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What is a Flange gasket?

Flange gaskets are used to create a static seal between two flanges faces, at various operating conditions, with varied pressure and temperature ratings. A gasket fills the microscopic spaces and irregularities of the flange faces, and then it forms a seal that is designed to keep liquids and gases. Correct installation of damage-free gaskets and damage-free flange faces is a requirement for a leak-free flange connection. If it would be technically possible, in order to manufacture flanges perfectly flat and smooth, and perfectly compatible with one another under all operating conditions, a gasket would not be necessary. But in normal practice it is not possible, because flange connections under ANY circumstances should be made. Small impurities and a small bit of dirt, is in practice not be avoided and therefore it is necessary to use a gasket. The gaskets in the pipeline systems can be metallic (Spiral Wound, Ring Joint, metal Jacketed etc.) or non-metallic (elastomers like Natural / Synthetic Rubber, EPDM, Silicon rubber, PTFE envelope etc.) (Full face or Flat ring / IBC gaskets). Non-metallic gaskets shall be as per ASME B 16.21 & Metallic gaskets shall be as per ASME B 16.20 / API 601. Metal ring gaskets shall be as per API 6A / B16.20. MOC of gaskets for Process Services shall be as specified in the BEP (Basic Engg Package). Ask Process Dept. / Licensor for MOC of gaskets for Process services if the same is not available in the BEP. For spiral wound gaskets, the MOC of inner guide ring shall be same as pipe MOC. MOC of gaskets for utilities shall be based on BEP or Catalogues of well-known gasket suppliers. Specific approval from the Project Manager / Client / Process Licensor / Process Dept. (as the case may be) shall be obtained if MOC indicated in the BEP needs to be changed, for any reasons. The type of gasket specified (IBC, Ring type, Full Face etc.) shall be suitable for the flange face. Full face gaskets shall be specified (as far as possible) where RF & FF Flanges make the joint (e.g. C.I. Flat Face Valve to C.S. R.F. Flange, which should be avoided. Ref. 4.3.7 above). CAF (Compressed Asbestos Fiber) is not used as Gasket MOC from Health Point of view.

Serrated Finish (250 to 500 AARH) Use for flanges when rubber / elastomer (Rubber, EPDM, PTFE envelop etc.) gaskets are used in the joints. These soft materials flow inside the serrations on the flange face under bolt pressure and seal the joints. This finish is also called as Stock Finish.

Smooth Finish (125 to 250 AARH) Use for flanges where metallic gaskets / metal clad gaskets are used in the joints. The smooth finish avoids the surface of metallic gaskets getting spoiled due to absence of serrations on the sealing face. This facilitates reuse of the gaskets after dismantling of the joints.

Extra Smooth Finish (32 to 63 AARH) Used with solid metal gaskets.

Types of gaskets:Materials for gaskets can be divided into three main categories: Non-Metallic types Semi-Metallic types Metallic types Non-Metallic gaskets:1. Non-Metallic gaskets are usually composite sheet materials are used with flat-face and raisedface flanges in low Pressure Class applications. Non-metallic gaskets are manufactured from aramid fiber, glass fiber, elastomer, Teflon (PTFE), graphite etc. Full-face gasket types are suitable for use with flat-face flanges. Flat-ring gasket types are suitable for use with raised face flanges. 2. Gaskets shall be made of resilient or pliable materials. Metal or nonmetal composites may be incorporated as reinforcement or filler material. Prior to withdrawal from industry because of health and safety issues, asbestos was commonly used and termed as compressed asbestos fiber (CAF). The term has been changed and now referred to as Compressed nonasbetsos fiber (CANF). ASME B16.21 covers types, sizes, materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, and markings for non-metallic flat gaskets.

Gasket Type Full face Flat ring

Flange Facing Flat face Raised face