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RELATIVE CLAUSES

They relate to (they qualify) a noun in the principal clause, and are introduced by a relative pronoun which may be sometimes left out.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


They describe the noun and are necessary to the understanding of the sentence.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


They are not essential to the definition of the antecedent and so, commas are always used. The relative pronoun is never left out.

FUNCTION

RELATIVE PRONOUN

EXAMPLE
She is the teacher that/who teaches us English She is the teacher that/who/whom/--- I like These are the glasses that/which were on the table Those are the glasses that/which/--- I bought The person from whom I got this letter lives in Madrid. The person I got this letter from lives in Madrid. The ballpen with which I wrote the exam is blue The ballpen I wrote the exam with is blue That is the man whose money I borrowed yesterday That is the book whose cover is very beautiful That is the book of which the cover is very beautiful

RELATIVE PRONOUN
WHO WHO/WHOM WHICH WHICH
The prep. Comes before the relative: WHOM (people)

EXAMPLE
My uncle, who is eighty, is very well My uncle, whom/who you have never met, is eighty My book, which is new, cost eight pounds My book, which you borrowed, cost eight pounds. Clinton, about whom everybody talks so much, is very well known.

a) People as subject THAT/WHO b) People as object THAT/WHO/WHOM/no pronoun c) Things as subject THAT/WHICH d) Things as object THAT/WHICH/no pronoun e) With a PREPOSITION + preposition WHOM/WHICH ...... PREPOSITION

f) Possessive

people WHOSE things WHOSE OF which (very rare)

WHOSE WHOSE OF which (very rare) WHERE WHEN

g) Place h) Time i) Reason

WHERE WHEN WHY

That is the place where I parked my car Christmas Day is a day when people are happy That is the reason why Ive come

My uncle, whose wife died very young, lives next door. This plant, whose properties have been known for a long time, has been studied lately. This plant, the properties of which have been known for a long time, has been studied lately. Hes off to Paris, where incidentally they are having a heat wave. He promised to come in June, when he would be free.

Reduced relative clauses

A relative clause is reduced if the relative pronoun is left out and the main verb is turned into participle or omitted. Ing form a) In active sentences the relative pronoun and verb to be are left out, or the relative pronoun is left out with the main verb changing into ing form. Negation is also possible. Leila looked up and saw the man standing in the doorway. (NOT Leila looked up and saw the standing man in the doorway.) Everyone handing in the essay late will get a lower grade OR Everyone who hands in the essay late will get a lower grade. Anybody not complying with these regulations will be asked to leave immediately. OR Anybody who does not comply with these regulations will be asked to leave immediately. b) Reduced relative clauses are not used with past participles. Do you know anybody who has passed this exam? (NOT Do you know anybody having passed this exam?) Passive form a) In passive sentences the relative pronoun and verb to be can be left out. Negation is also possible. Some typical expressions used this way are: the problem discussed, the people concerned/injured/interviewed/invited/involved, the example/name/reason given etc., but all verbs that can be turned into passive voice can be used. Most of the people injured in the earthquake were taken to hospital. OR Most of the people who had been injured in the earthquake were taken to hospital. (NOT Most of the injured people in the earthquake were taken to hospital.) Then we saw the garden of the castle, covered with snow. OR Then we saw the garden of the castle, which was covered with snow. He was the first one not accepted. OR He was the first one who had not been accepted. The information given by the people interviewed turned out be really useful.

b) Those is often used with participles. Those involved in the project will be notified. OR Those (people) who are involved in the project will be notified. Adjectives Sometimes reduced relative clauses may be used with adjectives as well: available, possible, responsible etc. The only person responsible enough for this job is Rosie. The only person who is responsible enough for this job is Rosie.