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PERIODONTAL LIGAMENTS o Contains organelles associates with protein

synthesis and secretion


• Dense connective tissue between root surface of
tooth and alveolar bone proper o Prominent actin network

• SYNDESMOSES o Cell to cell contacts:

o Joint-like connection between tooth and  Adherens


bone formed by periodontal ligament,
cementum and alveolar bone proper  Gap junction

FUNCTIONS: o FIBRONEX

• SUPPORTIVE  Morphologic relationship between

o Support tooth in the sockets and permit • Intercellular filaments


them to withstand the considerable forces of
mastication • Dense cell membrane

• SENSORY • Extracellular filaments

• For proper positioning of jaws during normal function • Fibronectin

• Estimate amount of pressure in mastication • CEMENTOPROGENITOR & OSTEOPROGENTIOR

• Identify which one of the teeth receives sensation of o Adjacent to cementum and bone
tapping with instruments
o CEMENTOBLASTS
o 2 SENSATIONS
 During phase of active deposition
 FREE NERVE ENDINGS OF of cellular cementum
SENSORY FIBERS
 Ovoid to cuboidal shape
• Near cementum, pain
perception  Basophilic cytoplasm

 RUFFINI-LIKE ENDINGS o CEMENTOCLASTS

• Mechanoreceptors for  Multinuclear cells that resorbs


pressure cementum

o AFFERENT NERVE FIBERS  Located in HOWSHIP’S LACUNAE on


cementum
 Regulate local blood supply
 During application of excessive
• HOMEOSTATIC forces in orthodontic tooth
movement
o Continuous remodeling
o OSTEOBLASTS
• NUTRITIVE
 Peripheral part of periodontal
o Cementum and alveolar bone ligament adjacent to bone

o OSTEOCLASTS

CELLS OF PERIODONTAL LIGAMENTS:  Multinucleated cell observed during


highly active phases of bone
• FIBROBLAST resorption

o Principal cells  Located in HOWSHIP’S LACUNAE in


bone
o Spindle or disk-shaped with long ovoid
nuclei • EPITHELIAL CELLS

1
o In periodontal ligaments  Attached to cementum below CEJ
and insert into rim of alveolus
o Remnants of HERTWIG’S EPITHELIAL
ROOT SHEATH (EPITHELIAL RESTS OF  Resist vertical and intrusive force
MALASSEZ) and anchor the tooth to the
alveolus
o From dental cysts by acute or chronic
inflammation o HORIZONTAL FIBER GROUP

• UNDIFERENTIATED MESENCHYMAL CELLS  Horizontally from cementum to


(PROGENITOR CELLS) bone

o Perivascular location within 5µm of blood  Resist horizontal or lateral


vessels pressures applied to tooth crown

o Source of new cells

o APOPTOSIS o OBLIQUE FIBER GROUP

 Selective deletion of ligament cells  Most numerous & largest

• Allows turnover without  Running from cementum in oblique


architectural disruption of direction to bone coronally
tissue
 Sustain occlusal forces
 Physiologic cell death
 Resist masticatory forces
• MACROPHAGE
o APICAL FIBER GROUP
o In periodontal ligament, defensive cell
 From cementum around the apex
o Phagocytic, mobile at root to the bone forming base of
socket (fundus)
• LEUKOCYTES
 Prevents vestibule-oral tipping
o Appear when stressed by disease
o INTERRADICULAR FIBER GROUP

 Between bifurcation area to


CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS interradicular bone

• COLLAGEN FIBER  Resists tipping and torque

o Predominant o SHARPEY’S FIBER

o Mixture of type I & type II  Embedded in cementum

o Fibrils arranged parallel with one another to o Permit certain degree of mobility
form collagen fiber
o PERIODONTAL SPACE
o FIBER BUNDLE
 Where periodontal ligaments are
 Collagen fibers grouped together located
interwovenly to form fiber bundle
o INTERSTITIAL SPACE
o DENTOALVEOLAR GROUP
 Between each group of fibers
 Based on origin and insertion in the
dentoalveolar process and their  INTERSTITIAL TISSUE
functional orientation
• Blood vessels, nerves,
o ALVEOLAR CREST GROUP lymphatics and loose
connective tissue cells

2
• Maintain vitality of  Nociceptors & mechanoreceptors
periodontal ligament
 Most frequent, tree-like
• IMMATURE ELASTIN FIBERS configuration

o OXYTALAN FIBERS o RUFFINI CORPUSCLES

 Acid-resistant  Around root apex

 Along collagen fibers, inserted into  Mechanoreceptors


cementum at cervical region
o COILED ENDINGS
o ELUANIN FIBERS
 Mid-region of periodontal ligament
• ELASTIC FIBERS
o ENCAPSULATED SPINDLE-TYPE ENDING
o Walls of blood vessels
 Lowest frequency

 Root apex
• RETICULAR FIBERS
 Spindle-like endings surrounded by
o Support of blood and lymphatic vessels and fibrous capsule
nerves
• AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
o Adjust lumen of vessels of alveolar bone
wall LYMPHATICS

VASCULAR SUPPLY • Leave periodontal ligament through

• SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR ALVEOLAR ARTERIES o Gingival tissue

• Supplied from 3 sources o Alveolar mucosa

o Branches from DENTAL ARTERIES o Volkmann’s canals of alveolar bone

o Branches of INTERALVEOLAR AND


INTERRADICULAR ARTERIES

o Branches of PERIOSTEAL ARTERIES

NERVE SUPPLY

• SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM

o afferent nerve fibers reach the


periodontal ligament as terminal
-Rosette Go 031909 
branches of superior dentinal plexus
(NV1) & inferior dental plexus (NV3)
Notes by: Lee, Sang Hyun
before and during eruption

o others pass through CANALS OF


ZUCKERKANDL & HIRSSCHFELD in
cribriform plate

o both groups unite at periodontal space into


a nerve plexus

• 4 NEURAL TERMINATION

o FREE NERVE ENDINGS