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Ce||u|ar Protoco|s

GSM
In 1989, the Luropean 1elecommunication Standards Institute ,L1SI, took
oer responsibility or GSM. Phase I o the GSM speciications were
published in 1990, commercial serice was started in mid-1991, and by 1993
there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries. In addition to Luropean
countries, South Arica, Australia, and many Middle and lar Last countries
hae chosen GSM. At the beginning o 1994, there were 1.3 million
subscribers worldwide. 1he acronym GSM now aptly stands or Global
System or Mobile telecommunications.
GSM was intended to be compatible with ISDN in terms o serices oered
and control signalling used. Howeer, the standard ISDN bit rate o 64
Kbps could not be practically achieed due to the limitations o the radio
link. 1he digital nature o GSM allows data, both synchronous and
asynchronous, to be transported as a bearer serice to or rom an ISDN
terminal. 1he data rates supported by GSM are 300, 600, 1200, 2400, and
9600 bps.
128 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
1he most basic teleserice supported by GSM is telephony. A unique
eature o GSM compared to older analog systems is the Short Message
Serice ,SMS,.
Supplementary serices are proided on top o teleserices or bearer
serices, and include eatures such as international roaming, caller
identiication, call orwarding, call waiting, multi-party conersations and
barring o outgoing ,international, calls, among others.
1he ollowing diagram illustrates the structure o the GSM protocol amily:
MOBILE STATION
(MS)
CM
MM
RR
LAPDm
LAYER 1
Um Abis A
LAYER 1 LAYER 1
LAPDm LAPD LAPDm
RR BTSM
LAPD
LAYER 1
BTSM
RR
BSSMAP
DTAP
SCCP
MTP MTP
SCCP
BSSMAP
DTAP
CM
MM
MOBILE SWITCHING
CENTER
(MSC)
BASE STATION
(BTS)
BASE STATION
CONTROLLER
(BSC)
CM rotoco favi, .trvctvre

Code Diision Multiple Access ,CDMA, is a digital air interace standard,


claiming eight to iteen times the capacity o traditional analog cellular
systems. It employs a commercial adaptation o a military spread-spectrum
technology. Based on spread spectrum theory, it gies essentially the same
serices and qualities as wireline serice. 1he primary dierence is that
access to the local exchange carrier ,LLC, is proided ia a wireless phone.
1hough CDMA`s application in cellular telephony is relatiely new, it is not
a new technology. CDMA has been used in many military applications, such
as:
Anti-jamming ,because o the spread signal, it is diicult to jam or
interere with a CDMA signal,.
Ranging ,measuring the distance o the transmission to know when it
will be receied,.
Secure communications ,the spread spectrum signal is ery hard to
detect,.
CDMA is a spread spectrum technology, which means that it spreads the
inormation contained in a particular signal o interest oer a much greater
bandwidth than the original signal. \ith CDMA, unique digital codes, rather
than separate Rl requencies or channels, are used to dierentiate
subscribers. 1he codes are shared by both the mobile station ,cellular
phone, and the base station, and are called pseudo-random code sequences.
Since each user is separated by a unique code, all users can share the same
requency band ,range o radio spectrum,. 1his gies many unique
adantages to the CDMA technique oer other Rl techniques in cellular
communication.
CDMA is a digital multiple access technique and this cellular aspect o the
protocol is speciied by the 1elecommunications Industry Association ,1IA,
as IS-95.
In CDMA, the BSSAP is diided into the D1AP and BSMAP ,which
corresponds to BSSMAP in GSM,. 1he structure o CDMA is shown in the
ollowing illustration:
130 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
BS Side MSC
A Interface
LLC
RLC
DTAP
BSSMAP
MTP
LLC
RLC
DTAP
BSSMAP
SCCP
MTP
Physical Layer
SCCP
BSSAP BSSAP
CDM. rotoco .trvctvre
1he ollowing cellular protocols are described in this chapter:
BSSAP - BSS Application Part.
BSSMAP - BSS Management Application Part.
D1AP ,GSM, - Direct 1ranser Application sub-Part.
B1SM - Base Station Controller to Base 1ransceier Station.
BSMAP - Base Station Management Application Part.
D1AP ,CDMA, - Direct 1ranser Application sub-Part.
RR - Radio Resource.
MM - Mobility Management.
CC - Call Control.
SMS - Short Message Serice.

1he ollowing diagram illustrates the GSM and CDMA protocols in relation
to other telephony protocols and the OSI model:
1eebov, rotoco .vite iv reatiov to tbe O voae
Transport
Network
Data Link
GPRS
GMS/CDMA
Application
INAP
Session
Presentation
VLR
IS41/MAP
HLR
AUC
EIR
DTAP
B-ISUP
ISUP
DUP
SS
MM
RR
CM/CC
SMS
SNDCP
BSSMAP
SMS
GMM
Physical
TCAP TUP
BTSM BSSAP
SCCP
NM
V5
GTP
BSSGP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
NS-Network
LAPv5
From LAPD
From UDP
To IP
To X.25
From
Frame Relay
V5 Link Control
V5 PSTN
V5 Control
V5 Protection
LLC
132 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
$$!
GSM 08.06 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he M1P and the SCCP are used to support signalling messages between
the Mobile Serices Switching Center ,MSC, and the Base Station System
,BSS,. One user unction o the SCCP, called BSS Application Part ,BSSAP,
is deined. In the case o point-to-point calls the BSSAP uses one signalling
connection per actie mobile station haing one or more actie transactions
or the transer o layer 3 messages. In the case o a oice group or a
broadcast call, there is always one connection per cell inoled in the call
and one additional connection per BSS or the transmission o layer 3
messages. 1here is an additional connection or the speaker in a broadcast
call, or the irst speaker in a oice group call, up to the point at which the
network decides to transer them to a common channel. Additional
connections may also be required or any mobile stations in the oice group
or broadcast call, which the network decides to place on a dedicated
connection. 1he BSSAP user unction is urther subdiided into two
separate unctions:
1he Direct 1ranser Application sub-Part ,D1AP, is used to transer
messages between the MSC and the MS ,Mobile Station,. 1he layer-3
inormation in these messages is not interpreted by the BSS. 1he
descriptions o the layer 3 protocols or the MS-MSC inormation
exchange are contained in the 04 series o GSM 1echnical Speciications.
1he BSS Management Application sub-Part ,BSSMAP, supports other
procedures between the MSC and the BSS, related to the MS ,resource
management, handoer control,, or to a cell within the BSS, or to the
whole BSS. 1he description o the layer 3 protocol or the BSSMAP
inormation exchange is contained in GSM 08.08.
Both connectionless and connection-oriented procedures are used to
support the BSSMAP. GSM 08.08 explains whether connection oriented or
connectionless serices should be used or each layer 3 procedure.
Connection oriented procedures are used to support the D1AP. A
distribution unction located in BSSAP, which is relected in the protocol
speciication by the layer 3 header, perorms the discrimination between the
data related to those two subparts.
8SSAP 133
1he ormat o the BSSAP header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
1 byte 1 byte
Discrimination DLCI Length
.P beaaer .trvctvre
Discrimination
Discriminates between the 2 sub-protocols: BSSMAP and D1AP.
DLCI
Only used or D1AP. Used in MSC to BSS messages to indicate the type o
origination data link connection oer the radio interace.
Lenth
Subsequent layer 3 message parameter length.
134 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
8SSMAP
GSM 08.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he BSS Management Application Part ,BSSMAP, supports all o the
procedures between the MSC and the BSS that require interpretation and
processing o inormation related to single call and resource management.
Some o the BSSMAP procedures result in, or are triggered by, Radio
Resource ,RR, management messages deined in GSM 04.08.
1he ormat o the header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message type 1
Information elements 2-n
M.P beaaer .trvctvre
Messae type
Mandatory, one-octet ield deining the message type. 1he message type
code uniquely deines the unction and ormat o each BSSMAP message.
Information e|ements
Lach IL has an identiier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length o an
IL may be ixed or ariable and may or may not include a length indicator.
DTAP (GSM) 135
DTAP (GSM)
GSM 04.08, 08.06, 08.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Direct 1ranser Application Part ,D1AP, is used to transer call control
and mobility management messages between the MSC and the MS. 1he
D1AP inormation in these messages is not interpreted by the BSS.
Messages receied rom the MS are identiied as D1AP by the Protocol
Discriminator Inormation Llement. 1he majority o radio interace
messages are transerred across the BSS MSC interace by D1AP, except or
messages belonging to the Radio Resource ,RR, management protocol.
1he D1AP unction is in charge o transerring layer 3 messages rom the
MS ,or rom the MSC, to the MSC ,or to the MS, without any analysis o
the message contents. 1he interworking between the layer 2 protocol on the
radio side and signalling system at the landside is based on the use o
indiidual SCCP connections or each MS and on the distribution unction.
1he ormat o the D1AP header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction / skip 1
0 N(SD) Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
CM beaaer .trvctvre
Protoco| discriminator
Identiies the layer 3 protocol to which the standard layer 3 message
belongs. Values may be as ollows:
0000 Group call control
0001 Broadcast call control
0010 PDSS1
0011 Call control, call related SS messages
0100 PDSS2
0101 Mobility Management Messages
0110 Radio resources management messages
1001 SMS messages
1011 Non-call related SS messages
1110 Lxtension o the PD to one octet length
1111 1ests procedures described in 1S GSM 11.10
13 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
Transaction identifier / skip indicator
Lither a transaction identiier, or a skip indictor depending on the leel 3
protocol. 1he transaction identiier contains the transaction alue and lag
which identiies who allocated the 1I.
N(SD)
lor MM and CM, N,SD, is set to the alue o the send state ariable. In
other leel 3 messages, bit is set to 0 by the sending side. Messages
receied with bit set to 1 are ignored.
Messae type
Uniquely deines the unction and ormat o each GSM L3 message. 1he
message type is mandatory or all messages. 1he meaning o the message
type is thereore dependent on the protocol ,the same alue may hae
dierent meanings in dierent protocols, and direction ,the same alue may
hae dierent meanings in the same protocol, when sent rom the Mobile
Station to the network and when sent rom the network to the Mobile
Station,.
Information e|ements
1he message type may be ollowed by arious inormation elements
depending on the protocol.
8TSM 137
8TSM
GSM 08.58 http:,,www.etsi.org
B1SM is the Base Station Controller to Base 1ransceier Station ,BSC -
B1S, interace protocol ,the A-bis interace,. B1SM allows sending
messages between the Base Station Controller and the Base 1ransceier
Station. Protocol messages consist o a series o inormation elements. lor
each message there are mandatory inormation elements and optional
inormation elements. B1SM messages are transmitted on the A-bis
interace using the I ormat o LAPD, except or the Measurement Result
message which is sent in UI ormat.
1he structure o B1SM messages is shown in the ollowing diagram:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message discriminator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
1M ve..age .trvctvre
Messae discriminator
1-octet ield used in all messages to discriminate between 1ransparent and
Non-1ransparent messages and also between Radio Link Layer
Management, Dedicated Channel Management, Common Channel
Management and 1RX Management messages. 1he ormat o the message
discriminator is as ollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 T 1
Me..age ai.crivivator .trvctvre
1he 1-bit is set to 1 to indicate that the message is to be,was considered
transparent by B1S. All other messages hae the 1-bit set to 0. 1he G-bits
are used to group the messages as ollows:
G7-G1 m.ooug. grouj
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Resered
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Radio Link Layer Management messages
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Dedicated Channel Management messages
138 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Common Channel Management messages
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1RX Management messages
All other alues are resered or uture use.
Messae type
Uniquely identiies the unction o the message being sent. It is a single octet
and coded as ollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
EM Message type 1
Me..age ai.crivivator .trvctvre
Bit 8 is the extension bit and is resered or uture use. 1he ollowing
message types are used ,all other alues are resered,:
0000 xxxx Radio Link Layer Management messages:
0001 DA1A RLQuest
0010 DA1A INDication
0011 LRROR INDication
0100 LS1ablish RLQuest
0101 LS1ablish CONlirm
0110 LS1ablish INDication
0111 RLLease RLQuest
1000 RLLease CONlirm
1001 RLLease INDication
1010 UNI1 DA1A RLQuest
1011 UNI1 DA1A INDication
0001 xxxx Common Channel Management,1RX Management
messages:
0001 BCCH INlOrmation
0010 CCCH LOAD INDication
0011 CHANnel ReQuireD
0100 DLLL1L INDication
0101 PAGING CoMmanD
0110 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGN COMMAND
0111 SMS BroadCast RLQuest
1001 Rl RLSource INDication
1010 SACCH lILLing
1011 OVLRLOAD
1100 LRROR RLPOR1
8TSM 139
1101 SMS BroadCast CoMmanD
1110 CBCH LOAD INDication
1111 NO1iication CoMmanD
001 xxxxx Dedicated Channel Management messages:
00001 CHANnel AC1IVation
00010 CHANnel AC1IVation ACKnowledge
00011 CHANnel AC1IVation Negatie ACK
00100 CONNection lAILure
00101 DLAC1IVA1L SACCH
00110 LNCRyption CoMmanD
00111 HANDOer DL1ection
01000 MLASurement RLSult
01001 MODL MODIl\ RLQuest
01010 MODL MODIl\ ACKnowledge
01011 MODL MODIl\ Negatie ACKnowledge
01100 PH\sical CON1LX1 RLQuest
01101 PH\sical CON1LX1 CONlirm
01110 Rl CHANnel RLLease
01111 MS PO\LR CON1ROL
10000 BS PO\LR CON1ROL
10001 PRLPROCess CONlIGure
10010 PRLPROCessed MLASurement RLSult
10011 Rl CHANnel RLLease ACKnowledge
10100 SACCH INlO MODIl\
10101 1ALKLR DL1ection
10110 LIS1LNLR DL1ection
140 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
8SMAP
1IA,LIA,IS-634-A, reision A
1he Base Station Management Application Part ,BSMAP, supports all
Radio Resource Management and lacility Management procedures between
the MSC and the BS, or to a cell,s, within the BS. BSMAP messages are not
passed to the MS, but are used only to perorm unctions at the MSC or the
BS. A BSMAP message ,complete layer 3 inormation, is also used together
with a D1AP message to establish a connection or an MS between the BS
and the MSC, in response to the irst layer 3 interace message sent by the
MS to the BS or each MS system request.
1he ormat o the header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message type 1
Parameter 2-n
M.P beaaer .trvctvre
Messae type
Mandatory, one-octet ield which uniquely deines the unction and ormat
o each BSMAP message.
Parameter
Lach parameter has a name which is coded as a single octet. 1he length o a
parameter may be ixed or ariable and a length indicator or each parameter
may be included.
DTAP (CDMA) 141
DTAP (CDMA)
1IA,LIA,IS-634-A, reision A
1he Direct 1ranser Application Part ,D1AP, messages are used to transer
call processing and mobility management messages to and rom the MS.
1he BS does not use D1AP messages, but must map messages going to and
coming rom the MSC into the appropriate air interace signaling protocol.
1ransaction IDs are used to associate the D1AP messages with a particular
MS and the current call.
1he ormat o the header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Transaction identifier Protocol discriminator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
D1.P beaaer .trvctvre
Protoco| discriminator
1he protocol discriminator speciies the message being transerred ,CC,
MM, RR,.
Transaction identifier
Distinguishes multiple parallel actiities ,transactions, within one mobile
station. 1he ormat o the transaction identiier is as ollows:
8 7 6 5
TI flag TI value
1rav.actiov iaevtifier
TI f|a
Identiies who allocated the 1I alue or this transaction. 1he purpose o
the 1I lag is to resole simultaneous attempts to allocate the same 1I alue.
TI va|ue
1I alues are assigned by the side o the interace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning o a transaction, a ree 1I alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains ixed or the lietime o the transaction. Ater a
142 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
transaction ends, the associated 1I alue is ree and may be reassigned to a
later transaction. 1wo identical transaction identiier alues may be used
when each alue pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends o the
interace.
Messae Type
1he message type deines the unction o each D1AP message.
Information e|ements
Lach inormation element has a name which is coded as a single octet. 1he
length o an inormation element may be ixed or ariable and a length
indicator or each one may be included.
##
RR
GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
Radio Resource ,RR, management procedures include the unctions related
to the management o the common transmission resources, e.g., the physical
channels and the data link connections on control channels. 1he general
purpose o Radio Resource procedures is to establish, maintain and release
RR connections that allow a point-to-point dialogue between the network
and a Mobile Station. 1his includes the cell selection,reselection and the
handoer procedures. Moreoer, Radio Resource management procedures
include the reception o the uni-directional BCCH and CCCH when no RR
connection is established. 1his permits automatic cell selection,reselection.
1he ormat o the RR header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Skip indicator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
## 0,/07 897:.9:70
Protoco| discriminator
0110 identiies the RR Management protocol.
Skip indicator
1he alue o this ield is 0000.
Messae type
Uniquely deines the unction and ormat o each RR message. 1he message
type is mandatory or all messages. RR message types may be:
00111 xxx Channel establishment messages:
011 ADDI1IONAL ASSIGNMLN1
111 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1
001 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1 LX1LNDLD
010 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1 RLJLC1
00110 xxx Ciphering messages:
101 CIPHLRING MODL COMMAND
010 CIPHLRING MODL COMPLL1L
144 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
00101 xxx Handoer messages:
110 ASSIGNMLN1 COMMAND
001 ASSIGNMLN1 COMPLL1L
111 ASSIGNMLN1 lAILURL
011 HANDOVLR COMMAND
100 HANDOVLR COMPLL1L
000 HANDOVLR lAILURL
101 PH\SICAL INlORMA1ION
00001 xxx Channel release messages:
101 CHANNLL RLLLASL
010 PAR1IAL RLLLASL
111 PAR1IAL RLLLASL COMPLL1L
00100 xxx Paging messages:
001 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 1
010 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 2
100 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 3
111 PAGING RLSPONSL
00011 xxx System inormation messages:
000 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 8
001 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 1
010 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2
011 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 3
100 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 4
101 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5
110 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 6
111 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL
00000 xxx System inormation messages:
010 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2bis
011 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2ter
101 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5bis
110 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5ter
00010 xxx Miscellaneous messages:
000 CHANNLL MODL MODIl\
010 RR S1A1US
111 CHANNLL MODL MODIl\ ACKNO\LLDGL
100 lRLQULNC\ RLDLlINI1ION
101 MLASURLMLN1 RLPOR1
110 CLASSMARK CHANGL
011 CLASSMARK LNQUIR\
##
Information e|ements
1he length o an inormation element may be ixed or ariable and a length
indicator or each one may be included.
14 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
MM
GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he main unction o the Mobility Management ,MM, sub-layer is to
support the mobility o user terminals, such as inorming the network o its
present location and proiding user identity conidentiality. A urther
unction o the MM sub-layer is to proide connection management serices
to the dierent entities o the upper Connection Management ,CM, sub-
layer.
1he ormat o the header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Skip indicator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
MM beaaer .trvctvre
Protoco| discriminator
0101 identiies the MM protocol.
Skip indicator
1he alue o this ield is 0000.
Messae type
Uniquely deines the unction and ormat o each MM message. 1he
message type is mandatory or all messages. Bit 8 is resered or possible
uture use as an extension bit. Bit is resered or the send sequence
number in messages sent rom the mobile station. MM message types may
be:
0x00 xxxx Registration messages:
0001 IMSI DL1ACH INDICA1ION
0010 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING ACCLP1
0100 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING RLJLC1
1000 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING RLQULS1
0x01 xxxx Security messages:
0001 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLJLC1
0010 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLQULS1

0100 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLSPONSL
1000 IDLN1I1\ RLQULS1
1001 IDLN1I1\ RLSPONSL
1010 1MSI RLALLOCA1ION COMMAND
1011 1MSI RLALLOCA1ION COMPLL1L
0x10 xxxx Connection management messages:
0001 CM SLRVICL ACCLP1
0010 CM SLRVICL RLJLC1
0011 CM SLRVICL ABOR1
0100 CM SLRVICL RLQULS1
1000 CM RLLS1ABLISHMLN1 RLQULS1
1001 ABOR1
0x11 xxxx Miscellaneous messages:
0001 MM S1A1US
Information e|ements
Various inormation elements.
148 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
CC
GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Call Control ,CC, protocol is one o the protocols o the Connection
Management ,CM, sublayer. Lery mobile station must support the Call
Control protocol. I a mobile station does not support any bearer capability
at all, then it must respond to a SL1UP message with a RLLLASL
COMPLL1L message. In the Call Control protocol, more than one CC
entity is deined. Lach CC entity is independent rom another and
communicates with the corresponding peer entity using its own MM
connection. Dierent CC entities use dierent transaction identiiers.
Certain sequences o actions o the two peer entities compose elementary
procedures. 1hese elementary procedures may be grouped into the
ollowing classes:
Call establishment procedures.
Call clearing procedures.
Call inormation phase procedures.
Miscellaneous procedures.
1he terms vobie origivativg or vobie origivatea ,MO, are used to describe a call
initiated by the mobile station. 1he terms vobie tervivativg or vobie tervivatea
,M1, are used to describe a call initiated by the network.
1he ormat o the CC header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction identifier 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
CC beaaer .trvctvre
Protoco| discriminator
0011 identiies the CC protocol.
Transaction identifier
1he transaction identiier distinguishes multiple parallel actiities
,transactions, within one mobile station. 1he ormat o the transaction
identiier is as ollows:

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TI flag TI value - - - -
1rav.actiov iaevtifier
TI f|a
Identiies who allocated the 1I alue or this transaction. 1he purpose o
the 1I lag is to resole simultaneous attempts to allocate the same 1I alue.
TI va|ue
1I alues are assigned by the side o the interace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning o a transaction, a ree 1I alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains ixed or the lietime o the transaction. Ater a
transaction ends, the associated 1I alue is ree and may be reassigned to a
later transaction. 1wo identical transaction identiier alues may be used
when each alue pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends o the
interace.
Messae type
CC message types may be as ollows. Bit 8 is resered or possible uture use
as an extension bit. Bit is resered or the send sequence number in
messages sent rom the mobile station.
0x00 0000 Lscape to nationally speciic message types
0x00 xxxx Call establishment messages:
0001 ALLR1ING
1000 CALL CONlIRMLD
0010 CALL PROCLLDING
0111 CONNLC1
1111 CONNLC1 ACKNO\LLDGL
1110 LMLRGLNC\ SL1UP
0011 PROGRLSS
0101 SL1UP
0x01 xxxx Call inormation phase messages:
0111 MODIl\
1111 MODIl\ COMPLL1L
0011 MODIl\ RLJLC1
0000 USLR INlORMA1ION
1000 HOLD
1001 HOLD ACKNO\LLDGL
1010 HOLD RLJLC1
150 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
1100 RL1RILVL
1101 RL1RILVL ACKNO\LLDGL
1110 RL1RILVL RLJLC1
0x10 xxxx Call clearing messages:
0101 DISCONNLC1
1101 RLLLASL
1010 RLLLASL COMPLL1L
0x11 xxxx Miscellaneous messages:
1001 CONGLS1ION CON1ROL
1110 NO1Il\
1101 S1A1US
0100 S1A1US LNQUIR\
0101 S1AR1 D1Ml
0001 S1OP D1Ml
0010 S1OP D1Ml ACKNO\LLDGL
0110 S1AR1 D1Ml ACKNO\LLDGL
0111 S1AR1 D1Ml RLJLC1
1010 lACILI1\
Information e|ements
Various inormation elements.
$$
SMS
GSM 04.11 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Short Message Serice ,SMS, is used to transer text messages oer
mobile networks between a GSM PLMN Mobile Station and a Short
Message Lntity ia a Serice Center. 1he terms MO ,Mobile Originating,
and M1 ,Mobile 1erminating, are used to indicate the direction in which the
short message is sent.
SMS messages can be control or relay messages. 1he ormat o the control
protocol message header is shown in the ollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction identifier 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
M covtro rotoco beaaer .trvctvre
Protoco| discriminator
1001 identiies the SMS protocol.
Transaction identifier
1he transaction identiier ,1I, distinguishes multiple parallel actiities
,transactions, within one mobile station. 1he ormat o the transaction
identiier is as ollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TI flag TI value - - - -
1rav.actiov iaevtifier
TI f|a
Identiies who allocated the 1I alue or this transaction. 1he purpose o
the 1I lag is to resole simultaneous attempts to allocate the same 1I alue.
TI va|ue
1I alues are assigned by the side o the interace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning o a transaction, a ree 1I alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains ixed or the lietime o the transaction. Ater a
152 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
transaction ends, the associated 1I alue is ree and may be reassigned to a
later transaction. 1wo identical transaction identiier alues may be used
when each alue pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends o the
interace.
Messae type
1he message type, together with the protocol discriminator, identiies the
unction o the message being sent. Messages may be o the ollowing:
0000 0001 CP-DA1A
0000 0100 CP-ACK
0001 0000 CP-LRROR
Information e|ements
Lach IL has an identiier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length o an
IL may be ixed or ariable and may or may not include a length indicator.
1he ormat o the relay protocol message header is shown in the ollowing
illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
0 0 0 0 0 MTI 1
Message reference 2
Information elements 3-n
M rea, rotoco beaaer .trvctvre
MTI
Message type indicator. Values are as ollows:
11: 1uIu. J 2 1) 11r..:1on 11-m.ooug.
0 0 0 ms - n RP-DA1A
0 0 0 n - ms Resered
0 0 1 ms - n Resered
0 0 1 n - ms RP-DA1A
0 1 0 ms - n RP-ACK
0 1 0 n - ms Resered
0 1 1 ms - n Resered
0 1 1 n - ms RP-ACK
1 0 0 ms - n RP-LRROR
1 0 0 n - ms Resered
1 0 1 ms - n Resered
1 0 1 n - ms RP-LRROR
$$
11: 1uIu. J 2 1) 11r..:1on 11-m.ooug.
1 1 0 ms - n RP-SMMA
1 1 0 n - ms Resered
1 1 1 ms - n Resered
1 1 1 n - ms Resered
Messae reference
Used to link an RP-ACK message or RP-LRROR message to the associated
RP-Data or RP-SMMA message transer attempt.
Information e|ements
Lach IL has an identiier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length o an
IL may be ixed or ariable and may or may not include a length indicator.
154 Ce||u|ar Protoco|s