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CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

To develop formulations for the kinetic energy of a body, and define the various ways a force and couple do work. To apply the principle of work and energy to solve rigid-body planar kinetic problems that involve force, velocity, and displacement. To show how the conservation of energy can be used to solve rigid-body planar kinetic problems.

In this chapter we will apply work and energy methods to problems involving force, velocity, and displacement related to the planar motion of a rigid body. Before doing this, however, it will first be necessary to develop a means of obtaining the body's kinetic energy when the body is subjected to translation, rotation about a fixed axis, or general plane motion. To do this we will consider the rigid body shown in Fig. 181, which is represented here by a slab moving in the inertial xy reference plane. An arbitrary ith particle of the body, having a mass dm, is located at r from the arbitrary point P . If at the instant shown the particle has a velocity then the particle's kinetic energy is The kinetic energy of the entire body is determined by writing similar expressions for each particle of the body and integrating the results, i.e.,

This equation may also be expressed in terms of the velocity of point P . If the body has an angular velocity then from Fig. 181 we have

is thus

The first integral on the right represents the entire mass m of the body. Since and the second and third integrals locate the body's center of mass G with respect to P . The last integral represents the body's moment of inertia computed about the z axis passing through point P . Thus, (181) As a special case, if point P coincides with the mass center G for the body, then (182) Here is the moment of inertia for the body about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of motion and passes through the mass center. Both terms on the right side are always positive, since the velocities are squared. Furthermore, it may be verified that these terms have units of length times force, common units being or Recall, however, that in the SI system the unit of energy is the joule (J), where and therefore

Fig. 181

Translation

When a rigid body of mass m is subjected to either rectilinear or curvilinear translation, the kinetic energy due to rotation is zero, since From Eq. 182, the kinetic energy of the body is therefore (183) where is the magnitude of the translational velocity v at the instant considered, Fig. 182.

Fig. 182

When a rigid body is rotating about a fixed axis passing through point O , Fig. 183, the body has both translational and rotational kinetic energy as defined by Eq. 182, i.e., (184)

Fig. 183

By

the parallel-axis theorem, the terms inside the parentheses represent the moment of inertia an axis perpendicular to the plane of motion and passing through point O . Hence, (185)

From the derivation, this equation will give the same result as Eq. 184, since it accounts for both the translational and rotational kinetic energies of the body.

General Plane Motion

When a rigid body is subjected to general plane motion, Fig. 184, it has an angular velocity center has a velocity Hence, the kinetic energy is defined by Eq. 182, i.e., (186)

Here it is seen that the total kinetic energy of the body consists of the scalar sum of the body's translational and rotational kinetic energy about its mass center, kinetic energy,

Fig. 184

Because energy is a scalar quantity, the total kinetic energy for a system of connected rigid bodies is the sum of the kinetic energies of all its moving parts. Depending on the type of motion, the kinetic energy of each body is found by applying Eq. 182 or the alternative forms mentioned above.

The total kinetic energy of this soil compactor consists of the kinetic energy of the body or frame of the machine due to its translation, and the translational and rotational kinetic energies of the roller and the wheels due to their general plane motion. Here we exclude the additional kinetic energy developed by the moving parts of the engine and drive train.

E X A M P L E 18.1

The system of three elements shown in Fig. 185 a consists of a 6-kg block B , a 10-kg disk D , and a 12-kg cylinder C . If no slipping occurs, determine the total kinetic energy of the system at the instant shown.

Fig. 185a

Solution In order to compute the kinetic energy of the disk and cylinder, it is first necessary to determine and Fig. 185 a. From the kinematics of the disk,

Since the cylinder rolls without slipping, the instantaneous center of zero velocity is at the point of contact with the ground, Fig. 185b , hence,

Fig. 185b

Block

Disk

Cylinder

Ans.

Several types of forces are often encountered in planar kinetics problems involving a rigid body. The work of each of these forces has been presented in Sec. 14.1 and is listed below as a summary.

Work of a Variable Force

If an external force F acts on a rigid body, the work done by the force when it moves along the path s, Fig. 186, is defined as

(187)

Here is the angle between the tails of the force vector and the differential displacement. In general, the integration must account for the variation of the force's direction and magnitude.

Fig. 186

If an external force acts on a rigid body, Fig. 187, and maintains a constant magnitude and constant direction while the body undergoes a translation s, Eq. 187 can be integrated so that the work becomes (188) Here represents the magnitude of the component of force in the direction of displacement.

Fig. 187

Work of a Weight

The weight of a body does work only when the body's center of mass G undergoes a vertical displacement If this displacement is upward, Fig. 188, the work is negative, since the weight and displacement are in opposite directions. (189) the work becomes positive. In both cases the elevation change Likewise, if the displacement is downward is considered to be small so that W, which is caused by gravitation, is constant.

Fig. 188

If a linear elastic spring is attached to a body, the spring force acting on the body does work when the spring either stretches or compresses from to a further position In both cases the work will be negative since the displacement of the body is in the opposite direction to the force, Fig. 189. The work done is (1810) where

Fig. 189

There are some external forces that do no work when the body is displaced. These forces can act either at fixed points on the body, or they can have a direction perpendicular to their displacement. Examples include the

reactions at a pin support about which a body rotates, the normal reaction acting on a body that moves along a fixed surface, and the weight of a body when the center of gravity of the body moves in a horizontal plane, Fig. 1810. A rolling resistance force acting on a round body as it rolls without slipping over a rough surface also does no work, Fig. 1810. This is because, during any instant of time dt , acts at a point on the body which has zero velocity (instantaneous center, IC), and so the work done by the force on the point is zero. In other words, the point is not displaced in the direction of the force during this instant. Since contacts successive points for only an instant, the work of will be zero.

Fig. 1810

When a body subjected to a couple undergoes general plane motion, the two couple forces do work only when the body undergoes a rotation. To show this, consider the body in Fig. 1811 a, which is subjected to a couple moment Any general differential displacement of the body can be considered as a translation plus rotation. When the body translates , such that the component of displacement along the line of action of the forces is Fig. 1811b, clearly the positive work of one force cancels the negative work of the other. If the body undergoes a differential rotation about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the couple and intersects the plane at point O , Fig. 1811 c, then each force undergoes a displacement in the direction of the force. Hence, the total work done is

Here the line of action of is parallel to the line of action of M . This is always the case for general plane motion , since M and are perpendicular to the plane of motion. Furthermore, the resultant work is positive when M and have the same sense of direction and negative if these vectors have an opposite sense of direction .

Fig. 1811

When the body rotates in the plane through a finite angle measured in radians, from couple is

to

the work of a

(1811)

If the couple moment M has a constant magnitude, then (1812) Here the work is positive provided M and

E X A M P L E 18.2

The bar shown in Fig. 1812 a has a mass of 10 kg and is subjected to a couple moment of and a force of which is always applied perpendicular to the end of the bar. Also, the spring has an unstretched length of 0.5 m and remains in the vertical position due to the roller guide at B . Determine the total work done by all the forces acting on the bar when it has rotated downward from to .

Fig. 1812a

Solution First the free-body diagram of the bar is drawn in order to account for all the forces that act on it, Fig. 1812 b.

Fig. 1812b

m, the work is

Why is the work positive? Couple Moment M. The couple moment rotates through an angle of Hence

and when

By inspection the spring does negative work on the bar since acts in the opposite direction to displacement. This checks with the result. Force P. As the bar moves downward, the force is displaced through a distance of The work is positive. Why?

and

Total Work. The work of all the forces when the bar is displaced is thus Ans.

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