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PRESSURE VESSEL: Perancangan, Fabrikasi dan Inspeksi Ir. Tri Prakosa, M.Eng.

LAPI-ITB (22-25 Oktober 2009) 1

2. DESIGN OVERVIEW 2

OVERVIEW PERANCANGAN BEJANA TEKAN (PRESSURE VESSEL), BERDASARKAN ASME CODE SECTI ON VIII ASME International 3

Pengantar Material Pressure Vessel Perancangan (Design) Pertimbangam Perancangan Lain Pembuatan (Fabrikasi) Inspeksi dan Testing 4

Definisi Pressure Vessels Wadah fluida yang bertekanan Digunakan di beberapa industri, antara lain: Perusa haan minyak Perusahaan kimia Pembangkit tenaga Pabrik pulp dan kertas Pabrik mak anan, dll 5

Jenis-jenis pressure vessel 6

Drum Horisontal tumpuan Saddle Gambar 2.1 7

Drum Vertikal tumpuan Kaki 1. Sebagian besar head berbentuk kurva lengkung karena alasan kekuatan, tipis da n ekonomi. 2. Bentuk Semi eliptik (Semi-elliptical shape) adalah bentuk yang umu m digunakan. 3. Drum kecil vertikal biasanya ditumpu dengan kaki. Perbandingan m aksimum antara panjang kaki dengan diameter biasanya 2:1. Jumlah kaki, ukuram da n detail tambahan tergantung pada besar beban. Gambar 2.2 8

Menara Vertikal Tinggi 1. Nozzel dihubungkan dengan: Sistem perpipaan Koneksi instrumen Manways Sambung an instrumen lainnya 2. Ujung nozzel biasanya berbentuk flens. 3. Kadangkala noz zel menjorok ke dalam vessel. Gambar 2.3 9

Reaktor Vertikal Gambar 2.4 10

Tangki Bola Penyimpan (bertekanan) Gambar 2.5 11

Vertical Vessel on Lug Supports 1 10 ft diameter 2:1 to 5:1 height/diameter ratio Gambar 2.6 12

Ruang Lingkup ASME Code Section VIII Section VIII digunakan di seluruh dunia Tujuan: Penyajian syarat minimal untuk k eamanan konstruksi dan operasi Terdiri dari tiga divisi: 1, 2, dan 3 13

Section 15 psig lain gunakan 14

VIII Division 1 < P 3000 psig Berlaku sampai dengan koneksi pertama ke pipa Pengecualian Peralatan internal (kecuali yang dilas ke vessel) Pemanas proses yang meng api Bejana tekan yang bersatu dengan mesin Sistem perpipaan

Section VIII, Division 2, Aturan Alternatif Ruang lingkup identik dengan divisi 1 tetapi berbeda persyaratan dalam hal: Tega ngan yang diijinkan Perhitungan tegangan Perancangan Kontrol kualitas Fabrikasi d an inspeksi Pemilihan antara divisi 1 dan 2 tergantung pertimbangan ekonomi 15

Division 3, Alternative Rules High Pressure Vessels Applications over 10,000 psi Pressure from external source, process reaction, ap plication of heat, combination of these Does not establish maximum pressure limi ts of Division 1 or 2 or minimum limits for Division 3. 16

Structure of Section VIII, Division 1 Subsection A Part UG applies to all vessels Subsection B Requirements based on f abrication method Parts UW (weld), UF (Forged), UB (brazed) Subsection C Require ments based on material class Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD (Cast Ductile I ron), UHT (heat treatment), ULW (layered construction), ULT (low temperature) Ma ndatory and Nonmandatory Appendices 17

Contoh Mandatory (Wajib) Rumus-rumus Rancangan tambahan Aturan untuk sambungan flens baut, dengan gasket tipe ring Vessel yang penampangnya bukan lingkaran Aturan rancangan untuk sambun gan clamp 18

Contoh yang Non-mandatory Saran (good practice) untuk struktur internal Aturan rancangan tubesheet dll 19

Kelas Bahan Material Carbon and low-alloy steels Covering Code part UCS Applicable Code stre ss value tables Code Section II, Part D, Table 1A Remarks Basis for establishing stress valuesCode Appendix P,UG-23 Low-temperature service requires Pars. UCS-65 ,UCS-66, UCS-67, UCS-68, UG-84 Code Figs. UCS-66, UCS-66.1,UCS-66.2 In high-temp erature operation, creep strength is essential Design temperatureCode Par. UG-20 Design pressureCode Par. UG-21, Fn. 8 Temperature above 800F may cause carbide pha se of carbon steel to convert to graphite Pipe and tubesCode Pars. UG-8, UG-10, U G-16, UG-31,UCS-9, UCS-27 Creep and rupture propertiesCode Par. UCS-151 20

Kelas Bahan, (sambungan) Material Covering Code part UNF Applicable Code stress value tables Code Section II, Part D, Table 1B Remarks Nonferrous metals Basis for establishing values Cod e, Appendix P, UG-23 Metal characteristicsCode Par. UNF, Appendix NF, NF-1 to NF14 Low-temperature operation Code Par. UNF-65 Nonferrous castingsCode Par. UNF-8 High-alloy steels UHA Code Section II, Part D, Table 1A Selection and treatment of austenitic chromiumnickel steelsCode Par. UHA-11, UHA A ppendix HA, UHA-100 to UHA-109 Inspection and testsCode Pars. UHA-34,UHA-50, UHA5 1, UHA-52 Liquid penetrant examination required if shell thickness exceeds 34 inal l 36% nickel steel weldsCode Par. UHA-34 Low-temperature serviceCode Pars. UHA-51, UG-84 High-alloy castingsCode Pars. UHA-8, UG-7 Code Par. Ug-7 Code Pars. UG-11, UG-24, UCS-8Code Appendix 7 Castings 21

Kelas Bahan , (sambungan) Material Cast iron Covering Code part UCI Applicable Code stress value tables UC I-23 Remarks Vessels not permitted to contain lethal or flammable substances Cod e Par. UCI-2 Selection of materialsCode Pars. UCI-5, UCI-12, UG-11, UCS-10, UCS-1 1, UCI-3, UCI-1,UG-10 Inspection and testsCode Pars. UCI-90, UCI-99, UCI-101,UCI3 Repairs in cast-iron materials Code Par. UCI-78 Code Pars. UCI-1, UCI-23, UCI 2 9 Dual cast iron Integrally clad plate, weld metal overlay, or applied linings U CI UCL (See Code Pars. UCL-11, UCL 23.) Suggest careful study of entire metal UC L section Selection of materialsCode Pars. UCL-1, UCL-3, UCL 10, UCS-5, UF-5, ULW -5, UCL-11, UCL-12, UG-10 Qualification of welding procedureCode Pars. UCL-40 to -46 Post-weld heat treatmentCode Pars. UCL-34, UCS-56 (including cautionary footn ote) Inspection and testCode Pars.UCL-50, UCL-51, UCL-52 Spot radiography require d if cladding is included in computing required thicknessCode Par. UCL-23(c) Use of liningsCode Par. UG- 26 and Code Appendix F 22

Kelas Bahan , (sambungan) Material Welded and seamless pipe and tubes (carbon and low alloy steels) Coveri ng Code part UCS Applicable Code stress value tables Code Section II, Part D, Ta ble 1A Remarks Thickness under internal pressureCode Par. UG-27 Thickness under external pressureCode Par. UG-28 Provide additional thickness whe n tubes are threaded and when corrosion, erosion, or wear caused by cleaning is expected Code Par. UG-31 For calculating thickness required, minimum pipe wall t hickness is 87.5 percent of nominal wall thickness 30-in maximum on welded pipe made by open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric-furnace process Code Par. USC-27 Welded and seamless pipe (high-alloy steels) UHA Code Table 1A 23

Kelas Bahan , (sambungan) Material Forgings Covering Code part UF Applicable Code stress value tables Code Section II, Part D, Table 1A Remarks MaterialsCode Pars. UG-6, UG-7, UG-11, UF-6 , UCS-7 and Section II, Part D, Table 1A WeldingCode Par. UF-32 (see also Section IX Code Par. QW- 250 and Variables, Code Pars. QW-404.12, QW-406.3, QW- 407.2, QW409.1 when welding forgings) Operation at very low temperatures, requires use of notch tough materials Lowtemperature materials ULT ULT-23 Layered Construction Vessels having a shell and/or heads made up of two or more separate layersCode Pa r. ULW-2 ULW Code Table 1A ScopeCode Par. UHT-1 Marking on plate or stamping, use low-stress stampsCode Par. UHT-86 Ferritic steels UHT with tensile properties enhanced by Hea-ttreatment 24

Material Selection Factors Strength Corrosion Resistance Resistance to Hydrogen Attack Fracture Toughness F abricability 25

Strength Determines required component thickness Overall strength determined by: Yield St rength Ultimate Tensile Strength Creep Strength Rupture Strength 26

Corrosion Resistance Deterioration of metal by chemical action Most important factor to consider Corr osion allowance supplies additional thickness Alloying elements provide addition al resistance to corrosion 27

Resistance to Hydrogen Attack At 300 - 400F, monoatomic hydrogen forms molecular hydrogen in voids Pressure bui ldup can cause steel to crack Above 600F, hydrogen attack causes irreparable dama ge through component thickness 28

Serangan Hidrogen Hydrogen permeated into the steel can react with carbon, resulting in the format ion of methane: C(Fe) + 2H2 <==> CH4. The methane is more or less trapped in the metal structure and will accumulate in voids in the metal matrix. The gas press ure in these voids can generate an internal stress high enough to fissure, crack or blister the steel. As the reaction that forms methane consumes the carbon th at is present in the steel, hydrogen attack is also called "internal decarburiza tion". Hydrogen attack will result in degradation of mechanical properties, as t ensile strength and ductility drop dramatically, and can lead to failure due to crack formation. 29

Brittle Fracture and Fracture Toughness Fracture toughness: Ability of material to withstand conditions that could cause brittle fracture Brittle fracture Typically at low temperature Can occur below de sign pressure No yielding before complete failure 30

Brittle Fracture and Fracture Toughness, cont'd Conditions required for brittle fracture High enough stress for crack initiation and growth Low enough material fracture toughness at temperature Critical size defect to act as stress concentration 31

Factors That Influence Fracture Toughness Fracture toughness varies with: - Temperature - Type and chemistry of steel - Ma nufacturing and fabrication processes Other factors that influence fracture toug hness: - Arc strikes, especially if over repaired area - Stress raisers or scrat ches in cold formed thick plate 32

Setup Uji Charpy V-Notch http://www.twi.co.uk/j32k/twiimages/jk71f2.gif 33

ASME Code and Brittle Fracture Evaluation Components to consider Shells Manways Heads Reinforcing pads Backing strips that remain in place Nozzles Tubesheets Flanges Flat cover plates Attachments essent ial to structural integrity that are welded to pressure parts (contoh: pressure support) 34

Temperatures to Consider Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) Lowest temperature at which component ha s adequate fracture toughness Critical Exposure Temperature (CET) Minimum temper ature at which significant membrane stress will occur 35

Simplified ASME Evaluation Approach Material specifications classified into Material Groups A through D Impact test exemption curves For each Material Group Acceptable MDMT vs. thickness where imp act testing not required If combination of Material Group and thickness not exem pt, then must impact test at CET 36

Material Groups MATERIAL GROUP Curve A APPLICABLE MATERIALS All carbon and low alloy steel plates , structural shapes, and bars not listed in Curves B, C&D SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC, S A-217 Gr. WC6, if normalized and tempered or waterquenched and tempered SA-216 Gr . WCA, if normalized and tempered or water-quenched and tempered SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC for maximum thickness of 2 in., if produced to fine grain practice and wate r-quenched and tempered SA-285 Gr. A & B SA-414 Gr. A SA-515 Gr. 60 SA-516 Gr. 65 & 70, if not normalized Except for cast steels, all materials of Curve A if produce d to fine grain practice and normalized which are not included in Curves C & D Al l pipe, fittings, forging, and tubing which are not included in Curves C & D Curve B 37

Material Groups, cont'd MATERIAL GROUP APPLICABLE MATERIALS Curve C SA-182 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered SA-302 Gr. C & D SA-336 Gr. F21 & F2 2, if normalized and tempered SA-387 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered SA-51 6 Gr. 55 & 60, if not normalized SA-533 Gr. B & C SA-662 Gr. A All material of Curv e B if produced to fine grain practice and normalized which are not included in Curve D SA-203 SA-508 Cl. 1 SA-516, if normalized SA-524 Cl. 1 & 2 SA-537 Cl. 1, 2 & 3 SA-612, if normalized SA-662, if normalized SA-738 Gr. A Curve D Bolting and Nuts See Gambar UCS-66 of the ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 1, for im pact test exemption temperatures for specified material specifications Table 3.1 (Excerpt) 38

Impact Test Exemption Curves for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Gambar 3.1 39

Additional ASME Code Impact Test Requirements Required for welded construction over 4 in. thick, or nonwelded construction ove r 6 in. thick, if MDMT < 120F Not required for flanges if temperature -20F Require d if SMYS > 65 ksi unless specifically exempt 40

Additional ASME Code Impact Test Requirements, cont'd Not required for impact tested low temperature steel specifications May use at i mpact test temperature 30F MDMT reduction if PWHT P-1 steel and not required by c ode MDMT reduction if calculated stress < allowable stress 41

Fabricability Ease of construction Any required special fabrication practices Material must be weldable 42

Maximum Allowable Stress Stress: Force per unit area that resists loads induced by external forces Pressu re vessel components designed to keep stress within safe operational limits Maxi mum allowable stress: Includes safety margin Varies with temperature and materia l ASME maximum allowable stress tables for permitted material specifications 43

Maximum Allowable Stress, cont'd ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Table 1A Excerpt) Gambar 3.2 44

Maximum Allowable Stress, cont'd ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Excerpt), contd Gambar 3.2, contd 45

Material Selection Based on Fracture Toughness Exercise 1 New horizontal vessel CET = - 2F Shell and heads: SA-516 Gr. 70 Heads hemispherical: in. thick Cylindrical shell: 1.0 in. thick No impact testing spec ified Is this correct? If not correct, what should be done? 46

Exercise 1 - Solution Must assume SA-516 Gr. 70 not normalized. Therefore, Curve B material (Ref. Tabl e 3.1). Refer to Curve B in Gambar 3.1. in. thick plate for heads: MDMT = -7F in. thick plate exempt from impact testing since MDMT < CET 1 in. shell plate: MDMT = +31F Not exempt from impact testing 47

Exercise 1 - Solution, cont'd One approach to correct: Impact test 1 in. plate at -2F. If passes, material acce ptable. Another approach: Order 1 in. plate normalized Table 3.1: normalized SA516 is Curve D material Gambar 3.1: 1 in. thick Curve D, MDMT = -30F Normalized 1 in. thick plate exempt from impact testing 48

Exercise 1 - Solution, cont'd Choice of option based on cost, material availability, whether likely that 1 in. thick non-normalized plate would pass impact testing 49

Design Conditions and Loadings Determine vessel mechanical design Design pressure and temperature, other loadin gs Possibly multiple operating scenarios to consider Consider startup, normal op eration, anticipated deviations, shutdown 50

Design Pressure Gambar 4.1 51

Zones Temperature pada Vessels Tinggi Gambar 4.2 52

Additional Loadings Weight of vessel and normal contents under operating or test conditions Superimp osed static reactions from weight of attached items (e.g., motors, machinery, ot her vessels, piping, linings, insulation) Loads at attached internal components or vessel supports Wind, snow, seismic reactions 53

Additional Loadings, cont'd Cyclic and dynamic reactions caused by pressure or thermal variations, equipment mounted on vessel, and mechanical loadings Test pressure combined with hydrosta tic weight Impact reactions (e.g., from fluid shock) Temperature gradients withi n vessel component and differential thermal expansion between vessel components 54

55

Weld Joint Categories Gambar 4.3 A : Menahan hoop stress (tegangan keliling/tegak lurus sumbu) B : Men ahan longitudinal stress (tegangan searah sumbu) C : sambungan flange D : sambun gan nozzle - shell 56

Weld Types Gambar 4.4 57

Weld Joint Efficiencies Gambar 4.5 58

Summary of ASME Code Equations Gambar 4.6 59

60

61

Typical Formed Closure Heads Gambar 4.7 62

Hemispherical Head to Shell Transition Gambar 4.8 63

Sample Problem 1 Gambar 4.9 64

Sample Problem 1 - Solution Required thickness for internal pressure of cylindrical shell (Gambar 4.6): Welds spot radiographed, E = 0.85 (Gambar 4.5) S = 14,400 psi for SA- 515/Gr. 60 at 700F (Gambar 3.2) P = 250 psig 65

Sample Problem 1 Solution, cont'd For 6 ft. - 0 in. shell r = 0.5D + C = 0.5 x 72 + 0.125 = 36.125 in. t = tp + c = 0.747 + 0.125 t = 0.872 in., including corrosion allowance 66

Sample Problem 1 Solution, cont'd For 4 ft. - 0 in. shell r = 0.5 x 48 + 0.125 = 24.125 in. t = 0.499 + 0.125 t = 0.624 in., including corrosion allowance 67

Sample Problem 1 Solution, cont'd Both heads are seamless, E = 1.0. Top Head - Hemispherical (Gambar 4.6) r = 24 + 0.125 = 24.125 in. t = tp + c = 0.21 + 0.125 t = 0.335 in., including corrosion allowance 68

Sample Problem 1 Solution, cont'd Bottom Head - 2:1 Semi-Elliptical (Gambar 4.6) D = 72 + 2 x 0.125 = 72.25 in. t = 0.628 + 0.125 t = 0.753 in., including corros ion allowance 69

Design For External Pressure and Compressive Stresses Compressive forces caused by dead weight, wind, earthquake, internal vacuum Can cause elastic instability (buckling`/tekukan) Vessel must have adequate stiffnes s Extra thickness Circumferential stiffening rings 70

Design For External Pressure and Compressive Stresses, cont'd ASME procedures for cylindrical shells, heads, conical sections, as function of: Material Temperature Diameter Thickness Unstiffened length 71

Stiffener Rings Gambar 4.10 72

Sample Problem 2 - Solution A tall cylindrical tower is being supplied. The geometry and design conditions a re specified in Figure 4.11. The vendor has proposed that the wall thickness of this tower be 7/16 in., and no stiffener rings have been specified. Is the 7/16 in. thickness acceptable for external pressure? If it is not acceptable, what mi nimum thickness is required? Round your answer upward to the nearest 1/16 in. Gambar 4.11 73

Seam L : tangent to tangent Seam 74

Sample Problem 2 - Solution Calculate L and Do of cylindrical shell. L = Tangent Length + 2 x 1/3 (Head Dept h) L = 150 x 12 + 2/3 x (48/4) = 1,808 in. Do = 48 + 2 x 7/16 = 48.875 in. (48 : ID) Determine L/Do and Do/t Account for corrosion allowance: (CA=0,0625=1/16) t = 7/16 1/16 = 6/16 = 0.375 in. Do/t = 48.875 / 0.375 = 130 L/Do = 1808 / 48.875 = 37 75

Sample Problem 2 Solution, cont'd Determine A. Use Gambar 4.12, Do/t, and L/Do. Note: If L/Do > 50, use L/Do = 50. For L/Do < 0.05, use L/Do = 0.05 76

Sample Problem 2 Solution, cont'd Factor A Gambar 4.12 77

Sample Problem 2 Solution, cont'd Factor B Gambar 4.13 78

Sample Problem 2 Solution, cont'd Calculate maximum allowable external pressure Karena Factor A terletak di sebelah kiri kurva, maka tidak Faktor B tidak ada, s ehingga untuk menghitung Pressure, digunakan rumus di samping Where: E = Youngs modulus of elasticity E = 27 x 106 psi (Gambar 4.13) at T = 5 00F Pa = 9 psi 79

Sample Problem 2 Solution, cont'd Since Pa < 15 psi, 7/16 in. thickness not sufficient in., corroded thickness = 1/2 in. 80

Assume new thickness = 9/16

Exercise 2 - Required Thickness for Internal Pressure Inside Diameter : 10' - 6 Design Pressure : 650 psig Design Temperature : 750F Shell & Head Material : SA-516 Gr. 70 Corrosion Allowance : 0.125 in. 2:1 Semi-Ellipt ical heads, seamless 100% radiography Vessel in vapor service (no liquid loading ) 81

Exercise 2 - Solution For shell P = 650 psig r = 0.5 x D + CA = (0.5 x 126) + 0.125 = 63.125 in. S = 1 6,600 psi, Gambar 3.3 for SA-516 Gr. 70 E = 1.0, Gambar 4.8 for 100% radiography 82

Exercise 2 - Solution, cont'd Add corrosion allowance tp = 2.53 + 0.125 = 2.655 in. For the heads Add corrosion allowance tp = 2.23 + 0.125 = 2.355 in. 83

Reinforcement of Openings Simplified ASME rules - Area replacement Metal used to replace that removed: - M ust be equivalent in metal area - Must be adjacent to opening 84

Kompensasi (Compensation) Compensation, or reinforcement, is the provision of extra stress-transmitting ar ea in the wall of a cylinder or shell when some area is removed by boring a hole for branch attachment. The principle is sketched. 85

Kompensasi (Compensation) The left sketch shows part of a cylinders longitudinal section; the major circu mferential stress acts across the critical longitudinal plane. The nominal thick ness is T, and a hole of diameter Db is bored - dimensions being reckoned in the fully corroded condition. The stress-transmitting area removed is A = Dbt where the calculation thickness t is given by ( 1). 86

Kompensasi (Compensation) The figure on the right demonstrates compensation for area removal by providing equal area for alternate force paths in otherwise unused material of cylinder an d branch. Not all the branch wall can be devoted to compensation since the inter nally pressurised branch is a cylinder in its own right, with calculation and no minal thicknesses, tb and Tb, determined in a manner identical to the main shell . 87

Kompensasi (Compensation) Provided that the longitudinal welds in both shell and branch do not lie in the critical longitudinal plane, then - from a compensation point of view - both t a nd tb would be reckoned from ( 1) with h = 1. The thickness differences ( T - t ) and ( Tb - tb ) contribute to compensation - though reinforcement is ineffective beyond the limits Ln normal to the vessel wall, and Lp from the branch centreli ne parallel to the wall, as shown below for a set-in branch :88

Kompensasi (Compensation) 89

Kompensasi (Compensation) AS 1210 gives the limits as :Ln = maximum [ 0.8 ( DbTb )1/2 + Tr , minimum ( 2.5 T, 2.5Tb + Tr ) ] or ( DbT )1/2 for a flanged-in head Lp = maximum [ Db , Db/2 + T + Tb + 2c ] 90

Kompensasi (Compensation) Usually the first of the Lp limits, Db, controls. However a compensating area ca nnot contribute to more than one branch, so if the spacing of two branches Db1 a nd Db2 is less than ( Db1+ Db2 ), then by proportion Lp1 = Db1 . spacing/( Db1+ Db2 ). 91

Kompensasi (Compensation) Furthermore, if the branch is attached to a dished end, then no compensation are a is effective if it lies outside the aforementioned 80% limits. If the head is torispherical, the hole should lie in the spherical portion and t will be given by ( v). If the head is ellipsoidal, then AS 1210 defines an equivalent sphere f or the application of ( v), since the hole will not lie close to the rim region of sharp curvature which dictates the thickness via the stress concentration fac tor in ( vii). 92

Kompensasi (Compensation) Within the Ln, Lp limits, compensation requires that :A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 A = Dbt The inward protrusion 3 is subjected to corrosion on three surfaces but t here is no pressure differential across it; it will not exist for a set-on branc h. The sketch indicates that:A1 = ( 2Lp - Db - 2tb ) ( T - t ) ; A2 = 2Ln ( Tb t b ) etc. 93

Cross-Sectional View of Nozzle Opening Gambar 4.14 94

Nozzle Design Configurations Gambar 4.15 95

Additional Reinforcement Necessary if insufficient excess thickness Must be located within reinforcement zone Allowable stress of reinforcement pad should be that of shell or head Addit ional reinforcement sources Pad Additional thickness in shell or lower part of n ozzle 96

Sample Problem 3 Gambar 4.16 97

Sample Problem 3 - Solution Calculate required reinforcement area, A A = dtrF Where: d = Finished diameter o f circular opening, or finished dimension of nonradial opening in plane under co nsideration, in. tr = Minimum required thickness of shell using E = 1.0 F = Corr ection factor, normally 1.0 98

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate diameter, d. d = Diameter of Opening 2 (Thickness + Corrosion Allowanc e) d = 8.625 1.0 + .125 = 7.750 in. Calculate required shell thickness, tr (Gamb ar 4.6) tr = 0.487 in. Assume F = 1.0 99

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate A A = dtrF A = (8.625 - 1.0 + 0.125) x 0.487 x 1 = 3.775 in.2 Calculat e available reinforcement area in vessel shell, A1, as larger of A11 or A12 A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d A12 = 2 (Elt-Ftr)(t + tn) 100

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Where: El = 1.0 when opening is in base plate away from welds, or when opening p asses through circumferential joint in shell (excluding head to shell joints). E l = ASME Code joint efficiency when any part of opening passes through any other welded joint. F = 1 for all cases except integrally reinforced nozzles inserted into a shell or cone at angle to vessel longitudinal axis. See Fig. UG-37 for t his special case. tn = Nominal thickness of nozzle in corroded condition, in. 101

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d = (0.5625 - 0.0625 - 0.487) x 7.75 = 0.1 in.2 A12 = 2 (Elt Ftr) (t + tn) = 2(0.5625-0.0625-0.487)x(0.5625-0.0625+0.5 -0.0625) = 0.0243 in.2 Therefore, A1 = 0.1 in.2 available reinforcement in shell 102

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate reinforcement area available in nozzle wall, A2, as smaller of A21 or A22. A21 = (tn-trn) 5t A22 = 2 (tn-trn) (2.5 tn + te) 103

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Where: trn = Required thickness of nozzle wall, in. r te te te = Radius of nozzl e, in. = 0 if no reinforcing pad. = Reinforcing pad thickness if one installed, in. = Defined in Gambar UG-40 for self-reinforced nozzles, in. 104

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate required nozzle thickness, trn (Gambar 4.6) 105

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate A2. A21 = (tn - trn )5t = (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) x 5 (0.5625 - 0.0625 ) = 0.898 in.2 A22 = 2 (tn - trn ) (2.5 tn + te) = 2 (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) [2. 5 x (0.5 - 0625) + 0] = 0.786 in.2 Therefore, A2 = 0.786 in.2 available reinforc ement in nozzle. 106

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Determine total available reinforcement area, AT; compare to required area. AT = A1 + A2 = 0.1 + 0.786 = 0.886 in.2 AT < A, nozzle not adequately reinforced, re inforcement pad required. Determine reinforcement pad diameter, Dp. A5 = A - AT A5 = (3.775 - 0.886) = 2.889 in.2 107

Sample Problem 3 Solution, cont'd Calculate Dp te = 0.5625 in. (reinforcement pad thickness) A5 = [Dp - (d + 2 tn) ] te 2.889 = [Dp - (7.75 + 2(0.5 - 0.0625)] 0.5625 Dp = 13.761 in. Confirm Dp wi thin shell reinforcement zone, 2d 2d = 2 x 7.75 = 15.5 in. Therefore, Dp = 13.76 1 in. acceptable 108

Flange Rating Based on ASME B16.5 Identifies acceptable pressure/temperature combinations Seve n classes (150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, 2,500) Flange strength increases with class number Material and design temperature combinations without pressure indi cated not acceptable 109

Material Specification List ASME B16.5, Table 1a, Material Specification List (Excerpt) Gambar 4.17 110

Pressure-Temperature Ratings Gambar 4.18 111

Sample Problem 4 Determine Required Flange Rating Pressure Vessel Data: Shell and Heads : SA-516 Gr.70 Flanges : SA-105 Design Temperature: 700F Design Pressure : 275 psig 112

Sample Problem 4 - Solution Identify flange material specification SA-105 From Gambar 4.17, determine Materi al Group No. Group 1.1 From Gambar 4.18 with design temperature and Material Gro up No. determined in Step 3 Intersection of design temperature with Material Gro up No. is maximum allowable design pressure for the flange Class 113

Sample Problem 4 Solution, cont'd Table 2 of ASME B16.5, design information for all flange Classes Select lowest Class whose maximum allowable design pressure r equired design pressure. At 700F, Material Group 1.1: Lowest Class that will accommodate 275 psig is Class 300. At 700F, Class 300 flange of Material Gro up 1.1: Maximum design pressure = 535 psig. 114

Flange Design Bolting requirements During normal operation (based on design conditions) During initial flange boltup (based on stress necessary to seat gasket and form tight seal 115

Flange Loads and Moment Arms Gambar 4.19 116

Stresses in Flange Ring and Hub Calculated using: Stress factors (from ASME code) Applied moments Flange geometr y Calculated for: Operating case Gasket seating case 117

Flange Design and In-Service Performance Factors affecting design and performance ASME Code m and y parameters. Specified gasket widths. width, w Bolt size, number, spacing 118

Flange facing and nubbin

ASME Code m and y Factors Gambar 4.20 119

ASME Code Gasket Widths ASME Code Gasket Widths (Table 2-5.2 excerpt) Gambar 4.21 120

Gasket Materials and Contact Facings Gambar 4.22 121

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) Maximum permitted gauge pressure at top of vessel in operating position for desi gnated temperature MAWP Design Pressure Designated Temperature = Design Temperat ure Vessel MAWP based on weakest component Originally based on new thickness les s corrosion allowance Later based on actual thickness less future corrosion allo wance needed 122

Local Loads Piping system Platforms, internals, attached equipment Support attachment 123

Types of Vessel Internals Trays Inlet Distributor Anti-vortex baffle Catalyst bed grid and support beams O utlet collector Flow distribution grid Cyclone and plenum chamber system 124

ASME Code and Vessel Internals Loads applied from internals on vessel to be considered in design Welding to pre ssure parts must meet ASME Code 125

Corrosion Allowance For Vessel Internals Removable internals: CA = CA of shell Costs less Easily replaced Non-removable i nternals: CA = 2 (CA of shell) Corrosion occurs on both sides 126

Typical Head-to-Shell Transitions Gambar 6.1 127

Typical Shell Transitions Gambar 6.2 128

Nozzle Neck Attachment to Thinner Pipe Gambar 6.3 129

Stiffener Ring Attachment Gambar 6.4 130

Post Weld Heat Treatment Restores material properties Relieves residual stresses ASME Code PWHT requireme nts Minimum temperature and hold time Adequate stress relief Heatup and cooldown rates 131

ASME Reference Chart 132