Insertion Loss in dB of Silencer utilising two (2) modular side splitters, 50mm thick
ULTRAPHON™-faced Fibertex 450 Rockwool with a single 180mm wide throat with two (2) test lengths of
1200mm and 1800mm in a 510 x 380mm test duct.
Octave Band Centre Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Static Insertion Loss (dB) for 1.2m 1.9 5.5 16.6 28.7 39.1 31.4 26.1 22.7

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Air Flow Resistivity.


TABLE C10. BRADFORD ROCKWOOL AIR FLOW RESISTIVITY.
The Bradford Rockwool range achieves the following Air Flow Resistivities, when tested in accordance with ASTM
C522 : Method for airflow resistance of acoustical materials.
Product Air Flow Resistivity (mks Rayls/m)
Bradford Rockwool Building Blanket 13000
Bradford FIBERTEX™ 350 Rockwool 22000
Bradford FIBERTEX 450 Rockwool

33000
Bradford FIBERTEX™ 650 Rockwool 53000
Bradford FIBERTEX™ HD Rockwool 70000

TABLE C11. BRADFORD GLASSWOOL AIR FLOW RESISTIVITY.


Bradford Insulation glasswool products achieve Air Flow Resistivities shown, when tested in accordance with
ASTM C522: Method for airflow resistance of acoustical materials.
Product Air Flow Resistivity (mks Rayls/m)
Bradford Glasswool Building Blanket 5600
Bradford Glasswool MULTITEL™ 15300
Bradford Glasswool FLEXITEL™ 16200
Bradford Glasswool SUPERTEL™ (Plain) 18200
(Foil) 23400
Bradford Glasswool ULTRATEL™ (Plain) 31500
(Foil) 30300
Bradford Glasswool QUIETEL™ 55600

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APPENDIX D.

Terminology.
ACOUSTIC.

absorption coefficient (α): The ratio of the sound absorbed by a surface to the total incident sound energy.
attenuation: The reduction in intensity of a sound signal between two points in a transmission system.
decibel (dB): An acoustic unit of sound level based on 10 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio
of two comparable sound intensities.
flanking transmission: The transmission of sound between two points by any indirect path.
frequency: The number of vibrations per second. The unit is the Hertz (Hz), equivalent to one
complete oscillation per second.
reverberation: The persistence of sound within a space due to repeated reflections at the boundaries.

THERMAL.
British thermal unit (Btu): Heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1°F.
calorie (cal): Heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C.
capacity, thermal or heat:: Heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of a substance by one degree
This equals the mass times the specific heat in the appropriate units (metric or imperial)
conductance, thermal: Time rate of heat flow per unit area between two parallel surfaces of a body under
steady conditions when there is unit temperature difference between the two surfaces.
surface heat transfer Time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady conditions between a surface and air
coefficient (f): when there is unit temperature difference between them.
conduction Heat transfer from one point to another within a body without appreciable
displacement of particles of the body.
conductivity, thermal (k): Time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit thickness of an homogeneous material
under steady conditions when unit temperature gradient is maintained in the direction
perpendicular to the area.
convection: Heat transfer from a point in a fluid by movement and dispersion of portions of the fluid.
dewpoint Temperature at which a sample of air with given water vapour content becomes
saturated when cooled at constant pressure.
emissivity Capacity of a surface to emit radiant energy; defined as the ratio of the energy emitted
by the surface to that emitted by an ideal black body at the same temperature.
humidity, absolute: Mass of water vapour per unit volume of air.
humidity, relative: Ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour in a given sample of air to the saturation
pressure of water vapour at the same temperature.
Kelvin K: The unit of thermodynamic temperature. For the purpose of heat transfer, it is an
interval of temperature equal to 1°C.
permeance: Time rate of transfer of water vapour per unit area through a material when the vapour
pressure difference along the transfer path is unity.
permeability: Permeance for unit thickness of a material.
radiation: Heat transfer through space from one body to another by electromagnetic wave motion.
resistance, thermal: Reciprocal of thermal conductance, or ratio of material thickness to thermal conductivity
resistivity, thermal: Reciprocal of thermal conductivity.
specific heat: Ratio of the thermal capacity of a given mass of a substance to that of the same mass of
water at 15°C.
transmittance, thermal or Time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady conditions from the fluid on one side
overall heat transfer of a barrier to the fluid on the other side when there is unit temperature difference
coefficient between the two fluids.

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Bradford Insulation
CSR Building Solutions Website.
www.csr.com.au/bradford

Manufacturing Facilities.
CSR Bradford Insulation is a leading insulation manufacturer in Australia and Asia
with manufacturing facilities located throughout the region.
AUSTRALIA. ASIA.
Glasswool factory, Ingleburn NSW. Glasswool factory, Zhuhai, China.
Rockwool factory, Dongguan, China.
Rockwool factory, Clayton VIC. Rockwool factory, Rayong, Thailand.
Thermofoil factory, Dandenong VIC. Rockwool factory, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Flexible Duct factory, Singapore.

Sales Offices.
AUSTRALIA. INTERNATIONAL.
State Phone Fax Country Phone Fax
Head Office 61 2 9765 7100 61 2 9765 7029 New Zealand 64 9579 9059 64 9571 1017
NSW (02) 9765 7100 (02) 9765 7052 Hong Kong 852 2754 0877 852 2758 2005
ACT (02) 6239 2611 (02) 6239 3305 China (Glasswool) 86 756 551 1448 86 756 551 1447
VIC (03) 9265 4000 (03) 9265 4011 China (Rockwool) 86 769 611 1401 86 769 611 2900
TAS (03) 6272 5677 (03) 6272 2387 Thailand 66 2736 0924 66 2736 0934
QLD (07) 3875 9600 (07) 3875 9699 Malaysia 60 3 3341 3444 60 3 3341 5779
SA (08) 8344 0640 (08) 8344 0644 Singapore 65 861 4722 65 862 3533
NT (08) 8984 4070 (08) 8947 0034
WA (08) 9365 1666 (08) 9365 1656

Health and Safety Information.


Information on any known health risks of our products and how to handle them safely is displayed on the
packaging and/or the documentation accompanying them. Additional information is listed in product
Material Safety Data Sheets available from your regional CSR Bradford Insulation office or visit our website.

Warranty.
CSR Limited warrants its Bradford Insulation products to be free of defects in materials and manufacture.
If a CSR Bradford Insulation product does not meet our standard, we will, at our option, replace or repair it, supply
an equivalent product, or pay for doing one of these. This warranty excludes all other warranties and liability for
damage in connection with defects in our products, other than those compulsorily imposed by legislation.
BI104.BMS6884.0901

CSR Bradford Insulation is a business of CSR Limited A.B.N. 90 000 001 276.
CSR Limited is the owner of the following trade marks. Acousticlad™, Acousticon™, Acoustilag™, Anticon™, Bradfix™, Bradford™, Comfort Plus™, Ductel™,
Fibermesh™, Fibertex™, Fireseal™, Flexitel™, Flex-skin™, Gold Batts™, Multitel™, Quietel™, SoundScreen™, Spanseal™, Specitel™, Supertel™, Thermaclad™, Thermatel™,
Thermodeck™, Thermofoil™, Thermokraft™, Thermoplast™, Thermotuff™, Ultratel™.

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