Anda di halaman 1dari 12

SIZING GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS AND RESISTORS

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS PURPOSE & SCOPE ..........................................................................................................................3 DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................................................4 APPLICABILITY ...............................................................................................................................4 RESPONSIBILITIES ..........................................................................................................................4 PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................5 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................14 ATTACHMENTS .............................................................................................................................14

1.0 PURPOSE & SCOPE This procedure outlines the method to be followed for preparation of the Generator Neutral Grounding and Transformer Neutral Grounding and Resistor Sizing and is intended to assure uniformity of all such systems. This procedure depicts grounding schemes as well as sizing of grounding equipment for the following electrical systems and equipment: Main Generator, Main Transformer, Unit Auxiliary Transformer, Startup Transformer, Low-Voltage Load Center Transformer, Diesel Generator (if provided), AC and DC UPS systems

2.0 DEFINITIONS Generator Neutral GroundingThe purposes of generator neutral grounding through an impedance are to limit the damage at the point of fault, limit transient overvoltages and provide a sensitive means of detection for insulation deterioration. There are two acceptable methods of grounding unit connected generators; resistor grounding and resonant (reactor) grounding.Resistance GroundingA resistance grounded system uses a resistor in the neutral-to-ground circuit to limit the maximum value of short circuit current during a line to ground fault limiting the current and reducing the extent of damage to equipment caused by the heating and mechanical stresses generated by the short circuit currentsLow Resistance GroundingIn a low resistance grounded system the value of resistance is usually selected so that the ground fault current is large enough to trip protective devices selectively, yet low enough to limit damage to equipmentHigh Resistance GroundingIn a high resistance grounded system the value of resistance is selected so that it is of sufficient value to limit fault currents to very low values, usually equal to the total charging current of the systemResonant (Reactor) GroundingThis grounding scheme is similar to resistance grounding except the resistor is replaced with a reactor equivalent to the system charging current to form a tuned (resonant) circuit. 3.0 APPLICABILITY This procedure is applicable to all projects. 4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES 4.1 Lead Electrical Engineer The Lead Electrical Engineer is responsible for sizing the grounding transformers and resistors. 5.0 PROCEDURE / REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Equipment Grounding Requirements 5.1.1 Main Generator Main generator shall always be high resistance grounded. 5.1.2 Main Transformer Main transformer for the generating plant shall always be solidly grounded at the high side. Low side connected to the generator is always delta connected. No special equipment is required for high side grounding. 5.1.3 Unit Auxiliary Transformer Unit auxiliary transformer connected to the generator leads shall always have the high side delta connected. Low side of this transformer is generally wye connected and shall be low resistance grounded allowing a maximum of 1000A ground fault current. Grounding resistor directly connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10-sec rating. Low resistance grounding shall always be used unless specifically required by the client. Cases, where low side of this transformer is also delta connected, due to phasing, grounding bank of T-type or zig-zag type with a resistor allowing a 1000A maximum ground fault shall be used. Rating of the grounding equipment shall of a minimum of 10 sec.

When the contract requires a different method, a calculation similar to Attachment 7.2 shall be performed. 5.1.4 Startup Transformer Startup transformer, when used, may have either delta or wye connection for high or low side winding. For high side, wye connection, neutral shall be solidly grounded. For low side wye connection, neutral shall be low resistance grounded. For low side delta, grounding bank of T-type or zig-zag transformers with a resistor allowing a 1000A maximum ground fault current. Rating of this equipment shall of a minimum of 10 sec. 5.1.5 Load Center Transformer Transformer feeding low voltage load center shall be delta/wye-solidly grounded, neutral, unless specifically required by the client to be different. 5.1.6 Diesel Generators Diesel generators, when provided shall be low resistance grounded at the medium voltage and solidly grounded at low voltage distribution. Low resistance grounding shall allow a maximum of 1000A ground fault current. Grounding resistor directly connected to the neutral shall have a minimum of 10 sec rating. 5.2 Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation Method Attachment 7.1 provides a recent project calculation for sizing the generator and transformer grounding transformer. The following consideration must be analyzed when recommending and selecting a method of Generator Grounding. 1) The damage at the point of fault is greatly reduced when the unit is resonant grounded as compared to resistor grounded. 2) Surges on the high voltage system will not appear between generator neutral and ground because of the wye-delta transformation of the main transformer. 3) Transient overvoltages on the unfaulted phases are limited by resonant grounding. Arcing or current surges are reduced by resonant grounding. This precludes the possibility of transient overvoltages due to arcing grounds. 4) The appearance of zero sequence voltage on the transmission system for a line to ground fault impresses a transient voltage on the generator system. This voltage is a function of the capacitive coupling reactance in the unit step-up transformer and the zero sequence impedance of the generator system. The transient voltage on the generator system (phase to ground EO) will be higher in magnitude with resonant grounding than with resistor grounding. This voltage must be controlled within acceptable limits by the proper selection of the coil constant of the reactor. 5) Resonant grounding provides increased sensitivity for detection of insulation deterioration at any location in the generator system and neutral connected apparatus. 6) When resistance grounding is used, there is a dead zone where faults cannot be detected. This dead zone is a circle at the system neutral concentric with all zero sequence fault voltages. By using the resonant grounding, this dead zone can be offset by introducing a voltage to displace the system neutral.

This procedure summarizes the required data and the calculations that must be performed to specify the distribution transformer, reactor or resistor ratings. 5.3 Required Data 5.3.1 GENERATOR: phase
Eg Cg E30g Eog = = = = Phase to phase voltage Single phase to ground capacitance Zero sequence normal third harmonic voltage Zero sequence normal fundamental frequency voltage

MVA, three
= = = = V mmf V V

5.3.2
Nm

MAIN TRANSFORMERS: phase


= Number of transformers

MVA, three
= Single = = = mmf mmf V

Cm = phase to ground capacitance (gen. side) Ct = High to low side winding per phase capacitance EHO = High side zero sequence voltage for a fault on the high side of the transformer

5.3.3
Nu Cu

UNIT STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER: phase


= = Number of unit station service transformers Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side)

MVA, three
= = mmf

5.3.4
Cb

ISOLATED PHASE BUS:


= Total single phase to ground capacitance = mmf

5.3.5
Cs Em

SURGE CAPACITORS:
= = Single phase to ground capacitance (gen. side) = mmf V

Maximum acceptable voltage the system equipment can take without damage =

5.4 Calculations For Resonant Grounding

Eg
Ege C = = Generator phase to neutral voltage = 3 = = V mmf

Total system capacitance = 3. (Cg+NmCm+NuCu+Cb+Cs)


12

Xc

10 1 = Total system capacitive reactance = C or 2 f C

ohms

Ege
Ic XL = = System capacitive fault current =

1 Xc

= = =

amps ohms

Effective inductive reactance for resonant ground = Xc

ELP = Distribution transformer primary voltage Ege V available ELS = Distribution transformer secondary voltage 120/240 V TR KVA =
-3 Continuous distribution transformer rating = Ic Ege 10

If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by the factors from the following table: TIME 1 Minute 5 Minutes 30 Minutes 1 Hour 2 Hours Xct = FACTOR 0.212 0.357 0.55 0.625 0.714

Capacitive coupling reactance between high and low side of

1012 2 f C t the main transformer =


ohms LS = Assumed total losses for the reactor 5% = Effective zero sequence resistance in the generator neutral for this loss =

3 XL

100 LS

ohms

K.Eog =

Neutral voltage displacement due to generator's

100 Eog fundamental zero sequence voltage = LS


ER =

EHO R R j X ct of the main transformer =

Neutral displacement due to fault on the high side = V

= V

Phase to ground voltage for a ground fault on the high of the main transformer = Ege + KEog + ER

If E calculated above is more than the maximum acceptable voltage (E M) increase the reactor losses (LS) to a higher value and recalculate R, KEog and ER XLS = Reactance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

XL
ohms RLS =

(E LS )2 (E LP )2

Resistance in the secondary of the distribution transformer

X LS
ohms

LS 100

KL

Coil constant = 100 LS

Ic
Is = Secondary current = amps

ELP ELS

E ge
Vs = Secondary voltage = V

E LS E LP

XLSKVA = Reactors KVA = = KVA rF = Fault resistance ohms

Is . Vs .10-3 =

Ege
IFO = Zero sequence fault current = amps = Fault current = 3 . IFO amps = Percentage neutral voltage displacement (Relay Sensitivity)

R + 3 rF

IF

Eao

= amps wF = Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF watts

I FO R 100 Ege

Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable steps, calculate and plot wF and Eao against resistance.

5.4.1

180 Hz, No Fault Or Normal Conditions

Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance (Z) =%

Xe

3 Z 10 2 (ELP ) TR 103 = Primary reactance =

= =

ohms

XL3 = ohms

Third harmonic reactance in the generator neutral 3 XL

(Including distribution transformer reactance)

E30 g
I30p = amps Third harmonic zero sequence current =

j 3 X L 3 + 3 RL j X c

I 30 p
I30s = amps Reactor current =

ELP ELS

V30s

Third harmonic normal voltage across the reactor

= I30s V

3 (RL + jXL3 = jXe)

5.5 Calculations For Resistor Grounding

Eg
Ege = Generator phase to neutral voltage = V

= Total system capacitance = 3(Cg + NmCm + NuCu + Cb + Cs) mmf

Xc

1 1012 = wc 2 f c = Total system capacitive resistance =


ohms

E ge
Ic = System capacitive fault current = amps

1 Xc

Ireq

= Assuming neutral current (Minimum 5 amps) = Ic amps

E ge
Req = Equivalent resistance in the generator neutral = ohms = Distribution transformer primary voltage Ege Vavailable = Continuous distribution transformer rating = Ireq . Ege . 10-3

I req

Ep

TR

KVA

If no delay is intended for the unit trip, this rating can be reduced by the factors given under resonant grounding. Es = Distribution transformer secondary voltage 120/240 V =

Req
Rs = Grounding resistor in the secondary = ohms

2 ( Es )

(E )
p

Vs = Maximum secondary voltage = V

Es Ege Ep

I req
Is = Secondary current = amps

Ep Es
=

RsKVA = KV rF

Grounding resistors KVA = Is . Vs . 10-3

Fault resistance ohms

3 rF 3
IFO = Zero sequence fault current = amps = Fault current = 3 . IFO amps = Energy into the fault = IF2 . rF watts

E ge (Req j X x )

(R

eq

j Xc )

IF

WF

I FO 3
Eao = Percentage neutral voltage displacement = %

( R j X ) (R j X ) 100
eq c eq c

Ege

Changing the value of fault resistance from zero upward in reasonable steps, calculate and plot WF and Eao against fault resistance. %

5.5.1

180 Hz, No Fault, or Normal Condition:

Using the above distribution transformer with percentage reactance (X) equal to impedance (Z)

3 Z 10 2 (E p )
Xe = Primary reactance = ohms

TR 103

I30p

= Third harmonic zero sequence current = amps

3 (Req + j X e ) j X c

E30 g

I 30 p
I30s = Ground resistor currents = amps

Ep Es
=

V30s

= Ground resistor normal voltage = V

I 30 s 3 Rs

5.6 Required Calculation Inputs The following is a summary of the required inputs to the calculation to satisfy this procedure: 1) Contract grounding requirements of medium-voltage and low-voltage auxiliary system. 2) Unit auxiliary, startup and load center transformer connections. 3) Capacitance to ground for: Generator Surge arrester (if applied between generator and transformer) Generator step-up and unit auxiliary transformers Isolated Phase Bus Duct 5.7 Required Calculation Outputs The following is a summary of the required outputs to the calculation provided by this procedure: 1) Generator Neutral Grounding Calculation and Equipment Rating. 2) Medium-Voltage Neutral Grounding Equipment Rating.

6.0 REFERENCES 6.1 EPRI Power Plant Electrical Reference Series, Volume 8, Station Protection.

7.0 ATTACHMENTS 7.1 Sample Project Calculation- Generator and Transformer Grounding Equipment Ratings (pdf) 7.2 Sample Project Calculation- Neutral Grounding Transformer and Resistor Sizing Calculation4 kV Auxiliary distribution System (zip)