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Question 1: Carburetor VS. Fuel Injection? Answer:

Pros: Carbs are much easier to adjust, and especially to get more power out of. Cheap to fix, rebuild and easy to trouble shoot. Fuel Inj. is more precise, less pollution as the computer is constantly changing air fuel ratio to optimum. More fuel efficient as well. Cons: Carbs aren't very efficient, they can't make changes on the fly like fuel inj. can. Fuel Inj. needs a much higher fuel pressure, which makes line routing and integrity very important. The injectors themselves have small orifices, which can be easily clogged by crud passing filter or scale build up. Fuel injection is expensive, and so is testing or replacing components. ... and fuel injection will not keep your car running if you flip it, as your gas tank siphon is mounted on the bottom of the tank.

Question 2: Find and elaborate four method to determine the mechanical efficiency. Answer:
The four main methods are as follows: (i) Measurement of the ip and the bp by the means already described in the preceding subheadings. (ii) Measurement of the bp at a given speed followed by motoring of the engine with the fuel supply cut off. This method can only be used on engines with an electrical dynamometer, the dynamometer being used as a motor instead of as a generator in order to motor the engine at the firing speed. The torque can be measured under firing and under motoring conditions and the mechanical efficiency evaluated. The fact that an electrical dynamometer can be used to find the mechanical efficiency in this way is one of the main advantages of this type of dynamometer. (iii) The Morse test : this is only applicable to multicylinder engines. The engine is run at the required speed and the torque is measured. One cylinder is cut out, by shorting the plug if an Sl engine is under test, or by disconnecting an injector if a Cl engine is under test. The speed falls because of the loss of power with one cylinder cut out, but is restored by reducing the load. The torque is measured again when the speed has reached its original value. If the values of ip of the. cylinders are denoted by I1, I2, I3 and I4 (considering a four-cylinder engine). and the power losses in each cylinder are denoted by L1, L2, L3 and L4, then the value of bp, B, at the test speed with all cylinders firing is given by B = (I1-L2) + (I2-L2) + (I3-L3) + (I4-L4) If number 1 cylinder is cut out, then the contribution I1 is lost; and if the losses due to that cylinder remain the same as when it is firing, then the bp, B1, now obtained at the same speed is B1= (0 - L1) + (I2 L2) + (I3 - L3) + (I4 - L4) Subtracting the second equation from the first gives B-B1 =1 (13.8) By cutting out each cylinder in turn the values I1, I2, I3 and I4 can be obtained from equations similar to ( 13.8). Then for the engine I= I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 (iv) Willans line: this method is applicable to CI engines only. At a constant engine speed the load is reduced in increments and the corresponding bp and gross fuel consumption readings are taken. A graph is then drawn of fuel consumption against bp, as in Fig. 13.12. The graph drawn is called the 'Willan's line', and is extrapolated back to cut the bp axis at the point A. The reading OA is taken as the power loss of the engine at that speed. The fuel consumption at zero bp is given by OB; if the relationship between fuel consumption and bp is assumed to be linear, then a fuel consumption OB is equivalent to a power loss of OA.

References: 1. A8P8CX 2. Applied Thermodynamics and engineering Fifth Edition By T.D Eastop and A. McConkey