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Brief Study on Industrial Automation with Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the INTERNATIONAL MBA IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT


Mr. ROHITH ACHARYA Enrollment Number- ULSU/MBA/I/APR13/15142



I, Rohith Acharya, hereby declare that this project report titled " Brief Study on Industrial Automation with Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks " submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the International MBA in Project Management is my original work and it has not formed the basis for the award of any other degree

(Signature of the Student) ROHITH ACHARYA

Place: Bangalore Date: 28th February 2014


I am glad to present this project, especially designed to serve the needs of understanding the Overview of Automation Industry along with Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks.

I acknowledge special thanks to ___________________________who are the backbones and main concept provider and also have been constant source of motivation throughout this Endeavour.

Table Of Content 1. Introduction 2. SCADA 3. Programmable Logic Controllers 4. Drives 5. Sensors and Auxilliaries 6. Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography 1 6 15 21 33

40 52 53



Industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can also be automated.

Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities.Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems. Tasks requiring subjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible.

1.1 For the purpose of AUTOMATION Specialised hardened computers, referred to as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process. Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI), formerly known as man-machine interface, are usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other computers, such as entering and monitoring temperatures or pressures for further automated control or emergency response. Service personnel who monitor and control these interfaces are often referred to as stationary engineers.

1.2 Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visible industries beyond manufacturing. Once-ubiquitous telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from agrarian to industrial in the 19th century and from industrial to services in the 20th century.

1.3 The widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues, among them its impact on employment. Historical concerns about the effects of automation date back to the beginning of the industrial revolution, when a social movement of English textile machine operators in the early 1800s known as the Luddites protested against Jacquard's automated weaving looms often by destroying such textile machines that they felt

threatened their jobs. One author made the following case. When automation was first introduced, it caused widespread fear. It was thought that the displacement of human operators by computerized systems would lead to severe unemployment.

1.4 Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process.The old focus on using automation simply to increase productivity and reduce costs was seen to be short-sighted, because it is also necessary to provide a skilled workforce who can make repairs and manage the machinery. Moreover, the initial costs of automation were high and often could not be recovered by the time entirely new manufacturing processes replaced the old. (Japan's "robot junkyards" were once world famous in the manufacturing industry.)

1.5 Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. For example, automobile and truck pistons used to be installed into engines manually. This is rapidly being transitioned to automated machine installation, because the error rate for manual installment was around 1-1.5%, but has been reduced to 0.00001% with automation. Hazardous operations, such as oil refining, the manufacturing of industrial chemicals, and all forms of metal working, were always early contenders for automation.


Another major shift in automation is the increased emphasis on flexibility and

convertibility in the manufacturing process. Manufacturers are increasingly demanding the ability to easily switch from manufacturing Product A to manufacturing Product B without having to completely rebuild the production lines. Flexibility and distributed

processes have led to the introduction of Automated Guided Vehicles with Natural Features Navigation.


The widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues, among them

its impact on employment. Historical concerns about the effects of automation date back to the beginning of the industrial revolution, when a social movement of English textile machine operators in the early 1800s known as the Luddites protested against Jacquard's automated weaving looms often by destroying such textile machines that they felt threatened their jobs. One author made the following case. When automation was first introduced, it caused widespread fear. It was thought that the displacement of human operators by computerized systems would lead to severe unemployment. 1. 8 At first glance, automation might appear to devalue labor through its replacement

with less-expensive machines; however, the overall effect of this on the workforce as a whole remains unclear. Today automation of the workforce is quite advanced, and continues to advance increasingly more rapidly throughout the world and is encroaching on ever more skilled jobs, yet during the same period the general well-being and quality of life of most people in the world (where political factors have not muddied the picture) have improved dramatically. What role automation has played in these changes has not been well studied. Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process. Different types of automation tools exist

Block Diagram Of Industrial Automation

SCADA System with HMI Screens

Programmable Logic Controller

Field Equipments and Machineries

AC OR DC Drives




y y y y y

SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition PLC - Programmable Logic Controller DRIVES - Variable Speed Drives SENSORS Transducers, Feedback equipments. AUXILIARIES Converters, Power Supplies, Different Communication

mediums etc.



SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility based as described below:Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes. Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, and large communication systems. Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption.

2.1 A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems: a) A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data
to a human operator, and through this, the human operator, monitors and controls the process.

b) A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and

sending commands (control) to the process.

c) Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting

sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system.

d) Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are
more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs.

e) Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the Remote

Terminal Units There is, in several industries, considerable confusion over the differences between SCADA systems and Distributed control systems (DCS). Generally speaking, a SCADA system usually refers to a system that coordinates, but does not control processes in real time. The discussion on real-time control is muddied somewhat by newer telecommunications technology, enabling reliable, low latency, high speed

communications over wide areas. Most differences between SCADA and Distributed control system DCS are culturally determined and can usually be ignored. As communication infrastructures with higher capacity become available, the difference between SCADA and DCS will fade. The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop.

Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a commodity Database Management System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing.

2.1.1 Human Machine Interface:

A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through which the human operator controls the process. An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and software programs, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides. The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. The operator can then switch the pump off. The HMI software will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in real time. Mimic diagrams may consist of line graphics and schematic symbols to represent process elements, or may consist of digital photographs of the process equipment overlain with animated symbols.

The HMI package for the SCADA system typically includes a drawing program that the operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way these points are represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple as an on-screen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field, or as complex as a multi-projector display representing the position of all of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the trains on a railway. An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms. An alarm is a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM. Alarms can be created in such a way that when their requirements are met, they are activated. An example of an alarm is the "fuel tank empty" light in a car. The SCADA operator's attention is drawn to the part of the system requiring attention by the alarm. Emails and text messages are often sent along with an alarm activation alerting managers along with the SCADA operator.

2.1.2 Hardware solutions:

SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System (DCS) components. Use of "smart" RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously executing simple logic processes without involving the master computer, is increasing. A functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3 (Ladder Logic), is frequently used to create programs which run on these RTUs and PLCs. Unlike a procedural language such as the C programming language or FORTRAN, IEC 61131-3 has minimal training requirements by virtue of resembling historic physical control arrays. This allows SCADA system engineers to perform both the design and implementation of a program to be executed on an RTU or PLC. Since about 1998, virtually all major PLC manufacturers have offered integrated HMI/SCADA systems, many of them using open

and non-proprietary communications protocols. Numerous specialized third-party HMI/SCADA packages, offering built-in compatibility with most major PLCs, have also entered the market, allowing mechanical engineers, electrical engineers and technicians to configure HMIs themselves, without the need for a custom-made program written by a software developer.

2.2 Around the world, SCADA systems control:


Electric power generation, transmission and distribution: Electric utilities use

SCADA systems to detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit breakers, and to take sections of the power grid online or offline.

Water and sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and

regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other factors.

Buildings, facilities and environments: Facility managers use SCADA to control

HVAC, refrigeration units, lighting and entry systems.


Manufacturing: SCADA systems manage parts inventories for just-in-time

manufacturing, regulate industrial automation and robots, and monitor process and quality control.

Mass transit: Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways,

trams and trolley buses; to automate traffic signals for rail systems; to track and locate trains and buses; and to control railroad crossing gates.

Traffic signals: SCADA regulates traffic lights, controls traffic flow and detects

out-of-order signals.


2.3 Importance of SCADA:

Maybe you work in one of the fields I listed; maybe you dont. But think about your operations and all the parameters that affect your bottom-line results:

Does your equipment need an uninterrupted power supply and/or a controlled

temperature and humidity environment?


Do you need to know in real time the status of many different components and

devices in a large complex system?

y y y

Do you need to measure how changing inputs affect the output of your operations? What equipment do you need to control, in real time, from a distance? Where are you lacking accurate, real-time data about key processes that affect your

operations? Real-Time Monitoring and Control Increases Efficiency and Maximizes Profitability

2.4 A SCADA system performs four functions:

1. 2. 3. 4. Data acquisition Networked data communication Data presentation Control

2.4.1 Data Acquisition:

First, the systems you need to monitor are much more complex than just one machine with one output. So a real-life SCADA system needs to monitor hundreds or thousands of sensors. Some sensors measure inputs into the system (for example, water flowing


into a reservoir), and some sensors measure outputs (like valve pressure as water is released from the reservoir). Some of those sensors measure simple events that can be detected by a straightforward on/off switch, called a discrete input (or digital input). For example, in our simple model of the widget fabricator, the switch that turns on the light would be a discrete input. In real life, discrete inputs are used to measure simple states, like whether equipment is on or off, or tripwire alarms, like a power failure at a critical facility. Some sensors measure more complex situations where exact measurement is important. These are analog sensors, which can detect continuous changes in a voltage or current input. Analog sensors are used to track fluid levels in tanks, voltage levels in batteries, temperature and other factors that can be measured in a continuous range of input. For most analog factors, there is a normal range defined by a bottom and top level. For example, you may want the temperature in a server room to stay between 60 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. If the temperature goes above or below this range, it will trigger a threshold alarm. In more advanced systems, there are four threshold alarms for analog sensors, defining Major Under, Minor Under, Minor Over and Major Over alarms.

2.4.2 Data Communication:

In our simple model of the widget fabricator, the network is just the wire leading from the switch to the panel light. In real life, you want to be able to monitor multiple systems from a central location, so you need a communications network to transport all the data collected from your sensors.


Early SCADA networks communicated over radio, modem or dedicated serial lines. Today the trend is to put SCADA data on Ethernet and IP over SONET. For security reasons, SCADA data should be kept on closed LAN/WANs without exposing sensitive data to the open Internet. Real SCADA systems dont communicate with just simple electrical signals, either. SCADA data is encoded in protocol format. Older SCADA systems depended on closed proprietary protocols, but today the trend is to open, standard protocols and protocol mediation. Sensors and control relays are very simple electric devices that cant generate or interpret protocol communication on their own. Therefore the remote telemetry unit (RTU) is needed to provide an interface between the sensors and the SCADA network. The RTU encodes sensor inputs into protocol format and forwards them to the SCADA master; in turn, the RTU receives control commands in protocol format from the master and transmits electrical signals to the appropriate control relays.

2.4.3 Data Presentation:

The only display element in our model SCADA system is the light that comes on when the switch is activated. This obviously wont do on a large scale you cant track a light board of a thousand separate lights, and you dont want to pay someone simply to watch a light board, either. A real SCADA system reports to human operators over a specialized computer that is variously called a master station, an HMI (Human-Machine Interface) or an HCI (Human-Computer Interface).


The SCADA master station has several different functions. The master continuously monitors all sensors and alerts the operator when there is an alarm that is, when a control factor is operating outside what is defined as its normal operation. The master presents a comprehensive view of the entire managed system, and presents more detail in response to user requests. The master also performs data processing on information gathered from sensors it maintains report logs and summarizes historical trends. An advanced SCADA master can add a great deal of intelligence and automation to your systems management, making your job much easier.

2.4.4 Control:
Unfortunately, our miniature SCADA system monitoring the widget fabricator doesnt include any control elements. So lets add one. Lets say the human operator also has a button on his control panel. When he presses the button, it activates a switch on the widget fabricator that brings more widget parts into the fabricator. Now lets add the full computerized control of a SCADA master unit that controls the entire factory. You now have a control system that responds to inputs elsewhere in the system. If the machines that make widget parts break down, you can slow down or stop the widget fabricator. If the part fabricators are running efficiently, you can speed up the widget fabricator. If you have a sufficiently sophisticated master unit, these controls can run completely automatically, without the need for human intervention. Of course, you can still manually override the automatic controls from the master station.




Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to as programmable controllers, are in the computer family. They are used in commercial and industrial applications. A PLC monitors inputs, makes decisions based on its program, and controls outputs to automate a process or machine. This course is meant to supply you with basic information on the functions and configurations of PLCs.

Drive Motors


Photo Sensor s Start Push Button s


Other equipments


3.1 Basic PLC Operation :

PLCs consist of input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output modules or points. An input accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from various


field devices (sensors) and converts them into a logic signal that can be used by the CPU. The CPU makes decisions and executes control instructions based on program instructions in memory. Output modules convert control instructions from the CPU into a digital or analog signal that can be used to control various field devices (actuators). A programming device is used to input the desired instructions. These instructions determine what the PLC will do for a specific input. An operator interface device allows process information to be displayed and new control parameters to be entered.

Input Module
Central processing unit

Output Module

Programming Device

Operator Interface

Pushbuttons (sensors), in this simple example, connected to PLC inputs, can be used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter (actuator). Prior to PLCs, many of these control tasks were solved with contactor or relay controls. This is often referred to as hardwired control. Circuit diagrams had to be designed, electrical components specified and installed, and wiring lists created. Electricians would then wire the components necessary to perform a specific task. If an error was made, the wires had to be reconnected correctly. A change in function or system expansion required extensive component changes and rewiring.

3.2 Advantages of PLCs :

The same, as well as more complex tasks, can be done with a PLC. Wiring between devices and relay contacts is done in the PLC program. Hard-wiring, though still required to connect field devices, is less intensive. Modifying the application and correcting errors are easier to handle. It is easier to create and change a program in a PLC than it is to wire and re-wire a circuit.

Following are just a few of the advantages of PLCs: Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions. Easier and faster to make changes. PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions. Diagnostics are centrally available. Applications can be immediately documented.

3.3 Logic 0, Logic 1:

Programmable controllers can only understand a signal that is On or Off (present or not present). The binary system is a system in which there are only two numbers, 1 and 0. Binary 1 indicates that a signal is present, or the switch is On. Binary 0 indicates that the signal is not present, or the switch is Off. The language of PLCs consists of a commonly used set of terms; many of which are unique to PLCs.

3.4 In order to understand the ideas and concepts of PLCs, an understanding of these terms is necessary.

3.4.1 Sensor :A sensor is a device that converts a physical condition into an electrical
signal for use by the PLC. Sensors are connected to the input of a PLC. A pushbutton is

one example of a sensor that is connected to the PLC input. An electrical signal is sent from the pushbutton to the PLC indicating the condition (open/ closed) of the pushbutton contacts.

3.4.2 Actuators: Actuators convert an electrical signal from the PLC into a physical
condition. Actuators are connected to the PLC output. A motor starter is one example of an actuator that is connected to the PLC output. Depending on the output PLC signal the motor starter will either start or stop the motor.

3.4.3 Discrete Input: A discrete input, also referred to as a digital input, is an input that is either in an ON or OFF condition. Pushbuttons, toggle switches, limit switches, proximity switches, and contact closures are examples of discrete sensors which are connected to the PLCs discrete or digital inputs. In the ON condition a discrete input may be referred to as a logic 1 or a logic high. In the OFF condition a discrete input may be referred to as a logic 0 or a logic low.

A Normally Open (NO) pushbutton is used in the following example. One side of the pushbutton is connected to the first PLC input. The other side of the pushbutton is connected to an internal 24 VDC power supply. Many PLCs require a separate power supply to power the inputs. In the open state, no voltage is present at the PLC input. This is the OFF condition. When the pushbutton is depressed, 24 VDC is applied to the PLC input.

3.4.4 Analog Inputs : An analog input is a continuous, variable signal. Typical

analog inputs may vary from 0 to 20 milliamps, 4 to 20 milliamps, or 0 to 10 volts. In the following example, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in a tank.

Depending on the level transmitter, the signal to the PLC can either increase or decrease as the level increases or decreases.

3.4.5 Discrete Outputs:A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or OFF

condition. Solenoids, contactor coils, and lamps are examples of actuator devices connected to discrete outputs. Discrete outputs may also be referred to as digital outputs. In the following example, a lamp can be turned on or off by the PLC output it is connected to.

3.4.6 Analog Outputs : An analog output is a continuous, variable signal. The

output may be as simple as a 0-10 VDC level that drives an analog meter. Examples of analog meter outputs are speed, weight, and temperature. The output signal may also be used on more complex applications such as a current-to-pneumatic transducer that controls an air-operated flow-control valve.

3.4.7 CPU : The central processor unit (CPU) is a microprocessor system that contains the system memory and is the PLC decision making unit. The CPU monitors the inputs and makes decisions based on instructions held in the program memory. The CPU performs relay, counting, timing, data comparison, and sequential operations.

3.5 Programming :
A program consists of one or more instructions that accomplish a task. Programming a PLC is simply constructing a set of instructions. There are several ways to look at a program such as ladder logic, statement lists, or function block diagrams.


3.5.1 Ladder Logic: Ladder logic (LAD) is one programming language used with
PLCs. Ladder logic uses components that resemble elements used in a line diagram format to describe hard-wired control. The left vertical line of a ladder logic diagram represents the power or energized conductor. The output element or instruction represents the neutral or return path of the circuit. The right vertical line, which represents the return path on a hard-wired control line diagram, is omitted. Ladder logic diagrams are read from left-to-right, top-to-bottom. Rungs are sometimes referred to as networks. A network may have several control elements, but only one output coil.





In an induction motors, when the 3-phase stator windings, are fed by 3 phase AC supply then, a magnetic flux of constant magnitude, but rotating at synchronous speed, is set up. The flux passes through the air gap; sweeps past the rotor surface and so cuts the rotor conductors, which as yet, are stationary. Due to the relative speed between the rotating flux and the stationary conductors, an E.M.F. is induced in the letter according to Faradays law of ElectroMagnetic induction. The frequency of the induced E.M.F. is the same as the supply frequency. Its magnitude is proportional to the relative velocity between the flux and the conductors and Flemings Right Hand Rule gives its

directions.The Synchronous Speed (Ns) of an induction motor is given by, Ns = (120*f) / P Where,

F= frequency P= nos of Pole.

In an induction motor, the motors run at a speed, which is always less than the speed of the stator field. The difference in speeds depends upon the load on the motor. The difference between the synchronous speed Ns & the actual speed N of the rotor is known as Slip. Therefore, Slip (S) = (Ns - N) / Ns Where, N is the rotor speed. Therefore, Actual speed of shaft (N) = Ns * (1- S).

The torque equation of an AC motor is given as: Torque (T) = Ia * * Where, Ia = stator current. *= Air gap flux.



The V/F concept is mainly used in AC drives. Therefore AC drives are also known as V/F DRIVES. In drives it is necessary for a motor to deliver rated torque at set speed. In order to change the speed of AC motor stator frequency is to be changed. Since torque delivered by motor is proportional to the product of the stator current and flux, it is essential that motor flux be to be kept constant. This means at any speed, motor can deliver torque (maximum up to rated torque) demanded by load and is roughly proportional to the product of stator current and motor flux. So we have, Torque = Ia * * Where, Ia = Armature current which varies with load
* = Motor flux which remains constant



The EMF generated is proportional to the rate at which conductors cut the flux. So we have, EMF = Rate of change of flux* = V / F i.e. V = d* / dt d* = V * dt *=V*T i e. *=V/F

Therefore, in order to maintain constant flux in motor, the ratio of voltage to frequency is always maintained constant so that motor can deliver rated torque through out the speed range.


Inverter is what industry sees as an ultimate and supreme controller of AC drives system. With micro controller based logical controls, the inverter is very fast, efficient safe and easily operable device. The range of application of inverter is enhancing day by day, so it is imperative to study inverter.

4.3.1 DEFINITION: The DC to AC power converter is known as INVERTER. In other words, an inverter is a circuit, which converts a fixed dc power in to an ac power at desired output voltage and frequency.



Since the inverter is dc to ac converter it has to have a constant dc source. Normally the power available in industry is ac, so to derive dc power, we need to rectify available ac power. The rectifier produces pulsating dc output voltage from ac power. The filter reduces the pulsation or the ripples contents in the rectified output and gives reasonably constant dc output. Then true inverter function occurs i.e. Variable Voltage Variable Frequency control. The main role is performed by the switching element which is invariably a semiconductor device.i.e.BJTs, IGBTs.


TESTING PROCEDURE During testing of the AC Drive following tests are carried out: 1.Visual checks 2.Electrical checks

Visual checks Carry out visual inspection as per Inspection Report for AC drives. Output and Input supply terminals of panels should be distinctly identified and output terminals of inverter are connected to the motor.
Check correctness and firmness of wires, cables and earth of the panel.

Electrical checks : Give the power supply to the panel according to the scheme. Check logic circuit as per scheme. Check phase sequence of auxiliary supplies. Verify that the direction of airflow of panel +fan is upward. Put the inverter ON. Set the parameters Check flash ID. Set control circuit's terminals according the scheme. Connect test motor at parameter outgoing terminals of panel and check RUN, SPEED RAISE, SPEED LOWER, STOP commands in all possible selections according to the scheme. Check Forward and Reverse RUN commands Check the operation by varying the reference (4-20 mA or 0-10V) in Remote mode. Check correctness and firmness of wires, cables and earth of the panel.


DC MOTOR BASICS An electrical motor is a machine, which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The basic principle is that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Flemings left hand rule. There is no basic difference between the construction of a dc generator and dc motor; the same machine can be used as a generator or a motor.

In case of a dc motor the field electromagnet and armature conductors are supplied with the current from mains supply and mechanical force is obtained by rotation of armature. In case of dc motor, the e.m.f (E) is less than the applied voltage (V) and the direction of the current (Ia) is the reverse of that when the machine is used as a generator.

E = V IaRa


V = E + IaRa

As the e.m.f. generated in the armature of a motor is in opposition to the applied voltage, it is also referred as Back emf.


Basically, DC drive is used due to following things: DC drive has precise control on speed & torque. DC drive is a soft starter means it has ramp input. It is useful in order to minimize the maintenance of the DC motor. DC drive has good efficiency, which is an around 80 % to 95 % giving good result


during running condition of DC motor. DC drive gives good speed regulation means it can sense load variation (from no-load to full-load) in proper manner & maintain the same speed. DC drive has speed controlling range from 0% to 100%, so it can control speed from 0 rpm to rated rpm of the motor. DC drive has 0.01% accuracy which means motor can run at 0.01% of its rated rpm speed. DC drive gives various types of protection over the motor control like Feedback loss, Integrated Overload, Phase sequence failure, Under Voltage, Over Voltage, Over Current, Over Speed, Over temperature etc.


There are two types of converter used in DC Drives. These are following: DC Thyristor converter drives DC Transistor converter drives.

4.6.1 DC Thyristor Converter Drives:

These drives are available in rating from a few hundred watts up to several megawatts and have a great variety of applications in industries. But these drives have certain advantages & disadvantages:

1.These are simple and highly efficient than their transistor equivalents. 2.Thyristors are available with very high current and voltage ratings.


1.Because of delay in thyristor operation (3.3ms), the current control loop bandwidth of the thyristor converter is limited to approximately 25Hz, which is too low for many servo drive applications. 2.Thyristor phase control rectifiers have poor input power factor, particularly at low output voltages. 3.Electronic short circuit protection is not possible with thyristorised converters. Fuses normally accomplish protection.

4.6.2 DC Transistor Converter Drives:

These drives are usually of low power rating and are typically used in rather specialist applications. The main advantage of DC transistor drives is that, they can be battery supplied or mains supplied.

Advantages: 1.Due to ability of transistor to interrupt current, it operate from battery or DC supply. 2.Transistor phase control rectifiers have high input power factor, particularly at low output voltages.Electronic short circuit protection is possible with transistorized converters. 3.Fuses normally accomplish protection.

Disadvantage: 1.These are more complex and less efficient than their thyristor equivalents. 2.Transistors are not available with very high current and voltage ratings.



The speed control of DC motor is given by

N = (Va IaRa) /J

From the above equation we can say that, the speed of separately excited DC motor can be varied in two ways: 1 .Field current is kept constant while the armature voltage is varied from zero to rated value. 2. Armature voltage is kept constant at the rated value and field current is varied from maximum to minimum. These two speed control result in speed-torque characteristics, which are different from each other. Armature voltage control gives constant torque and variable power

characteristics while variable field flux gives constant power and variable torque characteristics.

4.7.1 Armature Voltage Control: This method is used for controlling speed up to base speed of the motor. Base speed is the speed at which the motor delivers the rated power and torque at rated armature and field current. Since the field flux is kept constant, the torque is entirely dependent on the value of armature current. Once the value of starting torque i.e. starting current is determined, the armature voltage can be varied smoothly up-to base speed, keeping the armature current within the fixed limit. As the motor speeds up, Eb increases and the current tends to lower but since the voltage is also increasing, the current level can be maintained. As the current and the flux are kept constant the motor has a constant torque characteristics and power of the machine rises.

By varying the armature voltage below the nominal rated voltage, motor can be made to operate at various speeds in a wider range delivering full torque and reduce power output. It is not possible to operate the motor at higher than the base speed by

increasing the armature voltage above nominal rated voltage. This method of speed control is used in cranes, rolling mills etc. Thus up to base speed the motor can be controlled easily by controlling the armature voltage, called as constant torque application.

4.7.2 Field current control: Upto the base speed, the motor is controlled by armature voltage control. Now if the speed required is more than the base speed and the armature voltage is not be increased beyond the rated voltage, the choice is to decrease the field flux. To achieve this, the field current is to be decreased. This is called constant power application since power remains constant. This is also termed as field weaking of the system.



Advantages 1.Potentially lower installed cost above 50 HP. 2.Good energy efficiency & regeneration of power can possible by 4-Quadrant method. 3.Speed control of DC Drive is better than AC Drive. Limited Dynamic Response due to line commutation restrictions, coupled with higher mass moments of inertia imposed by the wound field armature. 4.DC motor tuning is good in DC Drive means current autotuning is done in proper manner & also all gains are set by auto tuning. 5.Few distance limitations. Potential for rapid acceleration to Limited range to 5,000-hp, due to commutation restrictions. Higher Repair Costs. Disadvantages Brush Maintenance.

destructive velocities upon loss of the stationary field.




Technical Education Program, designed to prepare our distributors to sell Energy & Automation products more effectively. This course covers Sensors and related products. SENSORS Welcome to another course in the STEP 2000 series, Upon completion of Sensors you should be able To describe advantages, disadvantages, and applications of limit switches, photoelectric sensors, inductive sensors, capacitive sensors, and ultrasonic sensors. switches. Describe design and operating principles of mechanical limit

Identify components of International and North American mechanical limit switches Describe design and operating principles of inductive, capacitive, ultrasonic, and photoelectric sensors and describe differences and similarities.

Apply correction factors where appropriate to proximity sensors Identify the various scan techniques of photoelectric sensors Identify ten categories of inductive sensors and sensors in each category. proximity sensors. Describe the effects of dielectric constant on capacitive

Identify environmental influences on ultrasonic sensors. Identify types of ultrasonic sensors that require manual adjustment, can be used with SONPROG, and require the use of a signal evaluator. Describe the difference between light operate and dark.


operate modes of a photoelectric sensor. Describe the use of fiber optics and laser technology used in Siemens photoelectric sensors.

Select the type of sensor best suited for a particular application based on material, sensing distance, and sensor load requirements. This knowledge will help you better understand customer applications. In addition, you will be better able to describe products to customers and determine important differences between products. You should complete Basics of Electricity and Basics of Control Components before attempting. Sensors. An understanding of many of the concepts covered in Basics of Electricity and Basics of Control Components is required for Sensors.

5.1 Types of switch 5.1.1 Limit Switch

High Current Capability Low Cost Familiar "Low- Tech" Sensing Requires Physical Contact with Target Very Slow Response Contact Bounce Interlocking Basic End-of- Travel Sensing

5.1.2 Photoelectric
Senses all Kinds of Materials Long Life


Longest Sensing Range Very Fast Response Time Lens Subject to Contamination Sensing Range Affected by Color and Reflectivity of Target Packaging Material Handling Parts Detection

5.1.3 Inductive
Resistant to Harsh Environments Very Predictable Long Life. Easy to Install. Distance Limitations. Industrial and Machines. Machine Tool. Senses Metal- Only Targets.

5.1.4 Capacitive
Detects Through Some Containers. Can Detect Non-Metallic Targets. Very Sensitive to Extreme Environmental Changes. Level Sensing.

5.1.5 Ultrasonic
Senses all Materials

Resolution Repeatability Sensitive to Temperature Changes Anti-Collision Doors Web Brake Level Control

5.2 Contact Arrangement : Contacts are available in several configurations. They

may be normally open (NO), normally closed (NC), or a combination of normally open and normally closed contacts. Circuit symbols are used to indicate an open or closed path of current flow. Contacts are shown as normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). The standard method of showing a contact is by indicating the circuit condition it produces when the contact actuating device is in the deenergized or nonoperated state. For the purpose of explanation in this text a contact or device shown in a state opposite of its normal state will be highlighted. Highlighted symbols used to indicate the opposite state of a contact or device are not legitimate symbols.

They are used here for illustrative purposes only. Mechanical limit switches, which will be covered in the next section, use a different set of symbols. Highlighted symbols are used for illustrative purposes only.

5.3 Limit Switches : A typical limit switch consists of a switch body and an
operating head. The switch body includes electrical contacts to energize and deenergize a circuit. The operating head incorporates some type of lever arm or plunger, referred to

as an actuator. The standard limit switch is a mechanical device that uses physical contact to detect the presence of an object (target). When the target comes in contact with the actuator, the actuator is rotated from its normal position to the operating position. This mechanical operation activates contacts within the switch body.

Principle of Operation A number of terms must be understood to understand how a mechanical limit switch operates. The free position is the position of the actuator when no external force is applied. Pretravel is the distance or angle traveled in moving the actuator from the free position to the operating position. The operating position is where contacts in the limit switch change from their normal state (NO or NC) to their operated state. Over travel is the distance the actuator can travel safely beyond the operating point. Differential travel is the distance traveled between the operating position and the release position. The release position is where the contacts change from their operated state to their normal state. Release travel is the distance traveled from the release position to the free position.

Snap-Action Contacts There are two types of contacts, snap-action and slow-break. Snap-action contacts open or close by a snap action regardless of the actuator speed. When force is applied to the actuator in the direction of travel, pressure builds up in the snap spring. When the actuator reaches the operating position of travel, a set of moveable contacts accelerates from its normal position towards a set of fixed contacts. As force is removed from the actuator it returns to its free position. When the actuator reaches the release position the spring mechanism accelerates the moveable contact back to its original state.


Since the opening or closing of the contacts is not dependent on the speed of the actuator, snap-action contacts are particularly suited for low actuator speed applications. Snap action contacts are the most commonly used type of contact.

Slow-Break Contacts Switches with slow-break contacts have moveable contacts that are located in a slide and move directly with the actuator. This ensures the moveable contacts are forced directly by the actuator. Slow-break contacts can either be breakbefore-make or make-before-break. In slow-break switches with break-before-make contacts, the normally closed contact opens before the normally open contact closes. This allows the interruption of one function before continuation of another function in a control sequence. In slow-break switches with make-before-break contacts, the normally open contact closes before the normally closed contact opens. This allows the initiation of one function before the interruption of another function.

NO NC NO NC Free Position Open Closed Open Closed Transition Open Open Closed Closed Operated State Closed Open Closed Open Break-Before-Contact State Make Make-Before-Break Contact Arrangements There are two basic contact configurations used in limit switches: single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) and double-pole, double-throw (DPDT). This terminology may be confusing if compared to similar terminology for other switch or relay contacts, so it is best just to remember the following points. The single-pole, double-throw contact arrangement consists of one normally open (NO) and one normally closed (NC) contact. The double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) contact arrangement consists of two normally open (NO) and two normally closed (NC)


contacts. There are some differences in the symbology used in the North American and International style limit switches. Make Break

5.4 Actuators: Several types of actuators are available for limit switches, some of
which are shown below. There are also variations of actuator types. Actuators shown here are to provide you with a basic knowledge of various types available. The type of actuator selected depends on the application.

Flexible Loop Flexible loop and spring rod actuators can be actuated from all Spring Rod directions, making them suitable for applications in which the direction of approach is constantly changing.

Plungers Plunger type actuators are a good choice where short, controlled machine movements are present or where space or mounting does not permit a lever type actuator. The plunger can be activated in the direction of plunger stroke, or at a right angle to its axis.

Mounting Considerations When using plain and side plunger actuators the cam should be operated in line with the push rod axis. Consideration should be given so as not to exceed the over travel specifications. In addition, the limit switch should not be used as a mechanical stop for the cam. When using roller top plunger the same considerations should be given as with lever arm actuators.


CHAPTER 6 Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks

In the previous chapters we have discussed a brief study on Industrial Automation. The main aim of this chapter is, firstly, to recall the basic concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems, to present the project management phases of SCADA for real time implementation, and then to show the need of the automation for Electricity Distribution Companies (EDC) on their distribution networks and the importance of using computer based system towards sustainable development of their services.

A proposed computer based power distribution automation system is then discussed. Finally, some projects of SCADA system implementation in electrical companies over the world are briefly presented.

In recent years, our modern developed life has deeply depended on different electricity services such as air-conditioner, refrigerator, TV, computer system, etc. These services are possible with the availability of a sustained, reliable and good quality of the electric power supply. Nevertheless the electric power distribution networks are susceptible to interruptions caused by a variety of reasons such as adverse weather conditions, equipment failure, accidents, etc. The Electricity Distribution Companies (EDC) normally identify the faulty section of the network and restore the power supply using their own resources which are mostly based on

classical methods and techniques. Today the rapid growth of Information Technology (IT) tools has promoted many EDC to modernize their fault diagnosis as well as troubleshooting systems.

Among new technologies used for this purpose, SCADA systems are considered as the widely appropriate tool used for such processes. SCADA is the acronym for "Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition". SCADA systems are widely used for supervisory control and data acquisition of diverse kind of processes. Such process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility [1]. The SCADA system usually consists of the following subsystems

A Man-Machine Interface (MMI) is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator, monitors and controls the process. A supervisory system, acquiring data on the process and sending commands to the process. Remote Terminal Units (RTU) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system. Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the RTU.

In fact, most control actions are performed automatically by RTU or by programmable logic controllers (PLC). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarm


conditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop.

The main objective of this work is to show the need of the automation for EDC on their distribution networks and the importance of using computer based system towards sustainable development of their services. This project is then organized as follows: next section briefly presents a review on SCADA applications. In the next section we discuss the application of SCADA to electric power distribution systems and some projects of SCADA system implementations in electrical companies over the world are then presented and present the different project management

phases of SCADA (identification of need; initiation; definition; design; acquisition and project closeout)

Review on SCADA applications

We present in this part, types of SCADA systems reviewed that include those for electric power generation, electric power transmission, electric power distribution, and process control. Researcher, Poon H.L. [6], has tried to make a survey of the current development of data acquisition technology. The various practical considerations in applying Data Acquisition Systems are summarized, and some feasible areas of advanced applications are investigated. Researchers, Ozdemir E. & al. [7], have used a Java-enabled mobile as a client in a sample SCADA application in order to display and supervise the position of a sample prototype crane. The wireless communication between the mobile phone and the SCADA server is performed by means of a base station via general packet radio

service GPRS and wireless application protocol WAP. Test results have indicated that the mobile phone based SCADA integration using the GPRS or WAP transfer scheme could enhance the performance of the crane in a day without causing an increase in the response times of SCADA functions. Researcher, Horng J.H. [8], has presented a SCADA of DC motor with implementation of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) on neural network (NN). He has successfully avoided complex data processing of fuzzy logic in the proposed scheme. After designed a FLC for controlling the motor

corporate networks but the ramifications of a SCADA breach are far more worrying than disruption to production. Researchers, Patel M. & al. [11], have presented a SCADA system that allows communication with, and controlling the output of, various I/O devices in the renewable energy systems and components test facility RESLab. This SCADA system differs from traditional SCADA systems in that it supports a continuously changing operating environment depending on the test to be performed. The SCADA System is based on the concept of having one Master I/O Server and multiple client computer systems. Researchers, Ralstona P.A.S., & al. [12], have provided a broad overview of cyber security and risk assessment for SCADA and DCS, have introduced the main industry organizations and government groups working in this area, and have given a comprehensive review of the literature to date. Presented in broad terms is probability risk analysis which includes methods such as FTA, ETA, and FMEA. The authors have concluded with a general discussion of two recent methods that quantitatively determine the probability of an attack, the impact of the attack, and the reduction in risk associated with a particular countermeasure. Researchers, Avlonitis S.A. & al. [13], have presented the structure and the installation of a flexible and low cost SCADA system. An ordinary PC with the appropriate interface and software operates the system. The system was installed to an old desalination plant in parallel with the existing old type conventional automation system, which is using relays, timers, etc. The automation system allows remote control and supervision of the plant at reasonable low cost. The design and

installation of the automation system, which includes the software and hardware, is simple and easily accessible. The system has reduced the labor cost, and has increased the labor productivity of the operation due to the remote supervision of the process.

Project Management Phases of a SCADA system In this part, we present the different project management phases of SCADA system implementation. In fact, SCADA project can be composed into five phases

Fig. 1. Different phases of a SCADA project.

The first phase consists on the identification of need. The scope of the project is essentially defined at this point. In fact, the SCADA project will be required for some of the following reasons: to reduce power costs; to reduce staffing; to improve level of service; to avoid environmental incidents; to comply with regulators requirements; to replace an existing aging system, etc. The second phase, which is the initiation, consists on the validation of the project need; the establishment of concepts and scope; the establishment of the summary Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). At this stage some small amount of funding has been approved to undertake the preliminary investigations, and prepare a preliminary project management plan. It will be necessary to firm up on the scope, identify the main technologies to be used, and gain agreement and approval of the potential users of the system. If the system is being


introduced to improve productivity, then it is important that user management understand how they can use the SCADA system to change work practices. Although the work should be concentrating on the functional requirements, it is necessary to keep an eye on the technical capabilities offered by suppliers.

The third phase consists on the definition of the project. The work at this stage should still be concentrating on the functional requirements. At this stage the project is starting to get serious. A project team is in place, and organizational and reporting processes are established. The scope is being finalized (sites, functions, etc.). It is important to firmly identify the benefits of the system, to develop benefit realization plans and develop plans to manage risks.

The fourth phase consists on the design of the SCADA project. This phase normally involves preparing the specification, and developing tender evaluation plans. It is probable that a prequalification phase could proceed at this time to overlap the tender preparation, and the prequalification phases. The modern approach is to use design and construct contracts, and pay for performance.

The fifth phase consists on the acquisition. In this phase the SCADA project will go through a number of steps: design configuration of SCADA master software; development of custom software; assembly of RTU's in factory, and testing; field installation of instrumentation, communications, and RTU's; commissioning; site acceptance testing; customer training. Subsequent to this, the system normally has a defects liability period, and beyond that maintenance must be contracted for.


The last phase, which is the project closeout, consists on the establishment of the project final report; the closeout of any outstanding defects and nonconformities; the final completion and the post implementation review (PIR) as required.

Application of SCADA to electric power distribution systems

A reliable power distribution system is an essential component for the economic growth and development of a country. Therefore, a modern electric power network system must be capable of performing 365 days a year and 24 hours a day with a high quality of uninterrupted power supply, even during the peak hours, to improve the performance of services to the customers. In view of the extensive size of the distribution networks, this can be achieved only by proper computer-based monitoring and control system as well as by efficient distribution and metering.

The "Monitoring and Control System" is the main part of a distribution automation network. This system was defined by IEEE as "A system that enables an electric company to remotely monitor, coordinate and operate distribution components in a real-time mode from remote location". The location from where control decisions are initiated is generally called Distribution Control Center (DCC). Within this center, different kinds of application software are used, which cooperate among themselves to achieve the control task

Many other types of equipments will also be used to support such automation of a power network. They include Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), Data Concentrator Unit (DCA), Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Communication equipments, etc.

In this discussion we would mainly focus on the customer service quality. Customer service requirements point to one key element: Information, i.e., the right amount of information to the right person or computer within the right amount of time. The flow of information requires data communication over extended networks of systems and users. In fact, utilities are becoming among the largest users of data and are the largest users of real-time information

Hence, the implementation of power network automation system will provide better services to EDC customers and improve the power quality and reliability of the electric supply services, which would satisfy the following goals: Respond to customer service interruptions more quickly. More efficiency of the power system by maintaining acceptable power factors and reduced losses. More control and limit of peak power demand. Ability of EDC engineering staff to monitor and control the power system during normal and abnormal conditions by providing more reliable and appropriate real time data. Ability of EDC engineering staff to perform the power system analysis and planning by providing increased access to past and current operations data and associated software tools. Ability of EDC engineering staff to manage the power system assets and system operations by providing increased access to better performance data and historical statistics.


A simple architecture of a power network automation system is given in below figure

This figure outlines components and their locations in the chain going from the central computers, down to the electricity meters and optional terminal units which can be used by the customer to view the real time status of the network.

The control center represents the main part of a distribution automation network. It can be based on an open hardware architecture, which can be easily scalable and flexible for future additions, using a number of commercial equipments, such as: a duplicated management server housing the application software and the alarms handler; a duplicated data collection server; one gateway server interfacing the control centre to the external commercial management system and another interfacing the remote-control system; a firewall with an unlimited client number; one router; three operator workstations; one high storage media.


The terminal units at the customer location will be used for many tasks. They will display the consumption, service and billing information including hourly load curves. The customer can also remotely close the circuit breaker of an outdoor meter equipped with the motor option. Also, the terminal units will communicate with the control centre to receive messages, alert the client in time to reduce the load when it exceeds a given limit and prevent tripping of the meter breaker and finally support prepayment.

In order to exchange data, the different system components need equipments installed in the MV/LV substations, which manage the data transmission to and from the meters, by a Power Line Carrier (PLC) over the low voltage lines and provide the connection to a control centre, using a dedicated protocol, over public or private communication networks. As the amount of data to be exchanged is huge, it asks for the use of computer and other smart equipments to manage the power network in real time. One of the smart equipments used is the Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). The AMR has replaced the old conventional energy meter (disk type) because of its better performance to process a huge amount of data in real time.

The communication systems will include various equipments with microprocessor controllers such as SCADA, RTU, Data Concentrator (Logger) and fast computers to supervise and control the network

The different equipments, including SCADA system, have been successfully installed in many EDCs over the world


SCADA systems come in a myriad of types, sizes, and applications [28]. There are many SCADA system manufacturers and most provide a multitude of SCADA systems (Table). Table: Major manufacturers and current SCADA systems. Manufacturer Current SCADA ABB Process Portal A/Operate IT, Ranger ACS Prism Alstom ESCA C3-Ilex EO SCADA Citect CitectSCADA Foxboro Invensys I/A series

Most developed countries, applied SCADA projects for their electrical distribution systems. Implemented SCADA systems, in these countries satisfied latest technology requirements like expandability and flexibility, conformity to international standards, high reliability, high functionality and high performance and high-level human interface.

In Japan, for example, the implementation of a SCADA system for automatic power distribution [29] has remarkably decreased both interruption frequency and interruption time by line faults.

In Taiwan, many distribution system dispatchers have installed SCADA systems for more management and rapid operation control. The automation of the system and the interactive display of geographic views have been identified as a necessary functionality for a complete distribution system SCADA


In other side, developing countries started giving importance of implementing SCADA systems for automating some of their industrial processes including the electrical distribution networks.

In Tunisia, for example, we developed many applications for the analysis and the supervision of thermal power plants using SCADA systems We show the need of automation for the Saudi Electrical Company on its distribution network and how to explore the importance of computer based system towards more sustainable services.

Moreover, in 2001, two Swedish donor agencies have funded SCADA systems for controlling power networks in nine developing countries (Botswana, Pakistan, Ecuador, Vietnam, Jordan, Zambia, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Lesotho)


CHAPTER - 7 Conclusion
In this project, we presented the project management phases of SCADA projects and then a computer based power distribution automation system is discussed.

Moreover, we proved the importance on using computer based system for sustainable development in the automation of the power distribution network to improve the customers' service and the reliability of the network.

Also the project outlines the general concepts and required equipments for the automation of such power networks etc. Some projects of SCADA system implementation in electrical companies over the world have been presented


CHAPTER - 7 Bibliography References

[1] D. Bailey and E. Wright, "Practical SCADA for Industry", Elsevier, 2003. [2] G. Clarke, D. Reynders and E. Wright, "Practical Modern SCADA Protocols", Elsevier, 2003 [3] J. Wiles, "Techno Security's Guide to Securing SCADA: A Comprehensive Handbook On Protecting The Critical Infrastructure", Elsevier, 2008. [4] J. Warcuse, B. Menz and J.R. Payne, Servers in SCADA applications, "IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl." 9 -2, 1997, pp 12951334. [5] E.K. Chan and H. Ebenhon, The implementation and Evolution of a SCADA System for a Large Distribution Network, "IEEE Transactions on Power systems", Vol.7, No.1, 1992, pp.320-326. [6] H.L. Poon, Applications of Data Acquisition Systems, "Computers in Industry" 13, 1989, pp 49-59. [7] E. Ozdemir and M. Karacor, Mobile phone based SCADA for industrial automation, "ISA Transactions", vol.45, Number 1, January 2006, pp 67-75.