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# .

Appendix

We prove here the Archimedean results quoted in Section 2.7 as Lemmas 1 and 2. In his demonstrations, Archimedes used freely theorems that were well known in his day (just as we do). Since none of the works on conics written before Apollonius has survived, we do not know exactly how Archimedes would have written the proofs of these auxiliary results. Therefore we freely reconstruct demonstrations of the propositions taken for granted by Archimedes, and then, when dealing with the lemmas he actually demonstrates, we follow his proofs closely. Preliminary Results Assumed by Archimedes We denote by C the vertex of the segment of parabola of base AB, and by M the midpoint of AB. Our starting point is the following proposition: Proposition. Given a point F in the plane, draw the parallel to AB and let G denote its intersection with the half-line CM originating at C, if this intersection exists. Then F lies on the parabola if and only if the intersection G exists and is such that CM GF2 = CG MB2 .
C G F

Archimedes makes direct use of only one half of this equivalence (the only if part), but we give the Proposition in the form above because this allows the easy deduction, as corollaries, of all the results that Archimedes

400

Appendix

takes as known. We will not prove the Proposition here,209 but only how the necessary corollaries follow from it. Corollary 1. The line going through C and parallel to AB does not intersect the parabola except at C. If this line intersects the parabola at a point F, we have C = G, and the Proposition implies G = F, that is, F = C. Note that this corollary justies our talking about the vertex. Corollary 2. The line CM does not intersect the parabola except at C. If CM intersects the parabola at a point F, we have F = G, and the Proposition implies G = C, that is, F = C. Corollary 3. Every parallel to CM intersects the parabola in exactly one point. If a parallel to CM intersects the parabola at F and F , consider the corresponding points G and G along CM. Because of parallelism, GFF G is a parallelogram, so GF = G F , so by the Proposition CG = CG . It follows that G = G and F = F. Corollary 4. The line CM is parallel to the diameter (symmetry axis) of the parabola. If we apply the Proposition to the particular case where A and B are symmetrical with respect to the diameter, symmetry implies that CM coincides with the diameter. Corollary 3 then implies that any line parallel to the diameter intersects the parabola in a single point. Thus it is enough to show that the direction of the diameter is the only one that has this property. To do this we again use again the Proposition in the case where CM coincides with the diameter. Given a point L of AB distinct from M, the half-line CL will intersect the parabola not only in C but also in the point F whose orthogonal projection G onto the diameter satises the relation CG/CM = MB2 /ML2 . Corollary 5. A line CN joining the vertex C of a segment of parabola of base AB with a point N of the base, is parallel to the diameter of the parabola if and only if N is the midpoint of AB. This is an immediate consequence of Corollary 4. Lemmas Proved by Archimedes Lemma 3. If C is the vertex of the segment of parabola of base AB, the area of the triangle ABC is more than half the area of the segment of parabola.
209 The reader may enjoy reconstructing a purely geometric proof that reects the following outline suggested by analytic geometry: Assume without loss of generality that the base AB is the x-axis. First deal with parabolas whose axis of symmetry is vertical; then reduce the general case to the particular case by applying a shearing transformation y y, x x + ky.

Appendix

401

Archimedes demonstrates this by considering the parallelogram ABPQ comprised between the base AB, the line passing through C and parallel to the base, and the parallels to the diameter passing through A and B, respectively:
Q C P

This parallelogram encloses the segment of parabola, by the denition of the vertex and because, by Corollary 3, sides AQ and BP intersect the segment of parabola only once. The lemma follows easily, by observing that the area of the segment of parabola is less than that of the parallelogram ABPQ, which is twice that of the triangle ABC. Lemma 4. If C is the vertex of the segment of parabola of base AB and D is the vertex of the segment of parabola of base CB, the area of triangle CBD is one-eighth that of triangle ABC.
C D E A M N B

Lemma 2 is proved by Archimedes using the Proposition, Corollary 5 and typical arguments of elementary geometry, that is, the methods laid out in Euclids Elements. Consider parallels to the diameter of the parabola passing though C and D, respectively. By Corollary 5, the rst of these lines intersects AB at its midpoint M, and the second intersects CB at its midpoint E. Let N be the intersection of AB with the line ED. Because MCB and NEB are similar triangles, N is the midpoint of MB. Let G be the intersection of CM with the parallel to AB going through D. By the Proposition we have CM/CG = MB2 /GD2 . But GD is equal to MN (they are opposite sides of a parallelogram). We thus have CM/CG = 3 CM. At the same time, since MCB and MB2 /MN2 = 4, and DN = GM = 4 1 NEB are similar triangles, we have NE = 2 CM; thus NE = 2DE.
C G E A M N B D

402

Appendix

If one of two triangles of the same altitude has double the others base, its area is also double. Applying this trivial observation to the equality NE = 2DE, we get area CNE = 2 area CED; area NEB = 2 area BED; and adding the two relations, area CNB = 2 area CBD;
1 1 area CDB = 2 area CNB = 8 area ABC:

## This concludes the proof of the lemma.

List of Passages

Names of works generally follow the (Latin) uniform title used in bibliographic catalogs, even when a translated name is used in the text. For lost works or those that have no uniform title, we use an English translation. Citations may include book (Roman caps), chapter (Roman lowercase) and/or other traditional number (). The rst Arabic numeral not otherwise marked is always the page number in the reference edition, sometimes followed by the line number after a colon. The letter f after a page number indicates a gure, n a footnote.
Aetius
Placita (in [DG]) 311b:2326 75n75 312b:2223 310n171 313b:1617 11n12 314b:110 23n31 321b:1014 23n30 328b:46 87n121, 88n128 329a:12 310n171 343b:914 87n121 344b:1 310n170 366:110 317n195 383a:1725 315n187, 362 383b:47 306n151 383b:2634 315n187 404b:38 269n1 430a:1520 163n72

Alcaeus
fragments (ed. Voigt) 333 271n16

Alexander of Aphrodisias
De fato 277n46 De mixtione (ed. Bruns) 216:14218:6 167n91 221:1618 167n91 In Aristotelis Analyticorum priorum librum I commentarium (ed. Wallies) 283, 7ff. 282n76

Anatolius
in [Heron: OO], vol. IV 160:1724 190n63

Anaxagoras
fragments (in [FV], vol. II) A39 (14:35 15:5) 58 A74 (24:1015) 279n57 A102 (30:59) 163n71 B9 (36:1924) 24n36

Agathemerus
Geographiae informatio proem, 5 67n50 I, i 309n161

404

Anaximander Aristotle 1718 (prop. 5) 387n182 De planorum aequilibriis 70, 72, 185, 189, 371 De sphaera et cylindro 63n31, 72n67, 185 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. I) 10:2325 324n236 11:1620 52n60 9:1215 78n92 Elements of mechanics 70n62 Quadratura parabolae 49, 52, 72 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 164:112 78n92

Anaximander
fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A10 (83:2740) 304n145 A14 (85:18) 304n145

Anthemius of Thralles
n 330n3 Peri paradox on mechan emat o

Antipater of Thessalonica
epigram (in Anthologia graeca IX, 418) 124n105

Antonius Diogenes
The incredible things beyond Thule 114

Archytas of Tarentum
fragments (in [FV], vol. I) B1 (431435) 229n80

Apollodorus
Bibliotheca, II, v 9 162n67a

Apollonius Mys
On perfumes 210n17

Aristarchus of Samos
De magnitudinibus et distantiis solis et lunae 66n45, 79 hypothesis 2 87n124 proposition 11 79n96

Apollonius of Perga
Conica 8, 330n6, 372 II, proposition 44 45n46 IV, preface 78n92, 200n97 VII, preface 201n99 De sectione rationis 200n98 On the cylindrical helix 98, 120n97

Aristophanes
Clouds lines 766772 270n9

Aristotle
Analytica posteriora I, ii, 71b:1825 172n7 I, ii, 71b:2628 39n27 I, x, 76a:40 49n56 I, xiii, 78b:37 58n5 II, xiii, 97a:610 180n30 Analytica priora I, i, 24a:1115 172n6 I, xxiii, 41a:2627 34n12 Ars rhetorica 172n9 1355a 172n8 1397a ff. 172n8 Atheniensium respublica lxvii 23 102n20 Categoriae x, 13a:3536 212n21 De caelo 287 I, iii 75n76, 302n140 II, xiii, 295a:1322. 24n35 II, xiv, 298a 68n55 III, i, 300a 326n245 IV 75n76, 302n140 De generatione animalium I, 715ab 164n77 De generatione et corruptione I, 328a 167n92 De interpretatione 152n30 De lineis insecabilibus (spurious) De partibus animalium 152 I 159n55

Apuleius
Apologia xvi 63n33, 63n35, 270n7

Archimedes
Ad Eratosthenem methodus 8, 72, 72n68 Arenarius 43, 58, 79, 87, 153n34 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 135:819 80n97 135:89 174n15 135:1419 87 135:1922 87n125 136:12 80, 80n100 137140 58n6 139 149n16 147:27 148:26 386n180 Catoptrica 8, 63 De conoidibus et sphaeroidibus 63n31, 153n34 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. I) 155:413 180n31 De corporibus uitantibus 52, 73, 75, 103n23, 116, 168n95, 189, 238n32, 303, 305, 310n167, 351, 383 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. III) I, 6:28 73n69 II 73n70 II, 25:25 70n62 De lineis spiralibus 53, 63n31, 104 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 8:1220 78n92

174n16

Aristotle Caelius Aurelianus II, vii, 652a:24 653a:36 144n3 III, vi, 669a 147n12 IV, x, 687a:810 163n71 De respiratione 473a:15474a:6 76n77 Historia animalium 159n54 I, 487a:32 152n31 I, 490a:1415 152n31 VI, 559b:15 251n29 Mechanica (spurious) 70, 112, 289, 301, 353n84, 372 848b:1430 289n101 849a:1417 289, 289n102 851b:714 112n62 Metaphysica I, v, 986a:18+2324 35n15 III, ii, 997b:2628 65n42 V, vi, 1016b:2430 326n245 VI, i, 1025b:19 191n71 VII, v, 1031a:13 179n27 VIII, i, 1042a:17 179n27 VIII, iii, 1043b:2332 182n39 XI, iv 179n28 XII, vi, 1017b:27 191n70 XII, vii, 1072b:30 1073a:3 163n70 XIII 179n28 XIII, vi, 1080b:1621 35n13 XIII, vi, 1083b:818 35n13 XIV 179n28 XIV, iv, 1091a:3136 163n70 XIV, v, 1092a:1117 163n70 Meteorologica iii, 373a 181n37 ivv, 375b377a 181n37 On Democritus 23n34 Physica 191 II, ii, 194a:712 58n5 II, ivvi, 195b198b 278n51 II, viii, 198b:1631 160n60, 178n25 II, viii, 198b:32 ff. 161n61 IV, i 75n76, 302n140 IV, viix, 213a217b 78n89 IV, xi, 220a:15 ff. 326n245 VI, ix, 239b240a 34n11 VII, v, 250a 25n38 Poetica iv, 1449a:1819 58n7 xx, 1456b1457a 222n60 Politica III, 1280b 213n29 VII, 1326ab 207n8 Topica I, v, 101b:36 179n27 VI, vi, 143b:11 326n245

405

Artemidorus of Daldis
De somniorum interpretatione 214

Athenaeus of Naucratis
Deipnosophistae I, 13bc 210n16 II, 42ab 103n27 IV, 130a 141n153 IV, 174be 228n77 IV, 184bc 11n15 V, 198f 132n134 V, 206209 115n79, 116n81, 123n99 V, 207b 26n41 XIII, 567cd 105n31 XIV, 618e620a 230n83 XIV, 634b 96n5 XIV, 654bc 250n25 XV, 688e689b 210n17 XV, 691f 210n17

Ausonius
Mosella lines 362364 257n58

Bacon, Roger
Epistola de secretis operibus 139n144 Letter to Clement IV (in [Bacon/Gasquet]) 333n19 Opus maius 346, 377n163 Specula mathematica II, iii 377n163 III, ii 377n163

Bellarmino, Roberto
Letter to P. A. Foscarini (in [Galileo: Opere], vol. XII, 171172) 380

Biton
Construction of war engines and catapults 111n56

Boethius
De hypotheticis syllogismis I, viii 17 282n74

Bolos Democritus
Physica et mystica 166

Boulliau, Ismael
Astronomia Philolaica 377n161

Boyle, Robert
Chymista scepticus chap. 1, prop. 2 168n95

Caelius Aurelianus
Celeres vel acutae passiones I, pref. 45 145n8, 158n53 III, xii 108 157n48

406

## Caesar, Caius Julius

De bello alexandrino (spurious) v 205n4

Cleomedes
Caelestia (ed. Todd) I 1, 3:6874 77n84 I 4, 25:208 26:231 113n69 I 7, 35:48 37:110 68n54 I 7, 35:4952 274n32 I 7, 36:101 37:102 274n34 I 8, 38:15 87n124 I 8, 38:19 39:31 89n133 II 6, 82:174 83:177 64n39

Calcagnini, Celio
Quod caelum stet, terra moveatur 338n41

Calcidius

Callimachus
Coma Berenices (fr. 110 Pfeiffer) 78n92 epigram (in Anthologia graeca VII, 89) 316n192

Copernicus, Nicolaus
De revolutionibus orbium caelestium 241, 241n42, 338 dedicatory 379 I, 9 341n42

Cavalieri, Bonaventura
Lo specchio ustorio xxxii 118n88, 353

Corpus Hermeticum
XVI 5, 7 376n157

Celsus, A. Cornelius
De medicina I, proem, 2326 151n27

Cotes, Roger
preface to Newtons Principia, 1713 381, 381n171a

Crisogono, Federico
De modo collegiandi et prognosticandi 360n111 Tractatus de occulta causa uxus et reuxus maris 360n111, 360n115

Cesalpino, Andrea
Peripateticarum quaestionum libri 342n46 III, question V 363n125 Quaestionum medicarum libri duo 342n46

Ctesibius
Belopoeica 107n42 Commentarii 76, 78, 132 Demonstrations in pneumatics 76

Chrysippus
Peri physiolog on 191n69

Cicero
Ad Quintum fratrem III, vvi 234n16 De divinatione I, lvi 127 277n47 I, xxx 64 216n41 De nibus bonorum et malorum I, vi 17 289n97 De natura deorum II, xxxiv 88 82n105 II, xxxvii, 93 281n69 II, xlvi 117 304n143 De re publica I, xiv 22 82n103 VI, xvi 16 89n134 Pro Rabirio Postumo xiv, 3940 260n75 Topica i, 3 234n13 Tusculanae disputationes I, xxv 63 82n103

Darwin, Charles
The origin of species by means of natural selection preface, note 1 (3rd ed.) 161

## de Dominis, Marco Antonio

De radiis visus et lucis 345, 346, 346n60 Euripus, seu de uxu et reuxu maris 361 5 361n118 67 361n119

## De rebus bellicis 139

xvii 139n147

Delno, Federico
De uxu et reuxu aquae maris 360n112

## Della Porta, Giambattista

Magia naturalis 346 Pneumaticorum libri tres 126

Democritus
fragments (in [FV], vol. II) 59A39 (14:35 15:5) 58 A37 (93:37 94:2) 23n34 A61 (100:36) 75n75 A68 (101:1116) 278n49 A68 ff. 277n45 A125 (112:2832) 23n31

Clement of Alexandria
Stromata V, ix 58 241n41

## Descartes, Ren Euclid

407

Descartes, Ren
Dioptrica 348 Gomtrie 359, 359n105 Le monde, ou Le trait de la lumire 358 chapter 7 359n104 chapter 12 306n153

## IX 31 23n33 IX 89 189n60 IX 99 288n93 X 24 177n20 X 74 310n169 X 87 189n61

Dicaearchus
fragment 110 (in [Wehrli], vol. I) 67n50

Dionysius Periegetes
Oikoumenes periegesis 309 lines 67 309n163

Dietrich of Freiberg
Tractatus de iride et de radialibus impressionibus 345n58

Dioscorides Pedanius
De materia medica 165

## Dio Chrysostom (Dio of Prusa)

Orationes xxxii, 36 258n69 xxxii, 40:15 203n3

Dondi, Jacopo
De uxu et reuxu maris 360n110

Dure9, Claude
Discours de la ve9rite9 des causes et effects des divers cours. . . 360n112

Diocles of Magnesia
On burning mirrors 62n28, 269 34 (ed. Toomer) 62n30, 63n32, 117n86

Empedocles
Physical poem 163n73 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A67 (295:3137) 24n35 B1314 (314:37) 168n96 B17 (315318) 168n96 B20 (318:15 319:3) 168n96 B22 (320:10 321:7) 168n96 B35 (326328) 163n73 B5761 (333334) 163n73 B100 (347:13 349:6) 76n77

Diodorus Siculus
Bibliotheca historica 7 I, vii 12 303n141, 310n167 I, xxxiii 911 114n76 I, xxxiv 2 123n98 I, lxxiv 45 251n29 IV, xlii 162n67a V, xixxx 114n71 V, xxxvixxxvii 266n97 V, xxxvii 34 123n98 XIV, xlii 12 107n39 XIV, l 4 107n39 XVII, lii 5 258n68 XVII, lii 6 252n39 XX, xci 16 106n34 XX, xciii 5 106n35 XX, xcvi 3 xcvii 2 106n36

Epictetus
Enchiridion xlix 283n78

Epicurus
Letter to Herodotus lines 4344 279n65 lines 4953 177n20 Letter to Pythocles 189n61 Principal doctrines 213n29

Diogenes Laertius
Vitae philosophorum I 18 191n72 I 23 113n66 IV 58 113n69 V 42 163n68 VII 39 191n73 VII 50 177n20 VII 57 222n62 VII 7981 219n51 VII 94102 222n66 VII 145 304n143, 310n168 VII 152 270n3 VII 158 229n80 VIII 28 164n78 VIII 42 241n41 VIII 83 72n67

Erasistratus of Ceos
fragments 156n44

Eratosthenes of Cyrene
On means 275 On the measurement of the earth 68n54, 274

Euclid
Catoptrica (spurious) 57n1 scholia (in [Euclid: OO], vol. VII) 348, sch. 7 63n37 Data scholia (in [Euclid: OO], vol. VI) 290 282n74 Elements 40, 63n37, 148, 185, 189, 235, 320n215, 322, 322n226, 323, 367, 368, 371, 386n180, 392n198, 393

408

Euclid Galen (Claudius Galenus) In Archimedis sphaeram et cylindrum (in [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. IV) 6264 72n67 6469 111n59 8889 329n1 62:14 329n2

I, common notions 39n29, 49 I, denitions 39n28, 181n33, 320326 I, denition 1 320, 322, 325 I, denition 2 320, 325 I, denition 3 320, 322, 325 I, denition 4 320, 323 I, denition 6 325, 326 I, denition 15 321n220 I, postulate 1 182 I, postulate 5 393n201 I, proposition 1 40, 185n46 I, proposition 16 184n43, 393n201 I, proposition 25 320n215 I, proposition 46 40n32, 48n53 I, proposition 47 40n31 III, proposition 12 320n215 V 34 V, denition 4 52n59 V, denition 5 46 V, proposition 12 41n34 V, proposition 13 41n34 VII, denition 1 320 IX, proposition 20 44 X, 408411 (in [Euclid: OO], vol. III) 35n12 X, scholium (in [Euclid: OO], vol. V) 415 36n18 XII, proposition 2 47n52 Optics 15, 57, 57n1, 5860, 60n22, 148, 149, 183, 185, 189, 269, 384 denition 1 149n17, 150n20 denition 3 149n17 denition 7 149n17 proposition 1 149n17, 384 proposition 3 149n17 proposition 6 59n20 proposition 51 84n111, 178n24, 187n56 Optics preface (spurious; in [Euclid: OO], vol. VII) 232 146148 149n19 150 232n3

Fracastoro, Girolamo
Homocentrica sive de stellis II, viii 343n54 III, xxiii 343n54

## Fragmentum mathematicum Bobiense (in

[MGM], 8792) 88:812 62n29

## Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare 336

Freud, Sigmund
Die Traumdeutung chapter 2 217n44, 217n45 chapter 3 217n43 Vorlesungen zur Einfhrung in die Psychoanalyse lecture 5 217n45

## Frontinus, Sextus Julius

De aquis urbis Romae I 2563 239n35 II 96 239n37 II 118 239n37

## Galen (Claudius Galenus)

An in arteriis natura sanguis contineatur (ed. Albrecht) viii, 18 147n12a De anatomicis administrationibus IX, i, 712 (ed. Khn, vol. II) 150n22 IX, ix, 89 (ed. Simon) 144n5 De causis procatarcticis xiii 162 155n40 xvi 197 155n41 xvi 203204 188n58 De experientia medica xiii 6 154n35 De foetuum formatione v, 678679 (ed. Khn, vol. IV) 154n36 De historia philosopha (spurious) 146, 216 lxxxviii 306n152 ciii, 317318 (ed. Khn) 146n11 cvi 216n39, 217 De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis I, x 34 144n6 VIII, iii 222n62 De praesagitione ex pulsibus II, iii, 278 (ed. Khn, vol. IX) 154n37 De temperamentis

Eudemus of Rhodes
History of geometry 33 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A20 (79:819) 33n7, 33n9, 66n44

Eusebius
Praeparatio evangelica I, vii = [DG], 579:720 304n145 XIV, xix 1 177n20

Eustathius of Thessalonica
In Homeri Iliadem vi, 446 309n162

Eutocius of Ascalon

Galen (Claudius Galenus) Heron of Alexandria III, ii 62n27 De usu partium (ed. Helmreich) I, iii, 4 (vol. I) 163n71 IX, vi, 19 (vol. II) 150n22 In Hippocratis prognosticum I, comment. I.4, 204205 (ed. Heeg) 155n42

409

Halley, Edmund
Apollonii Pergaei conicorum libri VIII 373n150

Heraclides of Pontus
fragments in [Wehrli], vol. VII, 104117 83n107

Galilei, Galileo
De motu (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. I) 319320 351, 351n76 299 352, 352n81 Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. XIX) fourth day 363 415 364n131 486 364n130 Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze 349, 350n75, 352 (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. VIII) 6465 353n87 86 353n89 169170 355n96 213 354n93, 355n94 266267 350n73 La bilancetta 351 Sopra le denizioni delle proporzioni dEuclide (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. VIII) 353 350n75

Herodotus
Historiae I, 1 171n1 II 109 65n41 II 158 114n76

Heron of Alexandria
Automata 130, 133, 139, 388 (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. I) i 5, 340:1315 140n149 i 56, 340:1321 141n152 i 7, 340:23 342:4 140n148 xxi 2, 410:15 140n150 xxii 1, 412:36 141n152 xxiii, 416420 140n151 xxvxxvi, 426436 140n151 Belopoeica 107n42, 111n57, 132 Catoptrica 8, 63, 63n36 Cheiroballistra 111n57 Commentary on Euclids Elements 320n215 De speculis (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. II.1) iv, 324328 63n36 Denitiones 58n8, 131, 190n63 (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. IV) 14:16 325n240 14:1112 322n227 14:15 326n243 16:21 18:6 323n229 16:2224 324n234 Dioptra 65n43, 73n70, 100n17, 130n122, 133, 272n24, 291n108 (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. III) xxxiv, 292:16 348n67 xxxv, 306:2223 185n47 xxxvii, 306310 99n16 Mechanica 70, 105, 133, 185, 289, 301, 352, 352n84, 353n84, 372 (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. II.1) I 1, 256266 99n16 I 8 289n101 I 20 289n100 I 2021 289n99, 352n82 II 5 97n11 II 2128 98n15 III 1320 253n45 III 1920 151n24 III 21 97n12 on 329n2 Peri kamarik Pneumatica 73n70, 76, 130, 133, 186, 292n114, 353n88

Galilei, Vincenzo
Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna 349n72

## Gallucci, Giovanni Paulo

Theatrum mundi et temporis 360n111

Geminus
Eisagoge eis ta phainomena I 23 88n126 XVII 16 87n124 fragments in [Heron: OO], vol. IV 100:4 102:8 66n46 100:1718 272n21 102:48 59n18 102:19 104:8 192n74 104:912 186n49 106:14 108:9 61n26 106:1516 58n8

Gilbert, William
De magnete. . . 389n187

Grosseteste, Robert
De iride (ed. Baur) 7374 347, 348n65 74 349n70 75 349n69

410

## Heron of Alexandria Lactantius

(refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. I) I, proem 77n87 I, proem, 6:67 77n85 I, proem, 6:23 7:16 77n87 I, proem, 10:1324 169n100 I, proem, 16:1014 169n101 I, proem, 26:23 28:11 77n87 I, ii, 36:818 78n89 I, vii, 5660 76n77 I, xxi 135 I, xii 135 I, xxi 130n123 I, xxviii 78n90, 135 I, xxxviii 126n116 I, xliii 131n124 I, xliii, 204:16 126n114 II, iii 135 II, viii 135 II, xi 126n116 II, xviii 146n12 II, xxi 135

Iamblichus of Chalcis
De communi mathematica scientia xxviii 232n5 In Nicomachi Arithmeticam introductionem (refs. to Pistelli edition) 11:5 320n217 1719 43n39 121 25n37 Theologoumena arithmeticae (attributed to) 240n39 Vita pythagorica xvii, 7578 241n40 xxvxxvi, 115119 25n37

ibn al-Haytham
al-mana z Optics (Kitab . ir) 331 VII, 83110 (ed. Rashed) 331n9

ibn an-Naf s
. al-Q Sharh anun 147n13 . tashrh

ibn S n a
il f Resa l-hikmet 332n13

Hipparchus of Nicaea
Catalogue of my own works 286 In Arati et Eudoxi Phainomena 79, 284n85 On bodies thrust down because of gravity 291

ibn Sahl
al-h Kitab aqat . arr 331n10, 348n68

inscriptions
[OGIS], 135 14n19

## Hippocrates of Cos and Hippocratic corpus

De locis in homine 152n28

Jordanus Nemorarius
Liber de ratione ponderis 224227 (in [Moody, Clagett]) 292n114

Hippolytus
Refutatio contra omnes haereses, I, xiv 5 161n65

Josephus, Flavius
Bellum judaicum II, xvi, 383 260n78 II, xvi, 385 252n40 IV, x, 613 116n83

## Historia Alexandri Magni

II 38 139n145

Kepler, Johann
Astronomia nova xxxvi 377n162 De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus 422 (in [Kepler: OO], vol. I) 356n97 Dioptrice, seu, demonstratio eorum qua visui accidunt 348n66 Epitome astronomiae copernicanae (refs. to [Kepler: OO], vol. VI) 310311 357n100 310 356n98 334 356n99 344 357n101 Somnium seu opus posthumum de astronomia lunari (refs. to in [Kepler: OO], vol. VIII) 61, note 202 360, 360n113

Historia Augusta
Firmus Saturninus Proculus et Bonosus VIII 57 259n70

Homer

Hooke, Robert
letter to Newton, January 6, 1680 376

Horace
Ars poetica 60 ff. 221n59

Huygens, Christiaan
Dioptrica 348

Lactantius
157n46 Divinae institutiones I, ii 278n49

Hyginus
Fabulae, 274

411

## Lambert, Johann Heinrich

Die Theorie der Parallellinien 202 (in [Stckel, Engel]) 392n199

## Laterculi Alexandrini 96, 96n9 Leonardo da Vinci

Codex Arundel (British Museum) 279b 343n52 Codex Ashburnham 2037 (ex codex B) 12b 343n51 Codex E of the Istitut de France 15b 343n53 Codex L of the Institut de France 2a 343n49 Codex Leicester 10r 337 Codex Madrid I folio 5 111n55 folio 10 111n55

V:828833 164n76 V:855859 164n76 V:916924 164n74 V:925928 165n79 V:10281032 165n79

Macrobius
In Ciceronis somnium Scipionis 319n209 II, i 376n158

Marcellinus
De Pulsibus (ed. Schne) xi 145n7

Martianus Cappella
De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae VI:598 275n41

Menelaus of Alexandria
Sphaerica 55, 393n202 I, proposition 11 393

Leucippus
fragments (in [FV], vol. II) A1 (70:26 71:5) 23n33 B2 (81:36) 23n30

More, Thomas
Utopia II, proem 251n30

Newton, Isaac
Classical scholia 369, 369n143, 370n146 De mundi systemate liber 370n145, 375, 375n156 Observations on the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse 374n155 Opticks 345 I, Part II, Prop. IX, Prob. IV 345n56 III, Part I, near end 381n172 Principia mathematica 365372, 377, 380 denitions 367, 368, 370n144 denitions, scholium 365n134, 367n137 I, Prop. I/Thm. I 374f I, Section I, after scholium to lemma XI 387n181 III, hypothesis I 366n136 III, proposition XI 366n136 III, regulae philosophandi 381 preface (Cotes) 381n171a scholium generale 381 Treatise on the Apocalypse 374n155

## Livy (Titus Livius)

Ab urbe condita libri 7 XXI, xxxvii 2 170n102

## Lobachevskii, Nikolai Ivanovich

New principles of geometry 393

Lucian of Samosata
De parasito, sive artem esse parasiticam 187n52 Herodotus sive Aetion 46 59n11 Navigium 9 112n60 Vera historia 114 Vita Demonactis 39:26 168n98

Lucretius
De rerum natura 8 I:136139 238n31 I:159207 164n78 I:984997 87n122 II:95111 279n65 II:112141 23n33, 279n58 II:216260 278n54 II:225239 352n80 II:294296 168n97 II:799800 270n5 IV:387390 84n115, 296n122 IV:426431 59n17 IV:823842 164n75 V:526533 189n61

Nicomachus of Gerasa
Harmonices enchiridion (Manual of harmonics), 6 24n37

## Novel of Ninus 224n71 Olympiodorus

In Aristotelis Meteora (in [CAG], XII.2) 212:5 213:20 63n36

Orosius
Adversus paganos VI, xiii 2 137n140

412

## Pacioli, Luca Plato

Pacioli, Luca
De divina proportione front page 379n168

Philo of Byzantium
Automata 141, 388 Belopoeica 110, 290 (refs. to Thvenot ed., used in [Marsden: TT]) 49:13 50:9 280n68 50:2129 111n58 51 291n110 59 110n52 7377 109n48 7778 77n88, 109n47 77:12 76n78 Paraskeuastica 110 Pneumatica 76, 77, 78n91, 133, 169, 186, 246n11, 280, 334 rst modern translation 336 (refs. to Prager edition) iii 280n67, 353n88 v, 84 120n96 vii 134 viii, 136 77n86 lvi, 216 334n22 lxi 119n93 lxiv, 228230 78n90 lxv 120n94 Polyorcetica 110

De re rustica VII 57 252n36

Pappus of Alexandria
Collectio 14, 70, 240, 282n74 (refs. to Hultsch edition) II, 628 43n38 III, 30:324 40n30 V, 304306 251n33 VI, proposition 51 60n22 VII, 636:2425 275n40 VII, 650:1620 40n30 VII, 662:1518 275n40 VIII, 1026:24 82n104 VIII, 1026:912 199n94 VIII, 1068:20 71n64 Commentary on Book X of Euclids Elements (in [Pappus/Junge, Thomson]) 6364 36n18

papyri
P. Anastasi I 32n5 P. Bremen 63 262n92 P. Cairo Zenon 59021 260n77 P. Cairo Zenon 59028 262n90 P. Edfou 8 246n11, 247f P. Halle 1, lines 84 ff. 205n6 P. Herculaneum 1061 321n219, 322 P. Holmiensis 166n86, 168 P. Leidensis X 166n86, 168, 169 P. Londinensis 137 (in Supplementum aristotelicum, vol. III.1) col. 21:2023 177n23 col. 28:46 29:15 147n12b col. 33:4451 156, 156n45 P. Michigan III, 143 321n218, 324n238 P. Oxyrhynchus 275 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 724 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 725 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 1214, II, 16 69n60 P. Oxyrhynchus 1668 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 2977 262n91 P. Revenue Laws, lines 3857 262n85

Philolaus
fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A1a (298:2228) 241n41 B5 (408:710) 35n15

Philoponus, John
In Aristotelis Physicorum libros (in [CAG], vol. XVII) 642 351n79 683 351n77

Philostratus, Flavius
Heroicus i 2 112n63 Life of Apollonius of Tyana II, xxii 213n27

## Piero della Francesca

De prospectiva pingendi 59n21

Pierre de Maricourt
Tractatus de magnete 389n187

Petronius
Satyricon ix 246n9

Plato
Cratylus 152n29, 181n34 Gorgias 451ab 35n15 Hippias minor 172 369c 172n3 Meno 84e85b 37n22, 37f

Philo of Alexandria
De confusione linguarum II, 264 (ed. Wendland) 167n91 De congressu eruditionis gratia III, 102:1525 (ed. Wendl) 326n244

Plato Plutarch 86e87b 197n90 Parmenides 137e:34 57n3 149a:7c:3 37n21 Phaedo 241n41 Republic 172 VI, 507c508a 57n2 VI, 509c511a 38n24, 179n28 VI, 510c 48n55 X, 602c603a 58n4 Sophista 219c:2 190n62 Symposium 175d:67 73n70 Theaetetus 147d 45n46 162e163a 172n4 184ab 181n34 Timaeus 33b 180n32 62c63e 302n140 81bc 38n23 88c:1 190n62 XXXV 157n47 XXXV 12 234n12 XXXV 24 234n11 XXXV 30 166n87 XXXV 4950 166n88 XXXV 80 59n13 XXXV 92 59n12 XXXV 112 228n72 XXXV 114 228n72 XXXV 138 228n72 XXXV 143 228n72 XXXVII 2829 270n11 XXXVII 64 271n15

413

Plutarch
Adversus Colotem 1112B 279n59 De animae procreatione in Timaeo (in Moralia) 1015BC 278n55 1020F1021A 25n37 De defectu oraculorum (in Moralia) 424E425C 304n146 425CD 305n147 434AB 255n51 De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (in Moralia) 190, 286, 357, 371 921A 270n4 921D 79n96, 290n104, 290n105 923A 80n98, 82n106, 311n177, 390n194 923CD 287n92, 369n141 923EF 369n142 923F924C 287n93 924DF 304n142, 304n146 925E926B 291n112 933B 290n103 De fraterno amore (in Moralia) 478DE 163n71 486B 163n69 De Iside et Osiride (in Moralia) 363n126 358F359A 270n4 De placitis philosophorum (spurious) 362 III, xvii 315n187, 362 V, xix 4 163n72 De primo frigido (in Moralia) 945F 279n63 De Pythiae oraculis (in Moralia) 398B399E 281n70 408F 325n242 De solertia animalium (in Moralia) 961A 175n19 968AB 251n31 De stoicorum repugnantiis (in Moralia) 1045BF 278n56 1047CE 281n72 1054B1055C 288n96

## Pliny the Elder

Naturalis historia 8, 297, 344 II 296 II 67 296n127 II 69 298n132 II 70 297n128, 312n178 II 71 296n127 II 77 319n205 II 91 317n196 II 95 88n129, 272n23, 296n126 II 128 112n60 II 183 275n38 II 186 113n69 II 212 308n155 II 213 314n185 II 216 308n156 II 247248 68n56 II 248 236n23 VI 165166 115n77 X 154 250n28 XI 19 251n32 XI 29 236n22 XI 149 236n20 XII 53 273n26 XVIII 296 252n35 XVIII 317 151n25 XXIII 57 254n48 XXX 4 248n18 XXXXVI 236n23a XXXIII 71 254n48 XXXIV 145 137n140

414

Plutarch Ptolemy, Claudius In Platonis Cratylum xvi, 5:25 (ed. Pasquali) 152n32 In Platonis Rem publicam II, 218:513 (ed. Kroll) 89n134 In primum Euclidis Elementorum librum commentarii (ed. Friedlein) 326 3536 191n67 38 191n68 40:1021 60n25 42:4 348n67 44:25 45:21 190n64 63 26n39 65:1921 36n18 7781 40n30 100:48 181n35 105:16 98n13 109110 325n239 111:112 324n237 157:1011 33n7 203:1012 185n45 299:13 33n7 346:1215 320n215 352:1418 33n9, 66n44 362:12 363:18 392n198 365:5 367:27 392n198 371:23 373:2 392n198 395:1318 220n55

Platonicae quaestiones (in Moralia) 363n127 1003E 325n242 1003F 326n243 1006AB 229n80 1006C 88n127, 311n176, 311n177 1009B1011E 222n62 Quaestiones naturales (in Moralia) 914A 103n27, 279n62 919AB 279n63 Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (in Moralia) 718EF 72n67 722AB 279n57 732EF 281n71, 281n72, 282n75 Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (in Moralia) 625E626E 269n1 633C 157n50 677E 279n64 681A 183n42 691C692A 279n61 Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat (in Moralia) 24A 278n52 Vitae decem oratorium 833C 216n37 Vitae parallelae 199n93 Marcelli xiv 7 71n65 Marcelli xiv 8 26 Marcelli xv 13 105n33 Marcelli xvii 34 199n93 Sertorii viii 114n71

Ptolemy, Claudius
Almagest 55, 79, 84, 88, 89, 190, 192, 240, 282, 284, 316, 317, 341, 373 (refs. to Heiberg edition, vol. I.1) I, iii, 11 318n202 I, iii, 13 285n86 I, iv, 1416 318n201 I, vii, 24 84n114 III, i, 192 315n189 III, i, 195 79n93 III, i, 206 11n12 III, i, 207 286n91 V, v, 369 272n23, 290n105 V, xi, 401:22 402:1 87n124 V, xiii, 416 79n96 V, xiv, 417 272n23 VII, ii, 1516 316n190 IX, ii, 210 285n89, 318n203, 319n206 IX, ii, 211 316n191 XII, i, 451544 193n77 Geographia 67, 113, 117, 338 I, iii 67n53 I, xi 69n59 VII, vivii 60n22 Optics 63, 269, 270, 285, 331, 348, 373, 389 partly lost 64n38, 65, 331n9 (refs. to Lejeune edition)

Polybius
Historiae 7 VIII, vvii 105n32 XII, xiii 11 139n146 XII, xxv-d 155n39 XXI, xxviii 15 255n50 XXXI, xx 14n18 XXXIV, xiv 11n14

Porphyry
In Harmonica Ptolemaei commentarius, 119:13 120:7 (ed. Dring) 25n37

Posidonius
Meteorologica 192

Priscian of Lydia
Solutiones ad Chosroem 308 (refs. to [Prician/Bywater]) 6976 308n158 72:1012 308n159 73:48 308n160

Proclus
Hypotyposes astronomicarum positionum 236:1517. 232n6

Ptolemy, Claudius Sextus Empiricus II 96, 60:1119 270n2 III 59, 115:16 116:8 285n86 V 270n8 V 721, 227:1 237:7 64n40 V 2330, 237:20 242:7 64n39 Planetary hypotheses 284 8 (in [Ptolemy/Goldstein]) 284n81 Tetrabiblos 284 I 56 284n83

415

Sextus Empiricus

## Pythagoras and Pythagoreans

fragments in [FV], vol. I B1 (448:2324) 36n18 B9 (453:3944) 35n13 B10 (454:19) 35n13

## Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Qus)

Institutio oratoria I, x 3738 173n11 I, x 49 173n12

Raimondo, Annibale
Trattato utilissimo e particolarissimo del usso e del riusso del mare 360n112

Redi, Francesco
Esperienze intorno alla generazione deglinsetti 164n78

## Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

Almagestum novum 365n133

Rufus Ephesius
De nominatione partium hominum (eds. Daremberg, Ruelle) 49, 139:810 158n51 133, 151:12 158n52 Synopsis de pulsibus (eds. Daremberg, Ruelle), iv, 223225 148n14

Sarpi, Paolo
Pensieri naturali, metasici e matematici 363n128

## Seneca, Lucius Anneus

Epistulae ad Lucilium xc, 13 238n28 Naturales quaestiones 293 I, v 1 237n25 I, vi 5 64n39 I, vii 1 270n6 I, xvixvii 237n26 II, xxxi 1 237n24 II, liii 1 237n24 VII, ii 3 296n123 VII, iv 1 316n193 VII, xvii 12 316n194 VII, xxv 35 211n20 VII, xxv 5 293n120 VII, xxv 6-7 294n121

416

Simplicius Theon of Alexandria I, i 20 309n164 I, iii 4 161n64, 303n141 I, iii 11 305n149 I, iv 1 285n87 I, iv 23 114n70 II, i 35 274n36 II, iii 4 113n67 II, iii 6 161n63, 303n141 II, iv 1 114n70 II, v 5 309n164 II, v 7 69n58 II, v 14 248n17 II, v 24 273n30 III, i 5 272n20 III, v 8 307n154 III, v 9 313n180, 313n181, 319n210 IV, i 5 114n74, 266n98 IV, i 8 266n99 X, iii 5 66n48 XII, ii 10 271n18 XII, iii 30 124n104, 248n16 XIV, ii 5 114n75, 116n82 XIV, v 3 126n115 XIV, v 5 126n115 XIV, xx 19 11n14 XVI, i 6 313n180, 314n183 XVII, i 2 275n42 XVII, i 610 205n5 XVII, i 7 260n76 XVII, i 8 246n13 XVII, i 25 114n76 XVII, i 30 248n17

Simplicius
In Aristotelis categorias (in [CAG], vol. VIII) 264:3336 324n235 401:7ff 212n22 In Aristotelis de caelo (in [CAG], vol. VII) 264:2526 291n111 265:34 292n115 265:911 292n116 267:30 268:4 75n75 294:33 295:24 23n34 444:31 445:5 80n99, 83n107 519:911 83n107 541:27 542:2 83n107 569:59 75n75 In Aristotelis physicorum libros (in [CAG], vols. IX, X) IX, 35:1317 24n36 IX, 158:29 159:1 168n96 IX, 291:1920 193n76 IX, 291:21 292:19 192n75 X, 23:2932 113n66 X, 330:1418 278n49 X, 916:1227 291n113

Snell, Willebrord
Doctrina triangolorum 62 273n27 Eratosthenes Batavus 273n27

Stevin, Simon
Van de spiegheling der ebbenvloet 379 333 (in [Stevin: PW], vol. III) 379n169

Stobaeus, John
Eclogae (ed. Wachsmuth) I, iv 7, 72:1114 23n30 I, x 12, 122:20 123:6 304n145 I, xiv, 143:69 75n75 I, xvi 1, 149:67 11n12 I, xvi 1, 149:1016 23n31 I, xvii, 154:8 155:14 167n91 I, xxi, 182:2021 87n121, 88n128 I, xxi 7c, 188:912 35n15 I, xxiv, 204:2125 87n121 I, xxviii, 227:810 317n195 I, xxxviii, 252:1618 315n187 I, xxxviii, 252:1819 306n151 I, xlix, 367:17 368:20 77n83 II, lii, 483:19 484:2 269n1 II, xxxi, 228:2529 199n95

Strato of Lampsacus
On the vacuum 75n75

Suda (Suidas)
Antiphon 216n37 Pappus 216n42

## Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius

De vita Caesarum Vespasianus 18 245n8

Taccola, Mariano
De ingeniis 336n29

## Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus

Graecarum affectionum curatio VI, xx 310n170

Theodosius of Bithynia
Sphaerica 55, 55n70

Strabo
Geographia 285, 309 I, i 8 114n72, 313n180 I, i 9 313n180, 314n184 I, i 12 69n57, 272n24 I, i 13 66n48

Theon of Alexandria
Commentary on the Almagest (refs. to [Theon/Rome]) 347:5 348:1 (on I, iii) 63n34 492:68 (on I, x) 320n215

## Theon of Smyrna Zosimus of Panopolis

417

Theon of Smyrna
Expositio rerum mathematicarum (ed. Hiller) III, xxxiii, 187:1418 319n207 III, xxxiii, 188:27 319n208

Theophrastus of Eresus
De causis plantarum 160 II, xiii 3 160n58 III, xi 1 xvi 4 250n26 IV, iv 11 160n57 De igne (ed. Gercke) xiii 73, 20 270n10 De lapidibus 3738 163n68 De odoribus 210n17 Historia plantarum 160 II, iii 160n56 IV, xiii 4 174n13 Metaphysica (Ross and Fobes ed.) 10a:22 11b:26 160n59 On petrication 163 On waters 103n27

Thomas Aquinas
Summa theologica I.32, article 1, reply to objection 2 194n78

Thucydides
Historiae, I, lxxi 3 211n19

VII, xixiv 167n89 VIII, iii 1819 170n104 VIII, v 23 66n47, 238n30 IX 296 IX, i 12 378n165 IX, i 6 297n130 IX, i 11 297n129 IX, i 12 297n131 IX, i 13 298n133 IX, vi 3 296n126 IX, vii 2 299n137 IX, vii 3 299n138 IX, vii 6 299n137 IX, viii 214 102n22 IX, viii 45 132n133 X, iv 125n110 X, iv 12 119n93 X, v 125n108, 125n110 X, v 1 252n38 X, vii 13 78n90 X, vii 3 337n36 X, vii 4 76n79 X, vii 5 78n91 X, viii 228n76 X, xiii 5 106n37 X, xvi 3 106n38 X, xvi 5 355n96

Valerius Maximus
Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX IX, ii, ext. 5 11n16

Viviani, Vincenzo
letter to Leopoldo de Medici (in [Galileo: Opere], vol. XIX, pp. 647659) 355n95

Voltaire
Dictionnaire philosophique entry for systme 390n194 Lettres philosophiques letter 15 390n194

## Varro, Marcus Terencius

De re rustica 8 I, i 8 ff. 249n20, 249n22 I, v 12 235n18 III, ii 1314 250n24

Wallis, John
An essay . . . about the ux and reux of the sea 364n132 Tractatus de sectionibus conicis 372

Villard de Honnecourt
sketchbook 22v 334 9r 334

William of Conches
Dragmaticon philosophiae III 332n17 IV 332n17

## Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus

De architectura 8, 299n138 I, i 3 ff 239n33 I, ii 2 59n19 II, preface, 14 203n2 IX, preface, 912 238n32 V, iv 1 238n31 V, v 229n81 V, v 8 234n11 VII, preface 11 58n9, 58n10 VII, preface 14 96n4

Zeno of Elea
fragments (in [FV], vol. I, 247258) 34n11

Zosimus of Panopolis
Authentic memoirs (ed. Mertens) IV, i, 17:3034 165n81 VII, ii, 23:810 165n81 X, vii, 41:135137 165n81

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[Wehrli] Fritz Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, Texte und Kommentar, Basel, Schwabe, 19441959; 2nd ed., 19671969. (67n50, 75n75, 83n107) [Whewell] William Whewell, History of the inductive sciences: from the earliest to the present time, London, Parker, and Cambridge, Deighton, 1837. (390n195) [White] Michael White, Isaac Newton: the last sorcerer, Reading (MA), Addison-Wesley, 1997. (374n155) [Whittaker] Charles R. Whittaker, The consumer city revisited: the vicus and the city, Journal of Roman Archaeology 3 (1990), 110118. (257n63) [Wikander: EWPTS] rjan Wikander, Exploitation of water-power or technological stagnation? A reappraisal of the productive forces in the Roman Empire, Scripta Minora Regiae Societatis Humaniorum Litterarum Lundensis, Lund, 1983/1984:3. (256n56) [Wikander: HAWT] rjan Wikander (editor), Handbook of ancient water technology, Leiden, Brill, 2000. (118n89, 426, 427, 429, 434) [Wikander: IAWP] rjan Wikander, Industrial applications of water-power, pp. 401410 in [Wikander: HAWT]. (257n59) [Wikander: WM] rjan Wikander, The water-mill, pp. 371400 in [Wikander: HAWT]. (124n106, 124n107, 256n55) [Wilson: Ptolemy] C. Wilson, The sources of Ptolemys parameters, Journal for the History of Astronomy 15 (1984), 3747. (284n85) [Wilson: Timgad] Andrew Wilson, Timgad and textile production, pp. 271296 in [Mattingly, Salmon]. (258n65) [Winter] Frederick E. Winter, Greek fortications, London, Routledge and Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1971. (107n45) [Wittfogel] Karl August Wittfogel, Oriental despotism: A comparative study of total power, Providence, Yale, 1957. (30n47) [Woodbury] Robert S. Woodbury, History of the lathe to 1850, Cleveland, Society for the History of Technology, 1961; reprinted Cambridge (MA), MIT Press, 1964. (123n103) [Yates] Frances Amelia Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic tradition, London, Routledge, and Chicago, Univ. Press, 1964. (375n157) [Zeuthen] Hieronymus Georg Zeuthen, Die geometrische Konstruktion als Existenzbeweis in der antiken Geometrie, Mathematische Annalen, 47 (1896), 222228. (186n48) [Ziggelaar] A. Ziggelaar, Die Erklrung des Regenbogens durch Marcantonio de Dominis, 1611: Zum Optikunterricht am Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, Centaurus 23 (1979), 2150. (346n60, 362n123) [Zosimus/Mertens] Les alchimistes grecs, tome IV.1: Zosime de Panopolis, Mmoires authentiques, edited and translated by Michle Mertens, Paris, Belles Lettres, 1995. (165n80, 165n82, 166n85)

General Index

An authors cited works appear at the end of the authors entry; for conventions see the List of Citations on page 403. The letter f after a page number indicates a gure, n a footnote.

436

ait ema,

Anatolius industry 258, 259, 259n72 interdisciplinary interactions 148, 157, 246 interruption of scientic studies 11, 69n60, 133, 290, 296 Jews in 248 latitude and longitude 68, 272n24, 273275 Library at 11, 69n60, 133, 234, 234n14, 246248, 276, 290 map 206f, see also back endpaper medicine 155, 156, 158 Mouseion 245, 246 musicology 230 philology and literary studies 221 population 252, 258 refugees from 53, 221n57 Roman conquest and rule 14n19, 234, 260 scientists working in 6, 11, 1415, 53, 63, 102, 143, 166n84, 246, 291n111, 330 Serapeum 241 ship-building 115 sources on 205n5 tomb fresco 120 view of 204f works on 6n2 works unknown in 285, 290, 291n111, 296, 330 zero of longitudes 285 Alfonsine Tables 334 Alfonso X of Castille 334 algebraic equations 41n34, 386 methods 43, 44, 131, 359, 385 structure 46n48 Algeria 258 Alhazen see ibn al-Haytham alienatio 158 Almagest see Ptolemy Almagestum novum 365n133 36n19 alogos, Ambrosius Rhodius 389n186 America, United States of 207 Amici, Giovanni Battista 338 Ammon (god) and ammonites 161 Ammonius Hermiae 330 amortization 261 amphor 258 Amr ibn al-As 259n71 amusement see toy an-Nair z 320n215, 392n198 272n21 anaklasis, analog computational tools 41, 42 analysis (mathematics) 6, 45, 49, 55, 388, 394 Analytica priora, posteriora see Aristotle Anastasi I (papyrus) 32n5 Anatolius 58n8, 190

ait ema, 39, 174, 189n59 akrotatos, 124n105 al-B run 131, 332n15 al-D al-Far s , Kamal n 346, 346n60 (caliph) 331 al-Mamun (caliph) 331 al-Man . sur ar-Rash al-Rash h d see H arun d Albertus Magnus 389n188 Alcaeus 271 fragments (ed. Voigt) 333 271n16 alchemy 165, 240, 332, 356, 376n157, see also chemistry Aldebaran 89 Alexander conquests and empire 12f Alexander of Aphrodisias 167n91, 192, 291n111, 330n5 De fato 277n46 De mixtione (ed. Bruns) 216:14218:6 167n91 221:1618 167n91 In Aristotelis Analyticorum priorum librum I commentarium (ed. Wallies) 283, 7ff. 282n76 Alexander Polyhistor 164n78 Alexander the Great conquests and empire 10, 22, 27, 29, 30, 67, 107, 158, 305 death 10 founder of Alexandria 10, 203 paintings of 58, 59 Romance of A. 139 support of science 158 underwater walks 138 Alexandria 203207, see also Egypt Ptolemaic; Pharos n science (short for non-Eastern Hellenistic) 10, 92n141, passim administration of Egypt 276 and Rhodes 259 Arab conquest 259n71 archeology 9, 225f astronomy 248 Bibliotheca Alexandrina (new library) 225f chemistry 166, 169 commerce 259, 259n73, 260 cradle of alchemy 166 cult of Serapis 213 distance to Rhodes 273 distance to Syene 68, 273275 economic role 258260 engineering 96, 111 foundation 10, 203, 258 Greeks in 11, 14, 233

Anatolius Apollonius of Tyana in [Heron: OO], vol. IV 160:1724 190n63 anatomy 143156 bovine vs. human 150, 151n23 experimental 151, 194, 196 modern resumption 335, 342, 344, 362 scientic 146, 154 foundation of 11, 143, 152 terminology 153, 197 Anaxagoras 24, 58, 163, 163n71, 191n70, 279 fragments (in [FV], vol. II) A39 (14:35 15:5) 58 A74 (24:1015) 279n57 A102 (30:59) 163n71 B9 (36:1924) 24n36 Anaximander 163, 163n72 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A10 (83:2740) 304n145 A14 (85:18) 304n145 ancient empires 10n10, 22, 28, 71, 209, 210, 250, see also Egypt, Mesopotamia interaction with Greeks 2830 technologically superior 28, 207 Ancients (as vague and misleading term) 7, 9, 18, 53, 54, 69n60, 86, 96, 112, 113, 138, 161, 164n78, 195, 198, 211, 246, 256, 287, 332, 344, 346, 375, 388 Andersen, Kristi 60n22 Andreas (Herophilean physician) 157, 157n48 311n177 aneile o, 126, 127f, 136 anemourion, angel 334 Angelo, Jacopo see Jacopo Angelo angles 17, 48 apparent see apparent size equality under reection 63 in measurement of earth 68 in planetary computation 91 in triangle 184, 393 of refraction 64, 65f, 270n6, 270n8, 348 opposite at a vertex 33 right 39 trisection of 42, 201, 201n101 angular perspective 60n24 animal see also zoological garden husbandry 250 metaphor for universe 357 power see under power substances 255 Anthemius of Thralles 329330 n 330n3 Peri paradox on mechan emat o Anthologia graeca IX, 418 124n105 VII, 89 316n192 Anticyra 233n9

437

Antigonid state 10 Antigonus II of Macedonia 115 Antikythera 128, 129f, 134, 332n15, 334, 334n25, 344n55 Antioch 10, 156, 206, 248 Antiochus I Soter 249 Antipater of Thessalonica 124, 125n108 epigram (in Anthologia graeca IX, 418) 124n105 Antiphilus 225n72 Antiphon 216n37 Antiquity see under classical, Hellenistic, imperial, late, etc. Antisthenes 182 Antonius Diogenes 114 The incredible things beyond Thule 114 45, 45n46 apeiros, Apelles 59 apiculture see bees 39, 80n100, 171173 apodeixis, Apollodorus Bibliotheca, II, v 9 162n67a Apollonii Pergaei conicorum libri VIII 373n150 Apollonius Myndius 316, 317 Apollonius Mys 210n17 On perfumes 210n17 Apollonius of Perga 246, 275n40 and Anthemius 330n6 and Conon of Samos 78n92, 200 astronomy 79, 90, 193, 200 burning mirrors 62, 62n29 Cartesian coordinates 385 catoptrics 200 commentators 15, 329 conics 11, 45n46, 53, 78n92, 330, 372373 conventionalism 153n34, 181n33, 320 dating 11n13 epicycles 232, 284 helixes 98 homeomeric curves 98, 323 in early modern age 350, 357, 372373, 380 innity 45 large numbers 43 math for maths sake 200 optics 269 origin of geometric concepts 181 positional system 385 terminology 153n34 Conica 8, 330n6, 372 II, proposition 44 45n46 IV, preface 78n92, 200n97 VII, preface 201n99 De sectione rationis 200n98 On the cylindrical helix 98, 120n97 Apollonius of Tyana 213n27

438

Apollonius, dioecete of Ptolemy Archimedes commentators 329, 330 confutes Aristotle 25, 26, 233 conventionalism 153n34, 180, 181n33, 197, 320 correspondents 63 death 6, 11, 199n93, 233, 233n8 equilibrium 27 xed stars 84 force 20 geometric progressions 386 gravity 303 heliocentrism 80, 85, 303 Herons source 133 heureka 6, 238 hydrostatics 7375, 103n23, 118n91, 131, 198, 238, 238n32, 276, 303 in early modern age 349351, 371, 380, 388 in Egypt, Spain 343 in Renaissance 335 incompatible models 75, 184, 238 innitesimals 387, 387n182 inspiration for proofs 72 large numbers 43, 43n37, 87, 385 legends about 6, 26n41 levers 70, 70n61, 71 limits 55 link between mechanics and geometry 72 machine design 25, 26, 71, 105, 198 manuscript tradition 8, 52, 52n61, 73, 331, 343 mechanics see mechanics, Archimedean methodology 213, 366, 368 mirrors 62, 63, 117n86, 118n88, 198, 353 modernity 144 motion 27 earths 80, 85, 303, 338n41 moves a ship 25 on Aristarchus 79, 80, 84, 84n113, 87, 174, 178 on Conon of Samos 78n92 optics 63, 63n37, 269 parabolas and paraboloids 4951, 63, 399402 parallax 87 place of work 11 planetarium 8082, 134n139 postulate hydrostatic s 73, 75, 118n91, 131, 175 mechanical s 70n61 on magnitudes 5052, 52n60, 87, 88 shortest line 324 rainbow 270 rigor 49 screw see water-screw ship-building 116

Apollonius, dioecete of Ptolemy 260, 262 311 apophainomai, apparent size 57, 58, 149, 272n23, 285 applied science see technology scientic; scientic theories applicability of; science, Hellenistic applications Apuleius 63, 63n35, 270 Apologia xvi 63n33, 63n35, 270n7 aqueduct 118, 208f, 239, 247, see also water supply Aquinas, Thomas see Thomas Aquinas Aquincum 229 ar-Rash ar-Rash h d see H arun d Arabian Sea 313 Arabs 79, 120, 169, 259, 335, 349n71, 373 ahead of the West 332, 333 alchemy 167n93 astronomy 275n39 in Alexandria 203 mathematics 54, 131, 320n215 medicine 147n13 on the Pharos 116, 116n85 optics 138n143, 331, 345, 348 positional system 385 role in transmitting ancient science 7, 8, 43n39, 54, 86, 98, 136, 235, 269, 331333, 335, 342, 348, 389 science, general reference on 331n8 technology 332 trigonometry 54 works preserved in Arabic 8, 36n18, 62n28, 63n32, 64n38, 70n63, 76, 78n90, 103, 103n26, 144n5, 154n35, 169, 185n47, 200n98, 280n67, 284n81, 331n10, 333, 333n20, 352n84, 372, 393n202 arachnoides 144, 149, 150 Aratus 79 archaic period 161, 225 archeological nds 9, 32n3, 59n15, 95, 95n2, 107, 114n76, 115, 118, 120, 120n94, 122f, 123, 225f, 229, 229n81, 253, 254f, 255, 256f, 257, 258, 265, 265f, 270, 344n55, see also papyri; inscriptions Archias of Corinth 116 Archigimnasio 195 Archimedes 96, 123n98 and Galileo 349351 applied science 198199, 199n94 area of triangle 131 astronomy 78, 78n93, 149n16, 303 attitudes toward 57, 26, 198, 202, 212 axis of time 104 bibliography 38n26 buoyancy 73, 383

Archimedes Aristotle sphericity of oceans 75, 184, 238, 303, 305, 310n167 spheroid 180, 310n166 terminology 153n34, 197 ubiquity of his contributions 6 war machines 62, 63, 105, 248, 343, 343n50 water clock 103 works lost or almost 8, 52, 70 Ad Eratosthenem methodus 8, 72, 72n68 Arenarius 43, 58, 79, 87, 153n34 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 135:819 80n97 135:89 174n15 135:1419 87 135:1922 87n125 136:12 80, 80n100 137140 58n6 139 149n16 147:27 148:26 386n180 Catoptrica 8, 63 De conoidibus et sphaeroidibus 63n31, 153n34 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. I) 155:413 180n31 De corporibus uitantibus 52, 73, 75, 103n23, 116, 168n95, 189, 238n32, 303, 305, 310n167, 351, 383 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. III) I, 6:28 73n69 II 73n70 II, 25:25 70n62 De lineis spiralibus 53, 63n31, 104 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 8:1220 78n92 1718 (prop. 5) 387n182 De planorum aequilibriis 70, 72, 185, 189, 371 De sphaera et cylindro 63n31, 72n67, 185 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. I) 10:2325 324n236 11:1620 52n60 9:1215 78n92 Elements of mechanics 70n62 Quadratura parabolae 49, 52, 72 (refs. to [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. II) 164:112 78n92 architecture 8, 32, 61, 96, 203, 238, 330n2, 334, 335n27, 336, 376, 379n168, see also engineering; ship building architronito or architonitro 343 Archytas of Tarentum 48n54, 72, 96, 191 harmonics 229n80 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) B1 (431435) 229n80 Arctic Ocean 114 Arcturus 89 area 32, 47n52, 49, 65, 131, 200, 359, 392

439

Arenarius see Archimedes argumentation see rhetoric Aristarchus of Samos accusation of impiety 82n106 dating 11, 78 disciple of Strato 11n12 earths size 79n96 heliocentrism 7985, 87, 174, 178, 233, 295, 302, 303, 311, 311n177, 341, 342, 363, 370, 375, 389, 389n191 ignored in ancient history texts 5 in early modern age 338, 363, 375 in Voltaires view 390n194 on distance to sun and moon 66 on parallax 87 point-like earth 87, 87n124 postulates 80, 87n124, 174, 178 precursors of 82 school of 11n12, 85n116, 93 sphere of xed stars 89n131 De magnitudinibus et distantiis solis et lunae 66n45, 79 hypothesis 2 87n124 proposition 11 79n96 Aristarchus of Samothrace 221, 221n57 Aristides 234 Aristippus of Cyrene 191n69 Aristomachus of Soli 251 Ariston 246n11 Aristophanes Clouds lines 766772 270n9 Aristophanes of Byzantium 221, 222 Aristotle see also physics Aristotelian anatomy 144, 145, 153, 159, 233 and Galileo 350 and Newton 366, 367n138, 368 art and science 186 authority backdated 233234, 237, 240, 292 biology 159 breathing 146n12 Byzantine commentators 329 chance 278 commentators 342, 351 conception of mathematical objects 179n28 conception of universe 86, 312, 341 confuted by Archimedes 26 contradicted by Hipparchus 292 disciples 33, 67, 159 earths immobility 83, 84, 86, 312 earths size 68 geometry 49, 326 grammar 222n60 gravity and levity 75, 83, 292, 302, 304, 330n5, 341

440

hands and intelligence 163n71 hypothesis 174 incommensurability 35n12, 35n14, 36, 36n16 innite regress 39, 182 letter variables 219 living beings 160, 161, 163, 178, 180, 191 logic 218, 220 math versus physics 192 methodology 25, 191, 366 mixtures 167, 167n92 motion 2526, 83, 213n28, 233, 287 naming of things 152, 222n60 natural faculties 212 notion of language 221n59 notion of point 181 notion of space 83, 366 on physikoi 191n70 on Lycophron 213n29 optics 58n5, 347 physical science 191192, 202, 381 predates scientic method 22, 25, 78 proof by contradiction 36, 36n17 role of denitions 179, 179n27, 180 static world view 212 supersession of 25, 233 syllogisms 172, 173 teleology 161, 163n71 time measurement 102 treated as endpoint of Greek physics 22 use of term mathematics 190 vacuum 78n89, 233 Analytica posteriora passages on p. 404 Analytica priora passages on p. 404 Ars rhetorica 172n9, passages on p. 404 Atheniensium respublica passages on p. 404 Categoriae passages on p. 404 De caelo 287, passages on p. 404 De generatione animalium passages on p. 404 De generatione et corruptione passages on p. 404 De interpretatione 152n30 De lineis insecabilibus (spurious) 174n16 De partibus animalium 152, passages on p. 404 De respiratione passages on p. 405 Historia animalium 159n54, passages on p. 405 Mechanica (spurious) 70, 112, 289, 301, 353n84, 372 848b:1430 289n101 849a:1417 289, 289n102 851b:714 112n62 Metaphysica passages on p. 404 Meteorologica passages on p. 404 On Democritus 23n34 Physica 191, passages on p. 404 Poetica passages on p. 405

astronomy Barthes, Roland Aristarchan 7893, 178 Aristotelian 83, 312, 341 as part of mathematics 190, 191, 193 astronomers 53, 78, 93, 138, 311, 370 meaning of term 192193 China 334 clockwork 334n25, 344n55, see also Antikythera Copernican see Copernicus descriptive versus synoptic 371 dynamical 304, 305, 309, 316, 318, 319 early Greek 22, 29, 83, 113 end in late Antiquity 170, 240 in latin texts 296 interruption after Hipparchus 282, 283, 283f, 294, 296, 318 late Antiquity 232n6 measurements and observations 11n12, 58, 64, 79, 88, 100, 113, 178, 192, 195, 248, 272n24, 274n36, 275n39, 283, 283f, 315, 373 Mesopotamian Hellenistic 92, 93, 93n143, 248, 291n109 pre-Hellenistic 272 model of determinism 277 observatories 248 physical truth in 85 positional system 43n40, 385 precession of equinoxes 315 Ptolemaic 79, 83, 84, 8993, 282286, 317319, 341, 373 Renaissance 338342 scope of 192 sexagesimal base 43, 93, 385 tables 88, 284, 334, 386 tides 305309, 311315, 360365 use of hypothetico-deductive method 189 uses in engineering 239, 239n34 works lost 79, 89 astrophysics 372n147 Aswan see Syene Athenaeus of Naucratis Alexandrian refugees 11 Apollonius Mys 210n17 Archimedes 52, 123 automata 132n134 shing books 210n16 mechanics 96 music 230n83 Philonides 210n17 royal zoo 250 ship-building 115, 116 source on Ctesibius 76n80 water ow rate 103n27 water-screw 123 Deipnosophistae passages on p. 405

441

Athenaeus the Mechanic 110, 110n53 Athens 11, 139n146, 234n13, 246n12, 253, 257n62, 330 Athos, Mount 203 Atlantic Ocean 113, 114, 114n71, 114n73, 305 atmosphere see pressure; air refraction in atomic theory 19, 2223, 81n102, 168, 278, 279 Attalid dynasty 111, 247 Attalid kings 226f Aubert, Jean-Jacques 262n92 auger 97 Augustus 60, 60n24, 61f, 257, 317 Aujac, Germaine 88n126 Aurelian 234n14 Aurispa, Giovanni 335, 335n27 Ausonius 256, 257n58 Mosella lines 362364 257n58 automata 132, 135, 136, 139, 140f, 141, 238, 244n6, 280n67, 332, 334, 335 still versus moving 139 average 275 n a Avicenna see ibn S axiom see postulate axiomatic method see hypothetico-deductive Babylon (city) 9, 210 Babylonia see Mesopotamia; Seleucid state Babylonian history 249 Bacon, Francis 389 Bacon, Roger 138, 333, 346, 377, 379, 389, 389n188 telescopes 346 Epistola de secretis operibus 139n144 Letter to Clement IV (in [Bacon/Gasquet]) 333n19 Opus maius 346, 377n163 Specula mathematica II, iii 377n163 III, ii 377n163 Bactria 10, 203 Baghdad 275n39 balance 168, 189, 195, 196, 332 Baldini, Ugo 353n84 Baliani, Giovanni Battista 364365 ball bearings 265, 265f, 336 ball-shape 180, 197 ballista 106, see also artillery ballistics 107, 110, 291 banking 260, 262 Barbegal 255, 266 Barnett, S. J. 374n155 baroque (ancient) 224 Barrow, Isaac 168n95 Barthes, Roland 223, 223n67, 223n68, 224

442

Bartholdi, Frdric-Auguste brain Bloch, Marc 103n28, 125, 125n109, 125n110, 255, 255n52 blood circulation 147, 342, 342n46, see also circulatory system Boardman, John 162f Bochenski, Innocentius 219n53 body in Skepticism 232 names of parts 158 Boethius De hypotheticis syllogismis I, viii 17 282n74 Bohr, Niels 396, 397n208 Bolos Democritus 166 Physica et mystica 166 Bolsena 124f bolt see screw Bolyai, Farkas 390n195a Bolyai, Je1nos 390n195a, 392 Bolzano, Bernard 383n176 Bonanno, Maria Grazia 311n177 Bonelli, Federico 279n60, 360n109, 360n115 bones 32n3, 150, 161, 165, 342 Bonnin, Jacques 118n89 Book of burning instruments see ibn Sahl, Kitab al-h aqat . arr books see also Alexandria Library; state support diffusion of 197 in Rome 234 translation projects 248, 331, 332 Borchard, Ludwig 101n19 Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso 372 Boston Museum of Fine Arts 162f botanical garden 195 botany 153, 158, 160, 165, 191, 194, 249, 250, 255, 342, 362 Botti, Giuseppe 206f boulder 287, 288, 291, 293 Boulliau, Ismael 377, 379, 390 Astronomia Philolaica 377n161 bourgeoisie 260, 263 Boutron, Claude F. 255n49 Bowen, A. C. 272n24 Bowman, Alan K. 252n42 Boyer, Carl 31, 42, 42n35, 45, 54n66, 199n96, 238n32, 359, 359n107, 388, 388n183, 388n184 Boyle, Robert Chymista scepticus chap. 1, prop. 2 168n95 Bozzi, Paolo 21n28 bracketing 281, 282n76 Brahe, Tycho 284 brain 144, 233, 236

Bartholdi, Frdric-Auguste 207n11 Bartolo, Giovanni 345, 346 barulkos 99f barycenter 70, 185, 196, 314, 365, 366 baths, public 237, 257, 259 baubles 271 Bayerische Staatsbibliothek 347f beard 158 Beck, H. C. 271n12 Bede, the Venerable 267 Bedeutung 223 beer 261 bees 210, 236, 251 beetles 152 Beit Shean 229n81 Bellarmino, Roberto 380 Letter to P. A. Foscarini (in [Galileo: Opere], vol. XII, 171172) 380 Bellissima, Fabio 173n10 bellows 147n12, 255 Belopoeica see Ctesibius, Heron, Philo Benevento, battle of 52 Benevolo, Leonardo 207, 207n10 Bennett, Jim 377n160 Benoit, Fernand 115n80 Bernard of Chartres 332 Bernhardy, Gottfried 9n9 Bernoulli, Daniel 91 Bernoulli, Johann (17461807) 392 Berossus 249 Bettoni, Efrem 333n19 Bianchi Bandinelli, Ranuccio 59n14, 224n69 Bianchetti, Serena 113n68 Bianchi, Bandinelli Ranuccio 224n69 Bible 83n109, 248, 370, 374n155, 380 Biblioteca Marciana 78n89, 127f, 353n84 Biblioteca Vaticana 52 Bibliotheca Alexandrina 225f Bibliotheca historica see Diodorus Siculus biconvex lenses 331 bicycle 98, 111n55 Biezu nska-Maowist, Iza 262n86262n88 bifurcation theory 74 Bigelow, Mab 164n78 binocular vision 269 biology 77, 158165, 209 Bion 113n69 birds 159f, 180, 250 Bithynia 10, 249 Biton 110, 111, 247 Construction of war engines and catapults 111n56 Blank, D. L. 231n1, 232n2 Blessed Islands 285 blindness 212, 212n23, 235, 259

Braudel, Fernand catapult Braudel, Fernand 109n51 breathing see lung Brentano, Franz 394n204 Brill, A. A. 217n43 British Library 336n29 British Museum 124f, 343n52 Broglie, Louis Victor de 396, 396n207 broker 261 bronze 270n10 casting 210, 244n6, 335 pieces in 123, 124f, 128, 229, 234n11 Brown, Robert 23n33 Brownian motion see random motion Brun, Jean-Pierre 256f Bruno, Giordano 82n106 bucket chains and wheels 119, 120 rotating 23, 24 shaduf 119 Buda 229 building drawings of s 58, 59 technology 29n44, 66, 203, 245 buoyancy 73, 239n32, 383 burning 77, 168, 169, see also under mirrors Bywater, Ingram 308n158 Byzantium (and Constantinople) cultural exchanges with West 229n78, 332, 335, 344 fall of 344 Frankish sack 333 gunpowder 334n26 Hagia Sophia 329 manuscripts 52, 58n8, 322n226, 335, 338, 344 music 229, 229n79 renewed interest in science 329331 role in transmitting ancient science 7, 8, 229, 330n2, 342, 344, 389 sources 62, 222, 308, 309 works unknown in Alexandria 330 Cdiz 361n121 Cabeira 124, 248 Caelestia see Cleomedes Caelius Aurelianus 157, 158 Celeres vel acutae passiones I, pref. 45 145n8, 158n53 III, xii 108 157n48 Caesar, Caius Julius 234n14, 257 De bello alexandrino (spurious) v 205n4 Cajori, Florian 365n134, 367n137, 367n139, 370n144, 370n145, 375n156, 381n171a, 387n181 calamus scriptorius 144, 153

443

Calcagnini, Celio 338, 363 Quod caelum stet, terra moveatur 338n41 Calcidius Ad Timaeum ccxx 77n83 calculation aids and methods 4143, 91, 111, 191, 201, 385386 as fundamental tool of scientic method 17 of area 32, 65 of ratio 41n34 of volume 6, 72 calculus see under innitesimal Caligula 265f Callias 106n38 Callimachus 221, 224, 246 Coma Berenices (fr. 110 Pfeiffer) 78n92 epigram (in Anthologia graeca VII, 89) 316n192 Callimachus (physician) 155 Callippus 78 Callixenus 132 cam 131, 131n124, 133 Cambiano, Giuseppe 197n89 canalis facialis 342 canals 114, 205, 276 Candelone, Jean-Pierre 255n49 candle 77, 169 Caneba, Riccardo 4 Canfora, Luciano 234n14, 259n71 Canopic Road 204f capital 245, 260, 261, 263 Capocaccia, Donatella 4 Capra, Fritjof 397n208 Cardano, Gerolamo and C joints 110 Caria 248 Carnevale, Annarita 273n27 Carnot cycle 27 Carra de Vaux, Bernard 70n63, 332n13, 352n84 Cartesian coordinates 385 Carthage 14n20, 114n71, 233, 249, 266, 266n97 cartography see map Cartwright, David Edgar 360n115 Casini, Paolo 369n143, 370n146, 376n158 Cassini, Giacomo 310n172 Cassius Dionysius 249, 250n24 Casson, Lionel 112n60, 112n62, 115n78, 128n118, 262n88 Catalan Map 335 177n20, 212 catalepsis , catalog of stars see under Hipparchus; Ptolemy cataphract 115 catapult 106107, 109, 110, 111n55, 115, 187, 201n101, 244n6

444

catapult Cicero chord (of circle) 5354 chorobate 66 chorography 66 choroid 144 Chrisogono see Crisogono Christianity 165, 216, 259, 341, 356 fanatic 15 Chrysippus and Epictetus 283 combinatorics 281 dating 11 determinism 278 epistemology 212 fragments 8, 212n25 geometry 220, 220n55 grammar 222, 222n62 letter variables 219 mixtures 167 motion toward the center 288n96 paradoxes 184, 219 perception 223, 394 progress 212 propositional logic 219, 220 restoration of sight 212 works lost 8 on 191n69 Peri physiolog 167 chymeia, Chymista scepticus 168n95 Ciccotti, Giovanni 4 Cicero and Tyrannion 234n13 book copying 234 disorder 281 on Aristotle 234 on Chrysippus 212n24 on Posidonius 216 planetaria 82 shape of heavenly bodies 304n143 ship cargo 259 Stoic determinism 277 Ad Quintum fratrem III, vvi 234n16 De divinatione I, lvi 127 277n47 I, xxx 64 216n41 De nibus bonorum et malorum I, vi 17 289n97 De natura deorum II, xxxiv 88 82n105 II, xxxvii, 93 281n69 II, xlvi 117 304n143 De re publica I, xiv 22 82n103 VI, xvi 16 89n134 Pro Rabirio Postumo

air 109, 123 mathematics 111, 111n59 repeating 109, 110 repetition 136 torsion 107, 109 cataracts 212, 212n23, 236 Catastini, Laura 60n23 Cato the Elder 198 Catoptrica see Archimedes, Euclid, Heron of Alexandria catoptrics 57, 6063, 117, 186, 269, 331, 332, 353 Catullus poem 66:17 78n92 Cauchy, Augustin-Louis 388n184, 391, 394 causeways 203, 205, 207 Cavalieri, Bonaventura 118, 372 Lo specchio ustorio xxxii 118n88, 353 Celeres vel acutae passiones see Caelius cells 377 Celsus, A. Cornelius 151 De medicina I, proem, 2326 151n27 Centenillo 122f central perspective 60 Centre dtudes Alexandrines 205f, 211f, 225f centrifugal force 23, 24, 294, 296, 312, 314, 315, 371 centripetal force see also centrifugal in Newton 367, 369, 374f Ceos 143 Cerri, Giovanni 4, 197n88 Cesalpino, Andrea 342, 362 Peripateticarum quaestionum libri 342n46 III, question V 363n125 Quaestionum medicarum libri duo 342n46 Chalcedon 6, 143 Chaldeans 314n183, 370 chalkitis 255 chance 160, 161, 163n73, 278281 and determinism 278, 280 equated to the gods 278 chaos 279, 280, see also random motion Chaplin, Charles S. 263 charcoal 334n26 Cheiroballistra see Heron 167 , chemeia chemistry 19, 23, 137, 165170, 240, 255 origin of term 167 Cherniss, Harold F. 288n96, 290n105, 290n106 China 10, 44, 109, 131n124, 137, 334, 334n23, 389n188, 396 gunpowder 334n26 cholera 145

Cicero computation xiv, 3940 260n75 Topica i, 3 234n13 Tusculanae disputationes I, xxv 63 82n103 Cida (head of Library) 69n60 Cilicia 126, 203, 210n16 Cini, Marcello 4 circle 324, 326, see also motion circular as lines in spherical geometry 393 combinations of s 42n36, 51, 80, 9093, 295 denition of 321 drawing of 41 perfection of 92n140 postulates on 39 privileged role 40, 42 squaring of 42, 53, 53n62, 201, 201n101 theorems about 33, 47 circulatory system 144, 147, 342 circumference 321, see also circle circumnavigation 69n59, 338n39 cisterns 205, 205f cities 203209 defense 107 economic role 245, 257260 parasite 257 rst appearance 29n44 civilization see under Hellenistic, medieval, etc. Clagett, Marshall 52n61, 292n114, 292n116, 352n80 classical mechanics see under mechanics classical period achievements of 28 cultural categories 225 economy 251, 253 equated with Greek civilization 22, 29, 92n140, 201, 202 fossils 161 its history better preserved 7 logic 197 mathematics see mathematics Hellenic medicine 143, 152 music 228 natural philosophy see under natural no conventionalism 152, 153 oral culture 196 philosophy 84, 202 science in see science, classical ships 115 supposed perfection of 5, 6, 221, 244 technological nds 98 technology 71, 198 inferior to ancient empires 28 Clavius, Christopher 353n84

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clay tablets see cuneiform Cleanthes 310 Clement IV 333n19 Clement of Alexandria Stromata V, ix 58 241n41 Cleomedes on Eratosthenes 68, 274, 275 on Pytheas 113n69 ratio between center and circle 87 rounding off 274n33 sphere of xed stars 89 Caelestia passages on p. 406 clepsydra 101102, see also water clock (inverted funnel) 76n77, 353n88 Clepsydra (nickname of a prostitute) 105 clinamen 278 clock 128, 334, 334n23, 343, see also time measurement, water clock Cnossos 271, 271n12 coal 169 120 cochlias, cogwheel see gear Cohen, Morris R. 15n23, 292n116 cold 177, 279 Collectio see Pappus colonies 207 color 270, 270n2, 270n6 as inessential feature 183 pigment manufacture 166, 259 colossal statues 61n26, 207, 207n11, 210, 337 Columbus, Christopher 69n59, 70, 338 Coma Berenices 78n92 Combach, Johann 377n163 combinatorics 281282 combustion see burning comedy 224, 228 comets 211, 316317, 341, 370, 372, 373 commensurability see incommensurability commentaries 14, 241, see also Pappus; Proclus; Simplicius Commentary on the Phenomena of Aratus and Eudoxus see Hipparchus In Arati commerce 248, 252, 253, 255, 257260, 263, 335n27 communicating vessels 73, 118n91, 131, 238n29 compass see ruler compass (magnetic) 389, 389n188 compilations 8, 14, 76, 131, 240, 249 complementarity 396 compound chemical 166, 167 statements 282n76 computation see calculation

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computers Ctesibius Corinth 14n20, 233, 234 cornea 144 Corpus Hermeticum XVI 5, 7 376n157 correspondence rules 17, 18, 19f, 30, 40, 58, 67, 68, 154, 156, 183, 366 Cos 115, 143, 144 cosine 54 cosmic dreams 215 cosmology 24, 77n84, 303, 341 Cotes, Roger 382 preface to Newtons Principia, 1713 381, 381n171a counting see under numbers Cousteau, Jacques 128n118 craftsmen 71, 165, 225n72, 245, 259, 263, see also techne 167, 167n92 crasis, Cratylus see Plato Crete 128 Crew, Henry 354n93 crib sheet 324 Crisogono, Federico 360, 390 De modo collegiandi et prognosticandi 360n111 Tractatus de occulta causa uxus et reuxus maris 360n111, 360n115 Critias 213n30 Crombie, Alistair C. 346n60, 349n70 cross-breeding 250 crossbow 107, 109, 336 crown of Hiero 6, 239n32 of Statue of Liberty 207n11 crucial experiment 196, 395 crusades 333 crystal 270 ball 138n143 crystallography 377 Ctesibius Alexandria 102, 246 attitudes toward 202, 245 automata 132 confutes Aristotle 78n89, 233 dating 11n11, 148 elasticity of air 77, 109 experimentation 78n91, 196, 366 Finley quote 245 founder of pneumatics 11, 76 Herons source 77, 133 hydrostatics 103n23 interaction with physicians 146, 147, 246 mechanics 96 metalworking 109 methodology 213 military technology 109, 132

computers 41, 42, 201 concrete (cement) 244n6 condescension toward Ancient science see under science Hellenistic conditional see implication cone 48n54, 59, 102, 265f, 310 conic s and optics 269, 331 diameter of 45n46, 201n99 mistaken for shape 310n171 projections 67 theorems on 200, 372n148 theory of s 11, 117, 200, 330, 353, 372, 373 Conica see Apollonius of Perga conjugation 221, 222 conjunction (grammar) 222n62 conjunction (logic) 282n76 conoid 310n171 Conon of Samos 78, 78n92, 200 consequentia mirabilis 173 conservation of mass 156, 168169 Constantine V 229n78 Constantinople see Byzantium Construction of war engines and catapults see Biton construction as part of demonstration 40n30, 185, 189 geometric 40, 45n46, 48, 53n62, 173, 185, 186n48, 382 of physical models 81, 82 constructivism 186, 186n48, 213, 320 consumer city 245, 257 continuous quantitites 34, 36, 39, 41, 45 contradiction see also paradox; proof found by Pythagoreans 35, 37, 397 conventionalism 43n37, 88, 152, 153, 179181, 181n34, 197, 213, 221, 222n60, 222n61, 223, 277, 283, 310, 383, 383n176, 395n205 conversio 82 conveyor belt 110, 111n55, 263, 336 Copernicus, Nicolaus 338341 and Aristarchus 7, 341, 363 and Hermetic writings 376n157 and Plutarch 341n42, 370 and Ptolemy 341 meaning of mathematics 379 on Hipparchus 241 sphere of xed stars 89n131 translation in modern terms 91n136 use of revolvo 311n177 De revolutionibus orbium caelestium 241, 241n42, 338 dedicatory 379 I, 9 341n42 copper 170, 255, 259

Ctesibius De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis organ 148, 228 Philos source 78n91 pneumatics 109, 133, 146 pump 123, 135, 136f sources on 76n80 valve 146, 147 water clock 102, 103n24, 145, 146, 354 works lost 52, 76, 77 Belopoeica 107n42 Commentarii 76, 78, 132 Demonstrations in pneumatics 76 cube root and doubling 48n54, 111, 201, 201n101 cultural distance 220, 264 forms, conscious creation of 213, 225 industry 207 nondeterminism 136 selection 209 cuneiform tablets 9, 14n21, 43, 92, 93, 131 curator aquarum 239 currus falcatus 138 curves 42, 386, see also conic Cuvier, Georges 162n67 cylinder see also piston refraction in 331n9 Cylon 241n41 Cyprus 10 Cyrenaics 10, 177n20 Cyrene 67, 191n69 Cyzicus 137 DAmico, Giovambattista see Amici De1vid Lajos 390n195a Dalmatia 344, 360, 362 dam building 30n47 dance 228 Dante Alighieri 341 Darius I 114n76 darkness (Vitruvius) 297 Darwin, Charles 391 The origin of species by means of natural selection preface, note 1 (3rd ed.) 161 Darwin, George H. 314, 314n182, 361, 361n120, 391 Dasypodius, Cunradus 322n226 Davis, Tenney L. 139n144 De anatomicis administrationibus see Galen De animae procreatione. . . see Plutarch De aquis urbis Romae see Frontinus De architectura see Vitruvius De caelo see Aristotle De causis procatarcticis see Galen De causis plantarum see Theophrastus

447

De communi mathematica scientia see Iamblichus De confusione linguarum see Philo of Alexandria De congressu eruditionis gratia see Philo of Alexandria De conoidibus et sphaeroidibus see Archimedes De corporibus uitantibus see Archimedes De defectu oraculorum see Plutarch De divinatione see Cicero De divina proportione 379n168 de Dominis, Marco Antonio and Galileo 364n131 missing link 390 optics experiments 345, 346n60 sentence and death 362 tides 361362 De radiis visus et lucis 345, 346, 346n60 Euripus, seu de uxu et reuxu maris 361 5 361n118 67 361n119 De experientia medica see Galen De experientia medica see Galen De fato see Alexander of Aphrodisias De uxu et reuxu aquae maris 360n112 De uxu et reuxu maris 360n110 De foetuum formatione see Galen De fraterno amore see Plutarch De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus 356n97 De generatione animalium see Aristotle De generatione et corruptione see Aristotle De historia philosopha see Galen De hypotheticis syllogismis see Boethius De ingeniis 336n29 De interpretatione see Aristotle De iride see Grosseteste De Iside et Osiride see Plutarch De lapidibus see Theophrastus De lineis insecabilibus see Aristotle De lineis spiralibus see Archimedes De locis in homine 152n28 De magnete. . . 389n187 De magnitudinibus et distantiis solis et lunae see Aristarchus De materia medica see Dioscorides De Mauro, Tullio 152, 153, 153n33 De mixtione see Alexander of Aphrodisias De modo collegiandi et prognosticandi 360n111 De motu circulari corporum caelestium see Cleomedes Caelestia De natura deorum see Cicero De nominatione partium hominum see Rufus De odoribus see under Theophrastus De partibus animalium see Aristotle De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis see Galen

448

De placitis philosophorum diagrams in ancient works Della Porta, Giambattista 126n117, 346, 346n61, 354, 389 Magia naturalis 346 Pneumaticorum libri tres 126 Delos 14n19 Demetrius (Ptolemaic ofcial) 260 Demetrius of Apamea 157 Demetrius Phalerius 139n146 Demetrius Polyorcetes 105 Demochares 139n146 democracy 28, 172, 173n9 Democritus atomism 22, 23 chance and determinism 277, 278 conventionalism 152, 153n32 dating 23n32 incommensurability 36n16 inertia 289, 289n97 light bodies 75, 75n75 primary qualities 23 fragments (in [FV], vol. II) 59A39 (14:35 15:5) 58 A37 (93:37 94:2) 23n34 A61 (100:36) 75n75 A68 (101:1116) 278n49 A68 ff. 277n45 A125 (112:2832) 23n31 Demonax 168, 169n99 demonstration see also proof origin of word 171, 171n2 semantic shift 171173 Demosthenes Philalethes 157, 212n23, 343n48 demultiplier see under gears reduction density 103n27, 279, 367 dentistry 156 Descartes, Ren 345, 348, 358359, 360n114, 369, 386, 392 homogeneity principle 359 sling 358 Dioptrica 348 Gomtrie 359, 359n105 Le monde, ou Le trait de la lumire 358 chapter 7 359n104 chapter 12 306n153 Description de lgypte 121 description versus denition 322 determinism 23, 277280, see also chance; teleology and chance 278, 280 Deutsches Archologisches Institut 176f diagnosis 145 diagonal, incommensurability of 3437, 39, 46 diagrams in ancient works see manuscripts illustrations

De placitis philosophorum see Plutarch De planorum aequilibriis see Archimedes De praesagitione ex pulsibus see Galen De primo frigido see Plutarch De prospectiva pingendi 59n21 De Pythiae oraculis see Plutarch De radiis visus et lucis see de Dominis De re publica see Cicero De re rustica see Varro De rebus bellicis 109 De rebus bellicis 139 xvii 139n147 De rerum natura see Lucretius De respiratione see Aristotle De revolutionibus orbium caelestium see Copernicus de Salvio, Alfonso 354n93 De sectione rationis see Apollonius De solertia animalium see Plutarch De somniorum interpretatione see under Artemidorus De speculis see under Heron De sphaera et cylindro see Archimedes De temperamentis see under Galen De usu partium see Galen De virtute magnetis see Pierre de Maricourt Tractatus De vita Caesarum see Suetonius declension 221, 222 decline see science regression of Dedekind, Julius and D cuts 46, 47, 47n50, 220, 394 deductive method see also hypothetico-deductive a feature of exact science 17 absent from certain Kuhnian paradigms 21 absent from empirical theories 20 absent from high school teaching 6n4 absent in Pythagoras time 3336 applied to obvious facts 33 under development in classical times 24 deferent 91 Denitions of terms in geometry see Heron denitions in Euclids Optics 149n17 innite regress 39, 182 Platonic vs. conventional see under conventionalism role of 39, 179182, 320, 326 versus descriptions 322 Degan, Ferdinando 4 Deipnosophistae see Athenaeus Delno, Federico 360 De uxu et reuxu aquae maris 360n112 deliratio 158

Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna dispersion (light) Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna 349n72 Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo see Galileo Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems see Galileo Dialogo Dialogue of ancient and modern music 349n72 Dialogues and mathematical demonstrations concerning two new sciences see Galileo Discorsi Diamond, James A. 229f Dicaearchus 67 fragment 110 (in [Wehrli], vol. I) 67n50 dichotomy 180 Dictionnaire philosophique 390n194 Diels, Hermann 75n75, 96n6, 110n54, 133, 163n73, 241n41 diet 145 Dietrich of Freiberg 345, 346n60 Tractatus de iride et de radialibus impressionibus 345n58 differential calculus see innitesimal equations 391 gear 130, 137, 334n25, 343, 344n55 difculties in the sources chronological 25n37, 33, 36n18 dubious editorial emendations 78n89, 82n106, 272n20, 287n92 lack of detail 282n75 likely misunderstanding 141, 148, 188, 270n6, 297299, 306n151, 308, 362, 363 likely truncation 323 mechanical corruption 73, 76, 97n12, 99f, 281n72, 289, 353n88 probable interpolations 35n12, 39n28, 39n29, 150n20, 161n61, 181n37, 269, 320326 Dijksterhuis, Eduard J. 38n26, 52n61, 70n61, 74, 74n72, 131, 131n125, 136, 244, 244n5 dilation of lungs 146 thermal 134, 135f, 279, 354 Dilke, Oswald A. W. 65n43 dimension control 45n47 Dinocrates 203 , 315, 315n187 dinos, din e, Dio Chrysostom (Dio of Prusa) 203, 258 Orationes xxxii, 36 258n69 xxxii, 40:15 203n3 Diocles of Magnesia 6263, 222n62, 269, 330 On burning mirrors 62n28, 269 34 (ed. Toomer) 62n30, 63n32, 117n86 Diodorus Cronus 219

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Diodorus Siculus Alexandria 252n39, 258 earths origin 310 earths shape 303 mines 266 ocean voyages 114 war machines 105106 water-screw 123 work partly lost 7n6 Bibliotheca historica 7, passages on p. 407 dioecete 260, 262 Diogenes Laertius 83n108 colors 270 earths shape 304n143, 310 on Agrippa 188 on Archytas 72 on Chrysippus 191n69 on Diocles 222n62 on divisions of philosophy 191 on Hippasus 241n41 on logic postulates 219n51 on Thales 113n66 on the Stoics 223n68 on waves 229n80 semantics 222 Vitae philosophorum passages on p. 407 Diogenes, Antonius see under Antonius Dion 229 Dionysidorus 236 Dionysius I of Syracuse 107 Dionysius Periegetes 309 Oikoumenes periegesis 309 lines 67 309n163 Dionysus 176f Dionysus Thrax 222, 222n64 Diophanes of Bithynia 249 Diophantus of Alexandria 14, 14n21, 15, 44, 322n226 and Herons Denitions 322n226 dating 323n230 Dioptra see Heron dioptra 66, 100, 101f, 103n24, 133, 133n137, 134, 189, 244n6, 272, 348 dating 272n24 272, 348 dioptrics or dioptrike, 271, 271n16 dioptron, Dioscorides Pedanius 255 De materia medica 165 Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze see Galileo Discours de la ve9rite9 des causes et effects des divers cours. . . 360n112 discrete see niteness disorder 281 dispersion (light) 270, 270n6, 345

450

dissection Einstein, Albert earth center of 236, 238, 287, 291, 293, 302 circumnavigation 69n59, 338n39 daily rotation 80, 80n101, 83, 84, 86, 89, 174, 178, 296, 311, 338, 363, 387 immobility of 24n35, 84, 174 revolution see heliocentrism shape of 67, 67n51, 75, 192, 309, 318 and gravity 303, 303n141 size of 7, 11, 6869, 236, 273277, 285, 338 whirlpool motion see under whirlpool Eastern Ocean 114n73 eccentrics 91, 192194 eclipse 69, 69n57, 130n122, 272n24 economic matters 14, 29, 76, 112, 128, 134, 163n69, 165, 206, 207n9, 234, 243267, 383n176, see also agriculture; capital; industry Ecphantus (Pythagorean) 83, 87n121 Edelstein, Ludwig 211n18 Edfou papyrus 8 246n11, 247f education see teaching egg incubators 250 Egypt 390, see also Alexandria agriculture 250252 and Rome 14, 205n5, 258, 260 Archimedes in 343n51 architecture 32 cradle of geometry 65 exports 252, 260 fossils 161 geography 275, 275n37, 276 Greeks in 2830, 33, 249 Hellenistic (Ptolemaic) 9, 10, 28, 30, 123, 137, 203207, 245, 250, 253n43, 260263, see also Alexandria industry 262 interest during Renaissance 363n126, 375, 391 land measurement 276, 276n43 legal status of land 261 magic 165, 166 marriage contracts 263 mathematics see under mathematics modern 121 origins as a state 30, 30n47 papyrus 248 Pharaoh-era 5, 98, 101, 114n76, 119, 123, 173n9, 200, 250, 275, see also ancient empires population 252 religion 165, 165n82, 262, 375 writing 197n91 , 216 eidolon Einstein, Albert 20n26, 85n119

dissection 143, 151, 156, 157, 335, 342 in vivo 151, 151n27, 156, 194n80 religious ban 151n23 distance measurements astronomical 66, 272n23, 356, 376 ballistic 107, 110, 111 geographic 66, 68, 273276, see also surveying reach of lighthouses 116 ships 33 diurnal inequality 313314, 361 Divinae institutiones see Lactantius divorce 263 Doctrina triangolorum 273n27 domes 329n2, 330n2, 335n27 Dominican Fathers 194n78 Dominis, Marco Antonio de see under de Domus aurea 61f Dondi, Jacopo 360, 360n115 De uxu et reuxu maris 360n110 Dositheus of Pelusius 62, 63, 63n32, 117n86, 373 doubling of the cube 201, 201n101 Drabkin, Israel E. 15n23, 292n116 Drachmann, Aage G. 76n81, 97n12, 97f, 98n14, 99f, 119f, 123n103 Dragmaticon philosophiae see William of Conches drainage 123n98, 252254, 266 Drake, Stillman 349n71 drawing 239, 383n173, 386, see also ruler and development of science 185 as computational aid 41, 42 of buildings 58, 59 of globe in perspective 60n22 dreams 214218, 228, 394 Dreyer, John Louis Emil 8586, 311n177, 384 Droysen, Johan 6, 6n1, 10, 10n10 Dryden, John 105n33 duality 396 Duhem, Pierre 390n193, 395, 395n205 Dunbabin, Katherine 176f duodenum 144, 144n2 Dure9, Claude 360 Discours de la ve9rite9 des causes et effects des divers cours. . . 360n112 dust, random motion of 23n33, 279 Dutens, Louis 389n192, 390n194 Dutka, Jacques 274n35 dyes 166, 255, 259 The Dying Gaul 226f Dyme 233n9 dynamics see mechanics ear 232n3

Eisagoge eis ta phainomena Escorial Eisagoge eis ta phainomena see Geminus elasticity 377 Eleatic school 172 electromagnetism 202 electrostatic machines 196 Elementa astronomiae see Geminus Eisagoge Elements see Euclid Elements of mechanics see Archimedes Elements of semiology 223 ellipse, elliptic 153n34, 180 mirror 331 orbits 357, 373 ellipsoid 180, 309, 310, 390n195 emeralds 271, 271n15 Empedocles 24, 163, 353n88 atmospheric pressure 75 conservation of mass 168n96 monstruous beings 163, 278 Physical poem 163n73 fragments passages on p. 407 Empereur, Jean-Yves 205n4, 211f, 225f empirical 366 observations role in theory formation 24, 25, 153, 154 versus experiments 24 science 151, 152, 155, 160, 165, 169, 170, 194, 213, 221, 249251 tests 186, 194, 196, see also experimental method Empiricists 155, see also Sextus Empiricus Enchiridion see Epictetus Encyclopaedia Britannica 55n68, 69n57, 88n126, 336n32 energy see power kinetic (early use of word) 351n79 Engel, Friedrich 392n199 engineering 107, 199, 203207, 247, 249, 280, see also machines; measurement; military; ship building; water large-scale 30, 32, 114, 203, 210, 252, 276 people 96, 106, 106n38, 111, 210, 239 engraving 271, 271n15 Enlightenment 389 Ennius (glassware maker) 253 Ennius (Quintus) 281 Enriques, Federigo 15n23, 244n4, 289n97, 384n179 Ensslin, Wilhelm 334n26 enthymeme 172 entropy 17 214 enypnion, eolipile 126, 128f Ephesus 210 Epictetus 283 Enchiridion

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xlix 283n78 Epicurus 278, 278n54, 279, 310 atomic motion 279 Letter to Herodotus lines 4344 279n65 lines 4953 177n20 Letter to Pythocles 189n61 Principal doctrines 213n29 epicycle 90, 91, 91n135, 91n137, 92, 192194, 232, 284, 295, 341, 358 epididymis 144 epidosis, 211 epigram 224 epist em e, 186, 187 epistemology 176, 177, 188, 212, 222n61, 232, 382, 394 Epistola de secretis operibus see Bacon Epistulae ad Lucilium see Seneca Epitome astronomiae copernicanae see Kepler Epstein, Henri 4 equants 91 equation 41n34, 386, 391 equilibrium hydrostatic 73n70, 74, 74f, 175 mechanical 27 thermodynamic 27 equinox 79, 315 Erasistratus of Ceos 143, 144, 146, 156, 157n50, 169, 195, 195n85, 248 fragments 156n44 erasure of Hellenistic culture 69, 218n46, 221, 389, see also science Hellenistic condescension toward Eratosthenes Batavus 273n27 Eratosthenes of Cyrene and Pytheas 114 cube roots 111 earths size 11, 6870, 236, 273277, 285, 338 fossils 161, 163 fragments not collected 9n9 head of Library 11, 246, 276 maps 67, 273, 275 new stadium 277 philology 221 seismic phenomena 303n141 source for Pliny 308n157 tides 305, 306 zero of longitudes 285 On means 275 On the measurement of the earth 68n54, 274 Eresus 159 erotic dreams 216 Erythrean Sea 313, 313n180, 361, 361n121 escapement 334, 334n23 Escorial 353n84

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Esperienze intorno alla generazione deglinsetti Eutocius of Ascalon and Herons Denitions 322326 Arabic translation 331 as fundamental textbook 7, 47, 201, 327, 327n247 Heath edition 38n25, 39n29, 46 logical unity of 49 manuscripts 15n22 mistake in 184 model for non-Euclidean geometry 393 more than a collection of theorems 48 notion of point 181 probable interpolations 35n12, 39n28, 39n29, 320326 prototype for spherical geometry 55 Theons redaction 15, 320n215 Viviani edition 350n75 Optics 15, 57, 57n1, 5860, 60n22, 148, 149, 183, 185, 189, 269, 384 manuscripts 15n22, 232n4 Theons redaction 232 denition 1 149n17, 150n20 denition 3 149n17 denition 7 149n17 proposition 1 149n17, 384 proposition 3 149n17 proposition 6 59n20 proposition 51 84n111, 178n24, 187n56 Optics preface (spurious; in [Euclid: OO], vol. VII) 232 146148 149n19 150 232n3 Euclidean geometry see geometry, Euclidean Eudemus of Rhodes History of geometry 33 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A20 (79:819) 33n7, 33n9, 66n44 Eudoxus of Cnidus 29, 38, 48n54, 78, 79, 90, 232, 248, 282, 284, 338, 343n54 Eudoxus of Cyzicus 113 Euergetes II (Ptolemy VIII) 11, 14, 14n19, 69n60, 113n67, 233 Euhemerus 213 Euripides 298 Euripus, seu de uxu et reuxu see de Dominis Eusebius Praeparatio evangelica I, vii = [DG], 579:720 304n145 XIV, xix 1 177n20 Eustathius of Thessalonica 309 In Homeri Iliadem vi, 446 309n162 320n212, 320n214, 324 eutheia, Eutocius of Ascalon 111n59, 329, 329n2, 330 In Archimedis sphaeram et cylindrum (in [Archimedes/Mugler], vol. IV)

Esperienze intorno alla generazione deglinsetti 164n78 Essai philosophique sur les probabilits 277 essentialism 179, 180, 320, 321, 326, 327, 368n140, see also conventionalism; denitions role Estienne, Henri 3 ether 77n84, 85n119, 192 Ethicus the astronomer 138 Ethiopia 203, 275n37 Euclid and Hilbert 394n203 Arabic translations 333 attitude toward applications 199 attitudes toward 202 bibliography 38n25 commentators 325, see also Pappus, Proclus, an-Nair z constructivism 40, 181, 185, 186, 186n48, 320, 382 conventionalism 181, 185, 320 hypothetico-deductive method 39, 220 ignorance about his life 7 in Alexandria 11, 246 in early modern age 350, 367, 368, 371, 380, 388 in Thesaurus Linguae Grecae 325n241 innity 44, 45 methodology 178 model of rigor 394 modernity 144 notion of point 181 optics 117n86, 148, 149, 149n18, 177, 232, 269, 384 originality of 38, 39, 4849 postulates 39, 40, 49, 174, 182, 185, 189n59, 392 ratio and proportion see under ratio recovery of 220 relative motion 84, 178, 187, 318 removal from historical context 6 scholia 36n18, 63n37, 282n74 semeion 181, 299, 320n212 study of triangles 51, 55 supposed Platonism 326327 theorem on the innity of primes 44 Catoptrica (spurious) 57n1 scholia (in [Euclid: OO], vol. VII) 348, sch. 7 63n37 Data scholia (in [Euclid: OO], vol. VI) 290 282n74 Elements 40, 63n37, 148, 185, 189, 235, 320n215, 322, 322n226, 323, 367, 368, 371, 386n180, 392n198, 393, passages on p. 407

Eutocius of Ascalon Franks 6264 72n67 6469 111n59 8889 329n1 62:14 329n2 Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria 259n71 evanescents 387 even and odd 35n12, 35n13, 35n15, 48 evil eye 183 evolution see mutability; natural selection exact science see under science exercises in scientic theories 17, 18, 38, 48, 75, 197, 371, 372 exhaustion, method of 4955, 350, 371, 388 as precursor of integral calculus 55, 55n68 existimatio 177n22 experimental method 17, 20, 24, 64, 111, 152154, 156, 187, 194197, 202, 202n102, 213, 251n31, 257n61, 270n2, 275, 280, 345, 346n60, 349n70, 350355, 366, 381 Hellenistic compared to modern 196 exponential function 47n49 growth 264 notation 43, 386 exports see commerce Expositio rerum mathematicarum see Theon of Smyrna eye 144, 148, 156, 157, 178, 212, 212n23, 232n3, 235, 236 as source of visual ray 183 fabrics 259, 331 Fabulae see Hyginus facere pedem 112 factories see industry Factorum et dictorum. . . libri see Valerius Maximus fall see motion under gravity Fallopian tubes 144 Fallopius, Gabriel 342 fanaticism, religious 15 Farrington, Benjamin 15n23 fathom 273n28 Fayyum 271 Fedeli, Paolo 234n15 feedback mechanism 103, 131, 133 feelings (Cyrenaics) 177n20 Feldhaus, Franz M. 123n101 Feltrinelli (publisher) 4 Ferrara 338 ferrum sericum 137 fetus 154 fever 145 gurative numbers 35n13 nalism see teleology

453

niteness see also innity of line segments 34, 36 Finley, Moses I. 239n37, 244, 244n6, 245n7, 257, 257n60257n62, 258, 260, 261n79261n82 rearms 107, 109 sh, shing 159f, 210, 250n24 shbone perspective 60 xed stars see under stars Flacelire, R. 290n106 ax 259, 261 oat valve 103, 104f oating bodies 74 uids see hydrostatics; pneumatics ying machines 138 focus 117n86, 118, 330n6, 354 origin of word 61 Folkerts, Menso 235n17 287, 288, 291 fora, Forbes, Robert James 95n2, 125n108, 131n128, 250, 250n27 force 20, 290, 366369, 377, 379, 383, see also centrifugal and inertia 289, 352, 367, see also motion according to nature in Aristotle 25 multiplication of see mechanical advantage Newtons denition 367 foreshadowing of modern results see precursors formalism 184 Forster, Edward Morgan 206f fortications 107, 110 Foscarini, Paolo Antonio 380 fossils 161163, 336, 342n45 fountain 126, 135, 136, 136f, 196, 336 Fourier series 42n36, 91 Fourier, Joseph 391 fourth proportional 41n34 Fowler, David H. 34n10 Fracastoro, Girolamo 338, 343, 346 Homocentrica sive de stellis II, viii 343n54 III, xxiii 343n54 fraction see proportion Fragmentum mathematicum Bobiense (in [MGM], 8792) 88:812 62n29 Francesco di Giorgio Martini 336337 Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare 336 Franchi, Saverio 228, 228n75 Franciosi, Filippo 4 Franks 229n78, 333

454

Fraser, Peter Marshall Galilei, Galileo De foetuum formatione v, 678679 (ed. Khn, vol. IV) 154n36 De historia philosopha (spurious) 146, 216 lxxxviii 306n152 ciii, 317318 (ed. Khn) 146n11 cvi 216n39, 217 De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis I, x 34 144n6 VIII, iii 222n62 De praesagitione ex pulsibus II, iii, 278 (ed. Khn, vol. IX) 154n37 De temperamentis III, ii 62n27 De usu partium (ed. Helmreich) I, iii, 4 (vol. I) 163n71 IX, vi, 19 (vol. II) 150n22 In Hippocratis prognosticum I, comment. I.4, 204205 (ed. Heeg) 155n42 Galilei, Galileo 349355 and Archimedes 350, 380, 388 and de Dominis 362, 364 and Heron 352 astronomy 346, 354 church and Inquisition 82n106, 363n129, 364n131, 380 conscious recovery of Hellenistic science 350, 389 contrasted with Greeks 104 earths size 70, 276 experimental method 111, 196, 345, 351 free fall 351, 352n80 heliocentrism 365, 366 hydrostatics 351, 352 inertia 352 methodology 355 on natural motion 287 patent 353n85 ratio and proportion 181, 350351 rejects mysticism, gravitation 357, 370 relativity 85n119, 382 role models 350, 380 state support 200 telescope 346 thermal dilation 354, 354n92 tides 363365 De motu (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. I) 319320 351, 351n76 299 352, 352n81 Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. XIX) fourth day 363 415 364n131 486 364n130 Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze 349, 350n75, 352

Fraser, Peter Marshall 6n2, 11n11, 11n16, 14n19, 96n796n9, 116n85, 198, 198n92, 199n93, 213n31, 252n39, 259n72259n74 Frede, Michael 175n18 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor 52 free fall see motion under gravity Frege, Gottlob 221, 221n56, 222224 French Academy 273n28, 276 frescoes 5860, 60n24 Freud, Sigmund 198, 214218, 391 Die Traumdeutung chapter 2 217n44, 217n45 chapter 3 217n43 Vorlesungen zur Einfhrung in die Psychoanalyse lecture 5 217n45 friction 289, 351n79, 352 Friedlein, Gottfried 33n7 Fritz, Kurt von 35n14 Fromond, Libert 389 Frontinus, Sextus Julius 239 De aquis urbis Romae I 2563 239n35 II 96 239n37 II 118 239n37 fulling 258 Fusco, Giovanni 4 Galen (Claudius Galenus) Arabic translations 333 authority in Arabic eyes 331 dating 14 in relation to heyday 143, 154, 155, 158, 194, 215, 231, 237, 318 on Archimedes and burning mirrors 62 on Chrysippus 222n62 on experimentation 154, 154n38 on hands and intelligence 163n71 on heart valves 144n6 on Herophilus 154, 155, 177, 177n22, 188, 318 supersession 342 versus Herophilus 342 An in arteriis natura sanguis contineatur (ed. Albrecht) viii, 18 147n12a De anatomicis administrationibus IX, i, 712 (ed. Khn, vol. II) 150n22 IX, ix, 89 (ed. Simon) 144n5 De causis procatarcticis xiii 162 155n40 xvi 197 155n41 xvi 203204 188n58 De experientia medica xiii 6 154n35

Galilei, Galileo geometry (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. VIII) 6465 353n87 86 353n89 169170 355n96 213 354n93, 355n94 266267 350n73 La bilancetta 351 Sopra le denizioni delle proporzioni dEuclide (refs. to [Galileo: Opere], vol. VIII) 353 350n75 Galilei, Vincenzo Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna 349n72 Gallavotti, Carlo 3, 163n73, 168n96 Gallavotti, Giovanni 4, 91, 91n136 Gallucci, Giovanni Paulo Theatrum mundi et temporis 360n111 Galluzzi, Paolo 336n30 Gandol, Alberto 4 Garbrecht, Gnther 118n91, 208f Gardiner, Alan H. 32n5 Garofalo, Ivan 156n44, 156n45 gases 23, 279, 377 Gasquet, F. A. 333n19 Gaukroger, Stephen 359n104 Gaul 252 Gauss, Carl Friedrich 388n184, 392 Gaye, R. K. 25n38 309 g e, gears 72, 9798, 100, 103, 120, 129f, 130, 132, 133, 185, 244n6, 263, 332n15, 334n23, 335, 337, 343 on perpendicular planes 98, 120, 125 reduction (demultiplier) 98, 98n15, 99f, 131, 133, 334, 334n24, 336 Geer, Russel M. 106n34106n36 Geminus 58, 59, 87, 88 commentary on Posidonius 192 dioptra 272 Euclids fth postulate 392n198 geodesy 66 lines 324n237 mathematics and physics 192 on Chrysippus 220n55 optics 192 parts of mathematics 191 perspective 59n18 planetary motion 193 scenography 59, 61, 186 Eisagoge eis ta phainomena I 23 88n126 XVII 16 87n124 fragments in [Heron: OO], vol. IV 100:4 102:8 66n46 100:1718 272n21

455

102:48 59n18 102:19 104:8 192n74 104:912 186n49 106:14 108:9 61n26 106:1516 58n8 gems 103, 166, 271n15 Genoa 117 Gentili, Bruno 4, 228n73, 228n74, 271n17 geocentrism see heliocentrism geodesy 6566, 272, 276, 332 as part of mathematics 191 Geographiae informatio see Agathemerus Geography see Ptolemy, Strabo geography 6670, 276, 285, 306n150, 309, 310, 338, 361n121 as part of mathematics 191 in Renaissance 338 mathematical 55, 112, 113, 333, 335, 338 versus descriptive 66 modern rediscovery 67n49 Renaissance 67n49 geology 161 geometry see also construction; Euclid; mathematics; mechanics; theorem analytic 385, 400n209 and algebra 385 and astronomy 299, see under astronomy and earths measurement 68, 236, 273, 276 and logic 220 and mechanics 7273 and optics 58 and rhetoric 173 and the gurative arts 58 applications 239 applications of 111, 239, 332, 383n173 as a computational aid 41, 43, 201, see also ruler and compass as land measuring 65 classic problems in 42, 201, 201n101 differential 388n182 early Greek (Hellenic) 22, 3338, 172n4 essentialist denitions 320327 Euclidean 6, 17, 38, 40, 48, 183, 189, 201 how ic objects seen 179n28, 232 hyperbolic 393 hypothetico-deductive method 189 introduction of terminology 153n34 meaning of term 190n62 model of rigor 201, 394 non-Euclidean 55, 392394, see also geometry spherical pre-Greek 32 projective 88 Pythagorean see geometry early Greek

456

geometry hammer Hellenistic vs. Aristotelian 302 multiple centers 304, 341 not spherically symmetric 305 oscillatory motion 287, 288 quantitative law 372 reciprocity 306 toward astronomical bodies 303 Greek see also science, mathematics etc. s as ruling class 11, 29, 30, 207, 249 attitude toward science and technology 130, 198, 246, 265 boasting 236 diaspora 234 re 334n26 Greece yoked with Rome 28, 29, 199, 344 inuence on Rome 233, 234 interaction with ancient empires 2830 language 14, 20, 152, 179, 221222, 224n71 in Middle Ages 333 lacks word for broker 261 sources difcult to Romans 238 terminology borrowed 109, 125, 144, 166, 179, 196, 218, 279, 310, 319n205, 345, 348, 369 Green, Peter 6n2 Greene, Kevin 264n95 Greenwich 285 Grisogono see Crisogono Grmek, Mirko D. 195n85 groma 98 Grosseteste, Robert 196, 333, 346, 347 De iride (ed. Baur) 7374 347, 348n65 74 349n70 75 349n69 Grundlagen der Geometrie 394 Guillaume de Conches see William Gulick, Charles Burton 105n31 gunpowder 109, 333, 334 Gwilt, Joseph 297n130 Gymnasion (Alexandria) 205 gynecology 156 ar-Rash H arun d 331 Habsieger, Laurent 281n73 Hadrian (emperor) 259 Hagia Sophia 329 Halicarnassus 210 hall of fame 96 Halleux, Robert 170n103 Halley, Edmund 89, 316, 373, 376, 393n202 Apollonii Pergaei conicorum libri VIII 373n150 hammer 237 automatic 257n59, 336 throwing 314

spherical 55, 55n69, 113, 184n43, 273n27, 392393 structure of works on 186 teaching of see under education German scholars, role of 394 Geschichte des Hellenismus 6, 397 Geymonat, Ludovico 54n67, 239n32 Ghione, Franco 60n23 giants fossils attributed to 161 shoulders of 332 Gibbon, Edward 237, 237n27 Gibraltar 67 gigantomachia 161 Gilbert, William 389 De magnete. . . 389n187 Gille, Bertrand 123n101, 335n28, 337, 337n34, 337n35, 343n50, 389 Gillings, Richard 32n4 gimbals 334 gladiators 234n12 glass 138, 166, 169, 237, 244n6, 245, 253, 259, 270, 270n6, 270n10, 272n20 blowing 253 magnifying see lenses refraction in 64 glaucoma 158 globe 60n22, 345346, see also earth God 356, 358 gold 103, 253, 259 fake 166 purication 169 Goldstein, Bernard R. 272n24, 284n81 Golvin, Jean-Claude 204f good and evil 358 Goodchild, Richard George 117n87 Gorgias 173 Gorgias see Plato Gould, Josiah B. 175n18, 212n25 gout 259 Govi, Gilberto 64n38 Graecarum affectionum curatio see Theodoret Graf, Sandro 4 grafting 250 grammar Greek 221223 Latin 222 Sanskrit 222n61 182, 320n212 gramm e, Grand Conglou 115 Grasshoff, Gerd 275n39, 282n77, 284, 284n85 gravity 287, 288f, 290, 291, 294, 302305, 369371, 390, see also planetary attraction and tides 305 between different bodies 306

Hanging Gardens Heron of Alexandria Hanging Gardens 210 Hannibal 169 Hardie, Robert P. 25n38 Harmonices enchiridion see Nicomachus harmony, celestial 356, 376 Harriot, Thomas 348 Harris, William V. 196n87 Harrison, John 369n143 Harvey, William 147n13, 342n46 Haskins, Charles Homer 332n16 heart 144, 146, see also pulse heat 135, 135f, 177, 237, 251, 279280 Heath, Thomas L. 34n10, 34n11, 35n13, 38n25, 39n29, 46, 47, 47n51, 66n45, 72n68, 83n107, 83n108, 130n122, 132n132, 149n18, 273n29, 296n124, 311n177, 320n213, 320n215, 320n216, 321n220, 323n230, 323n232, 372n148, 384, 384n179, 389n191, 392n198 Hebrew 333, 393n202 Hegetor (physician) 157n49 Heiberg, Johan Ludvig 8, 15n22, 15n23, 52, 72n68, 79n95, 130n122, 232n4, 321n220, 321n222, 322n226, 323n230, 384n179 Heine, Heinrich Eduard 47n50 Heisenberg, Werner 22, 22n29 helepolis see siege machines heliocentrism 11, 7985, 87, 88, 174, 178, 233, 286, 295, 297, 301303, 311315, 317, 338341, 363, 370, 372, 375, 380, 387, 389, 390n194 and absolute space 366 dynamical justication 296 when abandoned 80, 82, 85, 89 helix 97, 120 Hellenic mathematics see under mathematics Hellenistic see also art; mathematics; etc. atomism 23 boom in scientic theories 10, 22, 29 cities 66 contact between cultures 29 culture ignorance about 6, 9 unity of 146 women in 157 works on 6n2 denition of 10, 14 erasure see under erasure loss of sources see under loss prejudice of H. decadence 5, 10n10, 221, 230, 237n23a, 359 preservationist attitude 7 world view 83, 86, 105, 163, 177 Helmont see under van Helmont Henderson, Isobel 230n82230n84 Henry the Mariner 335

457

Heracles 162f Heraclides of Pontus 78, 83, 86, 87, 88n128, 168n94, 387 fragments in [Wehrli], vol. VII, 104117 83n107 Heraklion Archeological Museum (Crete) 271 Herculaneum 7, 321 Hereford Mappa Mundi 338 Hermetic writings 357, 372, 375, 375n157, see also Corpus Hermeticum Herodotus 65, 114n76, 171 Epicurus letter to 177n20 Historiae I, 1 171n1 II 109 65n41 II 158 114n76 Herodotus or Aetion 59n11 Heroicus see Philostratus Heron of Alexandria 169, 272n24, 391 Hs formula 131 algebra 44, 131, 359 and Diophantus 323n230 and Galileo 352, 354 architecture 329n2 area of triangle 131 commentators 329 conservation of mass 169 dating 14, 130, 130n122, 132n132, 133, 323n230 dioptra 66, 100, 103n24, 133, 133n137, 272, 285 elasticity of air 77 fountain 135, 136, 196, 336 friction 289, 352 gears 98n15, 99f, 186, 334n24 homogeneity principle 359 in relation to heyday 130137, 151, 215 in Renaissance 336337, 353n84 longitude determination 272n24 military technology 111, 132 notion of time 105 on Archimedes 52, 212 organ 136 original contributions 132 pneuma 77, 146n11 press 151, 253 pump 136 rediscovery in modern times 137 screw-making 97 steam engine 126, 346n61 syringe 146n12 thermoscope 135 toy devices 126, 131, 134, 137, 215, 336, 370 vacuum 77, 78n89

458

Heron of Alexandria Hipparchus of Nicaea respiratory system 144 Rufus testimonium 158 school of 156158, 215, 218 scientic method 156 sensations 177 terminology 150151, 153, 158, 197, 318 unknown today 6 versus Galen 342 works lost 143, 154n38 writings 216, 342, 343n48 herringbone perspective 60 Hesiod 278 Hesione 162f heureka 6 Hicetas of Syracuse 83, 87n121 Hierapolis 256 Hiero II of Syracuse 25, 115, 116, 239n32, 248 high water interval 305, 306n150, 308 Hilbert, David 184, 394, 394n203 Hill, Donald R. 103n26, 125n113, 332n12, 332n14 hill-building 203, 205 Hipparchus of Nicaea and Galileo 351n76 and Hippasus 241, 241n41, 319 and Pythagoreans 240 as Herons source 272n24 astronomical observations 194, 283, 316n191 attitude toward heliocentrism 89 attitudes toward 202, 212 catalogue of works 286 combinatorics 281, 282 contacts with Mesopotamia 291n109 dating 11, 79 dioptra 272n23, 272n24 distance to the moon 79, 272n23 dynamics and gravity 290293, 296, 296n124, 330, 330n5, 351, 373 gravity 376, see Hipparchus dynamics heliocentrism 317 in Rhodes 319 last major astronomer 82, 294, 351 longitude determination 69, 69n57, 272n24 lunar parallax 79n96, 290, 290n105 motion under gravity 292, 292n116, 293n117, 293n119, 316, 351 not fully known to Ptolemy 285 on Archimedes 79n93 on earths size 69 on Seleucus 314 optics 269, 269n1, 272, 272n23, 285, 293 planetary motion 79, 285, 286, 294, 296n126, 297, 318, 319 possible source for Heron 291n108 precession of equinoxes 79, 315, 316n190

water clocks 103, 103n25 water organ 229f wind organ 126 works little read today 336n31, 389 works lost 330n2 Automata 130, 133, 139, 388, passages on p. 409 Belopoeica 107n42, 111n57, 132 Catoptrica 8, 63, 63n36 Cheiroballistra 111n57 Commentary on Euclids Elements 320n215 De speculis (refs. to [Heron: OO], vol. II.1) iv, 324328 63n36 Denitiones 58n8, 131, 190n63, passages on p. 409 and Euclids Elements 322326 authorship 322n226, 323n230 Dioptra 65n43, 73n70, 100n17, 130n122, 133, 272n24, 291n108, passages on p. 409 Mechanica 70, 105, 133, 185, 289, 301, 352, 352n84, 353n84, 372, passages on p. 409 Peri kamarik on 329n2 Pneumatica 73n70, 76, 130, 133, 186, 292n114, 353n88, passages on p. 409 Herophilus of Chalcedon 143145 anatomy 143145, 152 and Aristotle 233 and music 148 as gospel 342 called a rationalist 154 circulatory system 144 conventionalism 153 dating 148 disciples 157, 212n23 dissection 151, 157 dreams 216218, 218n46 epistemology 212 experimental method 152, 194, 366 eye 144, 148, 149, 236 heart 146, 154, see also Herophilus pulse in Alexandria 11 in early modern age 342 interaction with scientists 146148, 151, 246 medicine 145 methodology 154156, 318 modernity 144, 151n27, 153 nervous system 144, 151n27, 196, 236 partial recovery 342 physiology 146, 148 pneuma 126n117, 146 precedence of phainomena 177 prognosis 155 pulse 195, 275, 318, 355, 355n95 relative motion 188, 318 reproductive system 144, 157

Hipparchus of Nicaea Iamblichus of Chalcis probable source for Plutarch 290 source for imperial writings 293, 296, 308n157 spherical triangle 273n27 star catalog 88, 88n130, 284, 284n85 star motion 88, 318, 373 translation in modern terms 91n136 works lost 282n77, 284n85 zero of longitudes 285 Catalogue of my own works 286 In Arati et Eudoxi Phainomena 79, 284n85 On bodies thrust down because of gravity 291 Hippasus of Metapontus 241, 241n41, 319 Hippias minor see Plato Hippias of Elis 42, 172 Hippocrates of Cos and Hippocratic corpus 143, 145, 157, 222n62 De locis in homine 152n28 Hippodamus of Miletus 66 Hippolytus 83n108 Refutatio contra omnes haereses, I, xiv 5 161n65 Historia Alexandri Magni II 38 139n145 Historia animalium see Aristotle Historia Augusta Firmus Saturninus Proculus et Bonosus VIII 57 259n70 Historia plantarum see Theophrastus Histories see Herodotus, Polybius historiography 28 of art 59, 61 of economics 244 of medicine 146 of philosophy 219, 292n114 of science 2, 5, 16, 20, 21, 42, 45, 53, 85, 95n3, 146, 161, 195, 342n45, 384, 394 of technology 28, 41, 95n3, 146, 244 History of geometry see Eudemus A History of technology 28n43, 41, 95n2, 100, 112n61, 117, 123n101, 125n108 Hodge, A. Trevor 118n89, 118n90, 208f, 239n36 Holmyard, Eric John 332n11 homeomeric 98, 323 Homer 152n28, 172, 221n58, 278, 309 scholia on 221, 221n58, 344 Iliad 221, 344 XX:146 162n67a Homocentrica sive de stellis 343n54 homogeneous magnitudes 45n47, 47n49, 51, 52, 359 homonyms 152n32 homosexuality 237 honey 251

459

Hong, Sungmin 255n49 Hooke, Robert 376 letter to Newton, January 6, 1680 376 hooks, atoms with 23 Hoppe, Edmund 272n22 Horace 233 Ars poetica 60 ff. 221n59 horizon, distance to 116n84 horoscope 284n82, see also astrology horse 20, 115, 215, 250 Hough, David 281 hour, duration of 102, 103, 104f House of the Faun 159f Hultsch, Friedrich 273n26, 274n35 Humphrey, John W. 95n1 Huxley, George Leonard 330n3 Huygens, Christiaan Dioptrica 348 hybrids see cross-breeding hydrant 78n90, 136f hydraulic civilizations 30n47 engineering see water technology organ etc. see under water Hydraulic and war machines 336 hydrostatics 7375, 238, 276, 383 ic pressure see under pressure and gravity 303 applications 75, 116, 118, 132, 134 as mathematics 202 as part of mathematics 191 conscious modeling 75, 175, 184 emergence of 27, 73 experimental apparatus 196, 335 hypothetico-deductive method 189 in Renaissance 335, 351 postulates 73, 175 pre-Archimedean 75 Hyginus 157 Fabulae, 274 157n46 Hypatia of Alexandria 15, 53n64, 157n47, 241 hyperbola and hyperboloid 153n34, 331 hypnagogic 214, 218, 218n47 48, 155n40, 174, 174n14, hypothesis, 186, 192, 193, see also postulate semantic shift 174, 381 hypothetico-deductive method 17, 24, 75, 153, 171, 172, 182, 183, 186, 196, 197, 201, 202, 350, 367, 368, 371, 396 rejection of 193, 381, 382 Hypotyposes astronomicarum positionum see Proclus Iamblichus of Chalcis 36n18, 77n83, 320

460

Iamblichus of Chalcis innity (Stoic thinking) 177n20 impressionism (ancient) 224 In Arati et Eudoxi Phainomena see Hipparchus In Aristotelis Analyticorum priorum librum I see Alexander of Aphrodisias In Aristotelis Meteora see Olympiodorus In Ciceronis somnium Scipionis see Macrobius In Platonis Cratylum see Proclus In Harmonica Ptolemaei see Porphyry In Hippocratis prognosticum see Galen In Homeri Iliadem see Eustathius In Nicomachi Arithmeticam introductionem see Iamblichus In Platonis rem publicam see Proclus In primum Elementorum librum commentarii see Proclus In Ptolemaei Harmonica see Porphyry inclined plane see ramp incommensurability 3437, 39, 46 incorporeal 232, 287n93, 351n79 The incredible things beyond Thule 114 incubators 250 India algebra 44 astronomy 53 petried cane 163n68 contacts with West 10, 113, 113n67 ora and fauna 158 grammar 222n61 immigrants in Alexandria 203 in Eratosthenes map 67 mysticism 396 positional system 43n39, 43n40, 385 role in transmitting ancient science 43n39, 53, 53n63, 54 trigonometry 54 Indian Ocean 113n67, 258, 305 induction, proof by 37n21 Indus Valley 30n47 Industrial Revolution 128, 131, 137, 244, 264 industry 137, 245, 253, 256260, 262, 331 matter-transformation 167, 255, 257n62 inertia 286, 288n95, 289, 290, 351n79, 352, 367, 367n138, 371, 387 inertial reference system 83n110 inference 219 innite regress see under denitions innitesimal calculus 55n68, 201, 371, 387, 388 innity actual 45n46 in Hellenistic mathematics 44 in pre-Hellenistic mathematics 39, 45n46 of prime numbers 44 of universe 8789, 89n132, 286, 304 points at 88

De communi mathematica scientia xxviii 232n5 In Nicomachi Arithmeticam introductionem (refs. to Pistelli edition) 11:5 320n217 1719 43n39 121 25n37 Theologoumena arithmeticae (attributed to) 240n39 Vita pythagorica xvii, 7578 241n40 xxvxxvi, 115119 25n37 Iannuzzi, Mario 4 Iberia see Spain ibn al-As, Amr (Emir) 259n71 ibn al-Haytham 331, 346n61, 348 al-mana z Optics (Kitab . ir) 331 VII, 83110 (ed. Rashed) 331n9 ibn an-Naf f s 147 . al-Q Sharh anun 147n13 . tashrh 332 ibn S na il f Resa l-hikmet 332n13 ibn Sahl 331, 348 al-h 331n10, 348n68 Kitab aqat . arr Iceland 114n73 illustrations in ancient works see manuscripts imperial period alchemy 170 Arabic transmission of works 331, 342 astronomy 69, 79, 284, 342 better documented 8, 143, 245 botany 165 conventionalism 395n205 denition 14 documents unreliable 15 essentialism 179, 320, 326 ltering of earlier works 7, 96, 154, 198, 388 geometry 392 growth during 253, 265 military technology 111 no grasp of theories 92n140, 284, 351n79 optics 64n39, 149 regression from earlier period 114, 154, 158, 194, 212, 215, 342 revival of science 231, 329 source of Greco-Roman idea 199, 344 teaching 324 technological nds 123, 229, 253, 255257, 265f wages 262n91 world view 7, 137, 232, 265 writings inuential in modern age 358, 370 impiety 82n106 implication 219, 282n76 impression see also perception

al-mana z inhomogeneous Kitab . ir inhomogeneous see homogeneous Inquisition 82n106, 362, 363n129, 364n131 inscriptions 9, 114n76, 128, 128n119, 224, 256 [OGIS], 135 14n19 insects 152, 251, 377 Institut de France 343n49 integers see under numbers interdisciplinary interactions 303 internal combustion engine 27, 256n53 The interpretation of dreams see Freud, Traumdeutung interpolations see under difculties in the sources Interpretation of dreams see Artemidorus De somniorum intertwining 281, 282n76 intestines 144 Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis 217n45 Introduction to the phenomena see Geminus Eisagoge inverted syphon see under syphon Inwood, Brad 76n77 Inwood, Stephen 377n160 Ionian school 22 Iraklio Archeological Museum (Crete) 271 Iran see Persia, 331n10 Iraq see Mesopotamia Irby-Massie, Georgia L. 15n23 Ireland 67 Ireland, Robert I. 139n147 Irigoin, Jean 152n28 iris 144 iron 252, 254, see also metal working irrationals 34, 148 origin of word 36n19 theory of 36, 47 irrigation 30n47, 123, 245, 332 Isidore of Miletus 329, 329n2, 330, 331 Islam see Arabs islands 203, see also Blessed; Pharos; Rhodes; Sicily; Thule Italy 332, see also Renaissance art 335n27 contact with Byzantium 335 Jacopo Angelo 338 Jammer, Max 20, 20n25, 169n99 Japan 109 jejunum 144, 144n2 jet propulsion 131, 135 jewelry 271 Jews 30n46, 165, 166, 203, 248, 259 Jockey of Artemisium 226f joints 110 Jona-Lasinio, Giovanni 4

461

Jones, Alexander 15n22, 60n22, 149n18 Jones, Horace Leonard 309, 310n165, 310n171 Jongman, Willem 257n63 Jordanus Nemorarius Liber de ratione ponderis 224227 (in [Moody, Clagett]) 292n114 Josephus, Flavius 116, 116n84, 260 Bellum judaicum II, xvi, 383 260n78 II, xvi, 385 252n40 IV, x, 613 116n83 Judaism see Jews Junge, Gustav 36n18 Jupiter 293 jurisdictionalism 362n122 Justinian 330 kabbalah 376n157 Kant, Immanuel 24 Karnak 101 289 kata physin, 177n20, 212 katalepsis , Kazarian, Maxime 281n73 Kepler, Johann 117, 355358, 388 dioptrics 348 laws 376, 377 methodology 356, 386, 392 mysticism 356 sources 357, 371 sphere of xed stars 89n131 suns action 377, 379 tides 356, 360 translation of Plutarchs De facie 357 Astronomia nova xxxvi 377n162 De fundamentis astrologiae certioribus 422 (in [Kepler: OO], vol. I) 356n97 Dioptrice, seu, demonstratio eorum qua visui accidunt 348n66 Epitome astronomiae copernicanae (refs. to [Kepler: OO], vol. VI) 310311 357n100 310 356n98 334 356n99 344 357n101 Somnium seu opus posthumum de astronomia lunari (refs. to in [Kepler: OO], vol. VIII) 61, note 202 360, 360n113 Keyser, Paul T. 15n23 kiln 138 , 287 kinesis e , 351n79 kinetic, kinetik Kisa, Anton 271n12 al-h see ibn Sahl Kitab aqat . arr al-mana z Kitab . ir see ibn al-Haytham, Optics

462

klima,

Leucippus s of geometric optics 57, 61, 63, 64f, 117n86, 273n27, 348, 349n70 s of hydrostatics 7, 73, 383 dynamic 352n80 inverse square 376377 Keplers s 376, 377 of conservation 71, 168 of gravity 372, 376 of inertia 288n95, 289, 289n97, 290n107, 305, 317, 351n79, 352, 367, 387 of levers 70 of nature 164, 319n205, 369, 382 lazy Susan 265f lead (metal) 123, 170, 253, 255 plating 115, 116n81 learning see teaching least common multiple 44n44 Lebanon 32n3 Leicester Codex 337 Lejeune, Albert 64n38, 270n2 223, 223n68, 232, 232n2 lekton, 150, 151 l enos, lens 138n143, 270, 272, 331334, 345346 Leo the Mathematician 52 Leonardo da Vinci 335337 access to vanished sources 343 architronito 343, 343n50 bronze casting 337 futuristic ideas 110, 139, 336, 343 knowledge about Archimedes 343, 343n51 study of Hellenistic sources 126, 335 telescope 343, 346 Codex Arundel (British Museum) 279b 343n52 Codex Ashburnham 2037 (ex codex B) 12b 343n51 Codex E of the Istitut de France 15b 343n53 Codex L of the Institut de France 2a 343n49 Codex Leicester 10r 337 Codex Madrid I folio 5 111n55 folio 10 111n55 Leptiminus 258 Lethbridge, Thomas Charles 112n61 Letter from Lysis to Hipparchus 241 Letter to Herodotus see Epicurus letters of the alphabet 299 combinations of 281, 282 use in diagrams 186 Leucippus 22, 23 fragments (in [FV], vol. II) A1 (70:26 71:5) 23n33

klima, 67 Kline, Morris 44, 45, 45n45, 388n185 Knorr, Wilbur R. 15n22, 34n10, 35n13, 35n15, 36n16, 37n20, 60n22, 322n226, 323n230 Knossos 271, 271n12 knowability 189 knowledge empirical versus scientic 19, 29, 3234, 65, 71 organization of 15, 152 representation of 222 120 kochlias, Koyr, Alexandre 103n28, 241n42, 351n76 krasis, 167, 167n92 Krause, Max 393n202 Kuhn, Thomas 21, 21n27, 341, 341n44 Lactantius Divinae institutiones I, ii 278n49 Lagrange, Joseph-Louis 20n26 Lambert, Johann Heinrich 392393 Die Theorie der Parallellinien 202 (in [Stckel, Engel]) 392n199 Lamprias 290, 293, 304 Lampsacus 11n12 Lamta 258 land ownership (Egypt) 261 land reclamation 245, 252 Lando, Sergei 281n73 landscaping 203 Lane, Edward William 252n41 language awareness of evolution 221 everyday 179, 180, 184, 186 shortcomings 39 study of 184, 221, 223, 233 Laplace, Pierre-Simon 24, 277 Lasserre, Franois 34n10 late Antiquity 8, 15, 44, 52, 53, 96, 115, 161, 256, 259, 302, 320, 325, 372, see also imperial period lateen sail 112n61, 244n6 Laterculi Alexandrini 96, 96n9 Latin empire in the East 333 grammar 222 translations into 235, 332 waning as lingua franca 391 latitude 60n22, 67, 113 Laurium 253 Lauter, Hans 203n1 Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent 168, 198 law (legal) 172, 173, 205, 213, 239

Leucippus lung B2 (81:36) 23n30 Leveau, Philippe 256n54 level see water level lever 70, 71, 196 levity 75n76, 287, 302, 303 Lewis, Michael J. T. 103n26, 118n90, 125, 125n111, 125n112, 132, 133n135, 257, 257n59 Leyden papyrus 166, 168, 169 Liber de ratione ponderis 292n114, see Jordanus Nemorarius Liberty, Statue of 207n11 library 234, 248, 335, 353n84, see also Alexandria Library at destruction of ies 234 rst public 241 oating 115 in temples 262 Pergamum 247, 248 rise of ies 7 Libya 248 Life of Apollonius of Tyana see Philostratus light and pneuma 77n84 as subject of modern optics 384 nature of 376 night ing 205 ray 57n2 lighthouse 118, 372, 390, see also Pharos lightning 237 limits 55, 289 line ambiguity in English term 320n212 and points 174, 182, 320, 322 as shortest path 324 denition 320, 323, 325, 326 drawing of 41, 182 in Vitruvius 298 innite 39 meanings of 320n212, 324 origin of notion 181 privileged role 40, 42 segment 17, 34, 36, 359 straight 320, 323, 325 postulates on 39 linen see ax Linnaeus, Carl 383n176 Lippi, Marco 4 literary genres and studies 221, 224 Litterae at Quintum fratrem see Cicero liver 143 Liverani, Mario 210n14 Lives see Plutarch Livy (Titus Livius) acetum 169, 254

463

siege of Syracuse 62, 233n8 Ab urbe condita libri 7 XXI, xxxvii 2 170n102 Ljubic, S. 362n122 Lloyd, Geoffrey E. R. 395n205 loans 261, 262 Lobachevskii, Nikolai Ivanovich 392 New principles of geometry 393 Loeb Classical Library 34n10, 59n11, 259n70, 288n96 logarithms 201, 385, 386, 386n180 logic 11, 172, 174, 184, 222, 233, 282n76 axiomatization of 220 early origins 172n9 propositional 219, 228, 240, 281, 394 theory of 218 36n19, 87, 172n9, 184, 378 logos, Lolli, Gabriele 4 Long, Anthony A. 219, 220n54, 222, 222n65, 223, 223n66a longitude 60n22, 67, 113n65, 272n24, 273, 285 loom see weaving Loria, Gino 34n10 loss of Hellenistic writings 7, 8, 52, 65, 70, 76, 77, 79, 89, 96, 137, 143, 163, 286, 330, 330n2, 388, see also selection of works in modern times 343, 352, 352n84, 388 lubrication 337 Lucian of Samosata 58, 114, 168 sponging as a techne 187 De parasito, sive artem esse parasiticam 187n52 Herodotus sive Aetion 46 59n11 Navigium 9 112n60 Vera historia 114 Vita Demonactis 39:26 168n98 Lucius Mummius 234, 234n11 Lucretius biology 163164 clinamen 278n54 colors 270 conservation of mass 168 difculty of Greek sources 238n31 free fall 351, 352n80 innite universe 87 perspective 59 random motion 23n33, 279 relative motion 84, 295 religion 213n30 De rerum natura 8, passages on p. 411 Lucullus 234n13 Lull, Raymond 389n187 lung 146, 146n12

464

lunisolar theory mathematics cost of 333n19 dispersion 333, 352, 353n84 ow into West 136, 335, 338, 342, 344, 362 illustrations in 44n44, 99f, 126, 127f, 186, 346, 347f map 12f, 13f, 67, 112, 113, 117, 273, 275, 285, 335, 338 Marcellinus 145 De Pulsibus (ed. Schne) xi 145n7 Marcellus, Marcus Claudius (conqueror of Syracuse) 82n103, 199n93, 233n8 Marcellus, Marcus Claudius (grandson of preceding) 82n103 Marinus of Tyre 69, 69n59, 276 marriage 263 Mars 90f, 319 Marsden, Eric William 107n40107n43, 107n45, 108f, 109n47109n49, 110n52, 110n54, 111n56111n58, 132, 132n130, 132n131 Marseilles see Massalia Martianus Cappella 275 De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae VI:598 275n41 Martin, Roland 207, 207n9 Martini, Francesco di Giorgio 336337 Marx, Karl 30n47 Mary the Jewess 157n47, 166 mass, conservation of see under conservation Massalia (Massilia) 10, 113115, 137, 266 material civilization 2, 125 Mates, Benson 219, 219n53 190, 231, 231n1 ema, math mathematics see also geometry; astronomy; mechanics; science and experiments 280 applications 111, 200, 383n173, see also geometry Arabic see under Arabs Chinese 44 crisis in foundations 37, 394n203 early Greek see mathematics Hellenic Egyptian (pre-Hellenistic) 3133, 173n9 essentialism 179, 179n28 Hellenic (pre-Hellenistic) 29, 31, 3339, 48n54, 172173, 181, 181n34 no primary sources 34n10 Hellenistic 3955, 7274, passim, see also mathematics Mesopotamian uniformity with physics 189 Indian 43n40, 44, 53, 54, 385 introduction of terminology 153 late Antiquity 14, 15, 44, 70, 240, 326 meanings of term 31, 189191, 202, 290, 379

lunisolar theory 306307, 314, 360361, 364 Lybians 203 Lyceum 246n12, 246n13 Lycophron (sophist) 213n29 Lysis of Tarentum 240, 241n41 Macchine idrauliche, di guerra, etc. 336n29 Macedonia 10, 115, 248 Mach, Ernest 70n61 machines see also under Archimedes; gear; military; time; water; weight agricultural 250, 251, 253 art of building 186 design and science of 71, 78n89, 97, 98, 106n38, 120, 185, 186, 212, 280, see also mechanics famous 96 fantastic 138 in medicine 157 industrial use 246 iron 251, 254 machine design 62, 63 reciprocating 257 Renaissance 337, 343 simple 27, 70, 72 size and shape 355n96 Macierowski, E. M. 200n98 Macrobius 319, 376 In Ciceronis somnium Scipionis 319n209 II, i 376n158 Magia naturalis 346 magic 138, 143, 165, 166, 215, 234, 240, 278n53, 357 lantern 138n143, 346n61 magnetism 361, 369, 389, 389n188 magnifying devices 271272 magnitudes see continuous quantities Mago (Carthaginian writer) 249, 250n24 Maier, Franz Georg 331n6 Malcolm, Noel 362n122 Malthus, Thomas 383n176 Mamiani, Maurizio 374n155, 375n155 Manetho 249 Manfredi, Valerio 114n71 Manilius 317 Astronomica I:867875 317n197 Manning, William H. 253n46 Mantias 157 Manual of harmonics see Nicomachus of Gerasa manuscripts see also Archimedes; difculties; Euclid; papyri 20th-century nds 62n28, 103n26, 331n10, 333

mathematics Middle Ages mechanical aids see under calculation Mesopotamian Hellenistic 14n21, 15n23, 43, 43n39, 43n42, 44, 53n63, 131, 359 pre-Hellenistic 15n23, 31, 33, 34, 43n37, 44, 173n9, 209, 385 modern 17, 37, 45, 48, 201n101, 280, 394, see also computers prehistoric 31, 32n3 pure 200 , 189 mathematik e matter conservation of see under conservation quantity of 367 Mattingly, David J. 253n44, 257n64, 258n66 Maula, Erkka 67n52 Mauro, Tullio De see under De Mausoleum 210 Mayor, Adrienne 161, 161n66, 162n67a, 162f McNicoll, Anthony 107n44107n46, 248n15 meaning 223, 223n68, 232 measurement see also earth; navigation; time; distance; area; volume instruments 98105, 332, 377 , 120 mechan e mechanical advantage 26, 27, 71, 97, 98, 139 Mechanical problems see Aristotle Mechanics Mechanics see Aristotle, Heron mechanics 7073 and progress 212 applications 9698, 110, 110n54, 112, 116, 125, 132, 134, 157 Archimedean 6, 20, 26, 27, 110, 371, 391 Aristotelian see under physics classical 16, 20, 27, 83n110, 195, 391 contrasted with experiment 111 deductive framework 202 dynamics 110, 286293, 295, 296, 304, 391 empirical 32, 71 uid see hydrostatics, pneumatics geometric formulations of 20n26 in Alexandria 11 measurements 195 motion under force 25 Newtonian 195, 366, 382 evolution into scientic theory 368 origin of name 186 prescientic observations 24 quantum 278, 396 relativistic see under relativity Renaissance 343 statics versus dynamics 26, 27 syllabus in 1579 353n84 uniform with mathematics 7273, 186, 191, 382

465

works on 70, 96, 110n54, 111 96 mechanikos , Medaglia, Silvio 82n106, 149n18, 150n20 medicaments 145, 167, 255, 259 medicine 143, 145, 156158, 195, 210, 212, 236, 239, 262, 331, 342 and exact science 147, 148, 157 as science 146, 151, 154 rational vs. empirical 155 memory 175n18 Memphis 165, 165n82 Mnage, Gilles 82n106 Menander 8 Mendes 166 Menelaus of Alexandria 55, 273n27, 393 Sphaerica 55, 393n202 I, proposition 11 393 Mengele, Josef 198 Meno see Plato mensores regii 275 mental block 244, 244n3 mental illness 145, 157, 158 Mercury 284, 297, 317 meridian see also earth size of; longitude reference 285 Mertens, Michle 165n80, 165n82, 166n85 mesolabe 111 Mesomedes 349n72 Mesopotamia 207, 359, see also ancient empires astronomy see under astronomy Greeks in 2830 Hellenistic 14n21, 43, 43n39, 43n42, 44, 53n63, 92, 93n143, 131, 137, 248, see also Seleucid state poor knowledge of 9 mathematics see under mathematics pre-Hellenistic 5, 30n47, 31, 34, 43n37, 119, 173n9, 200, 210, 385 seeder 250 metal technology 109, 123, 166, 244n6, 251, 254, 255, 258, 332, 337, 353, 353n86 Metaphysica see Aristotle, Theophrastus Meteora see Cleomedes Caelestia Meteorologica see Aristotle meteorology 160 The method see Archimedes Ad Eratosthenem methodus Meton (astronomer) 316n190 Metropolitan Museum of Art 227f microscope 196 Middle Ages Archimedes 52n61 Aristotle 191, 302 astronomy 86, 91

466

Middle Ages mutability of living beings motion of 90f, 130, 192, 286, 288f, 290, 295 Newton 369 phases 130, 306309, 356 shape of 303 More, Thomas 251 Utopia II, proem 251n30 Morrison, John S. 115n78 mosaic 58, 159f, 176f, 224n69, 225f Moschio (author of a book on the Syracusia) 115, 123n99 Moschus (mechanic) 96 Moses 166 motion see also under planetary; earth absolute and relative 24, 8386, 178, 188, 295, 304, 318, 365, 367, 382 according to and against nature 286, 287, 289, 302, 368, 369 atomic 279 circular 80, 85, 9092, 131n124, 193, 287289, 294, 295, 301, 370 laws of 366 linear 289, 298, 301, 358 notion of 213n28, see also Archimedes; Aristotle oscillatory 287, 288 quantity of 367 resistance to see friction synchronized 42 toward the center 288n96 true (in Newton) 367 under force 25, 286, 289, 352, 366 under gravity 287, 288f, 330, 351354, 372 acceleration in 291, 292n114 uniform 366 motorcycle 255n53 Motte, Andrew 365n134, 367n137, 367n139, 370n144, 370n145, 381n171a, 387n181 Mouseion 245, 246, 246n13, 250, 264, 266 Mugler, Charles 26n40, 38n26, 72n67, 72n68, 111n59, 329n1, 329n2 multiplication 45, 46, 91 Munro, Dana Carleton 332n16 Musatti, Cesare 214, 214n32, 214n33, 215, 215n35, 215n36, 218, 218n47, 218n49 Museum at Alexandria see Mouseion music 24n37, 148, 187, 190, 191, 228230, 239, 262n90, 281, 349, 379n168 early sense 228, 230 instruments 335, see also organ professionalization of 230 theory 228 as part of mathematics 191 Musuro, Marco 241n40 mutability of living beings 160, 163

contacts with Byzantium 229n78 early awakening 332334, 377, 389 essentialism 179 ltering of works 7, 8, 52, 137, 143 fossils 342n45 geography 66 gravity 390n193 in Islam 331335, 349n71 logic 173 medicine 158 memory of ancient technology 138, 272, 346 music 229n78, 229n79 prescientic status 7, 21, 67, 125, 137, 267 progress attributed to 131n124, 255, 346n60 technological regression 96, 109, 113, 117, 252n36, 271 telescope 272, 346, 347f migration 29n45 military technology 62, 63, 70, 105111, 115, 116, 132, 198, 238, 245, 247, 248, 280, 291, 335, 336, 336n29, 343 mill see under water; wind millers league 256 Millett, Paul 253n43 Milner, Nicholas P. 107n40 minerals 160, 255, see also mining minimalism 395 minimization 63, 64f, 251, 324, 348, 383, 391 mining 123n98, 251, 253, 255, 262, 266 Minnen, Peter van 262n92 mirrors 6163, 237, 270n10, 271, 346, see also catoptrics, reection art of building 186 burning 6163, 117n86, 330, 331, 336, 353, 372, 373 in dreams 215 parabolic 61, 63, 117, 117n86 missiles see ballistics missing links 390 Mithridates VI, King of Pontus 124, 248 167, 167n92 mixis, mixtures, types of 167 moats 107 modeling see scientic theories Modern Times 263 modernism 243, 244, 260 molecule 167 moles 168n95 Le monde, ou Le trait de la lumire see Descartes Monster of Troy 162f Moody, Ernest A. 292n114 moon see also eclipse; tides and eye disease (Pliny) 235 distance to 66, 79, 272n23

Mynas codex (Heron) non-Archimedean set Mynas codex (Heron) 99f Myron 96 mysticism 189, 356, 396 mythical creatures 162f Names of the parts of the human body see Rufus naming see terminology naphtha 334n26 Naples 31 Museo Archeologico Nazionale 62f, 159f Narducci, Emanuele 4 National Geographic Society 12f Natter, Johann Lorenz 271n14 natural names 152 philosophy 5, 28, 33, 34, 78, 84, 92n140, 165, 183, 191, 191n69, 192194, 202, 213, 326, 330n5, 341, 366, 368, 373, 380382, 387 contrasted with scientic theory 18, 2527, 34, 35, 37, 58, 78, 198, 355 selection 160, 163165, 178 Natural history see Pliny Naturales quaestiones see Seneca naturalism (art) 224 Nautical astrology 113n66 naval architecture, battles see ship navigation 112114, 285, 335, 338 instruments 113 Navigium see Lucian neap see spring tides Nemi 265f Nemorarius, Jordanus see Jordanus neo-Platonism 326, 330, 344, 356 neo-Pythagoreans 25n37, 36, 36n18, 240, 319, 356, 372, 376, 376n157 neologism see terminology introduction Nero 265n96, 271 nervous system 144, 151n27, 156, 196, 213, 233, 236 Netz, Reviel 72n68 Neugebauer, Otto 15n23, 32, 32n6, 33n8, 43n39, 44n43, 53n63, 81n101, 86, 86n120, 90f, 92n139, 93n142, 93n143, 113n64, 130n122, 131n126, 194, 194n79, 201n101, 209n13, 240n38, 273n29, 274n31, 284, 284n82, 284n84, 290n105, 311n177, 323n230, 341n43, 359, 359n108 New principles of geometry 393 Newton, Isaac 365377 ian mechanics see mechanics classical ian tower 390 absolute space 85n119, 365366 and de Dominis 345, 346n60, 362n123 and Hermetic writings 375n157 and Plutarch 369370

467

and Voltaire 390n194 apple 390 Aristotelian concepts 366, 367n138, 368, 382, 387 Ns bucket experiment 23 calculus 371 conics 372n148 Ns disk 270n2, 390n195 earths shape 390n195 force 366, 367, 368n140, 369 gravity 316, 371, 371n147, 372, 376, 390 hatred of Hooke 376 ideas given his name 390 innitesimals 387 laws of motion 366 little-known writings 374, 374n155, 375n155, 390 meaning of hypothesis 381 methodology 366, 367, 373, 386387, 392 optics 345, 376 Ns rings 376 sources 369, 373, 375, 375n157, 389 tides 364 true motion 367, 367n138, 382 view of science 380382 Classical scholia 369, 369n143, 370n146 De mundi systemate liber 370n145, 375, 375n156 Observations on the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse 374n155 Opticks 345 I, Part II, Prop. IX, Prob. IV 345n56 III, Part I, near end 381n172 Principia mathematica 365372, 377, 380 denitions 367, 368, 370n144 denitions, scholium 365n134, 367n137 I, Prop. I/Thm. I 374f I, Section I, after scholium to lemma XI 387n181 III, hypothesis I 366n136 III, proposition XI 366n136 III, regulae philosophandi 381 preface (Cotes) 381n171a scholium generale 381 Treatise on the Apocalypse 374n155 Nicaea 11 Nicomachus of Gerasa 240n39 Harmonices enchiridion (Manual of harmonics), 6 24n37 Nile 30, 65, 114n76, 205, 205n4, 252, 275n37 Ninus 224n71 Nix, Ludwig L. M. 70n63 nomarchs and nomes 276 nominalism see under conventionalsm non-Archimedean set 51, 88

468

nonobservable entities Oreus On spirals see Archimedes De lineis spiralibus On the cylindrical helix see Apollonius of Perga On the equilibrium of plane gures see Archimedes De planorum On the measurement of the earth see Eratosthenes On the nullity of magic see Bacon Epistola de secretis On the rainbow see Grosseteste De iride On the sizes and distances of the sun and moon see Aristarchus De magnitudinibus On the sphere and cylinder see Archimedes De sphaera On the theory of ebb and ow see under Stevin On the vacuum see Strato of Lampsacus 167, 168n95 oncos, Oneirocritica see Artemidorus De somniorum 214 oneiros, opera 349n72 ophthalmology see eye Oplontis 59n15 Oppian of Cilicia 210n16 57, 183 opsis, optical illusions 59 Optics see Euclid, Ptolemy, ibn al-Haytham optics 5765, 269272 and art 58, 225 and earths measurement 68, 276 Arabic 331 as model for vision 148150, 384 bad luck in its development 346 emergence of 27, 57 experiments, measurements 64, 195, 195n83 Hipparchus 293 Hooke 376 instruments 58, 66 meanings of term 57, 60, 384 memory of ancient technology 138n143 minimum principle 63, 391 origin of term 57, 186 primary data 177 reectors 117n86 Renaissance 336, 344349 scope of 57 subdivisions 57, 186 uniform with mathematics 58, 183, 186, 189191, 202, 382 57 optik e, optimization see minimization Opus maius see Bacon oral culture 196 Orationes see Dio Chrysostom orbit see comets; ellipse; motion circular; moon; planetary motion Oreus 233n9

organ (music) parchment organ (music) 7, 127f, 131n124, 133, 136, 228229, 229f, 238, 280n67 The origin of species by means of natural selection 161 Origine des de9couvertes attribue9es aux modernes 389n192 179, 322 oros, Orosius Adversus paganos VI, xiii 2 137n140 324 orth e, 43n39 ouden, Outer Sea 114n73 Outlines of Pyrrhonism see Sextus Empiricus ovaries 144 Ovio, Giuseppe 384, 384n177, 384n178 ovoid 310 ox 150, 151n23 Oxford 333, 348 Oxford History of Music 230 169 oxos, Oxyrhynchus see under papyri P an . ini 222n61 103n27 pachos, Pacioli, Luca 379n168 De divina proportione front page 379n168 paddle-wheel 125, 126, 136, 139n147, 336 Padua 346, 360 Pagli, Paolo 173n10 painting 5861, 62f, 96, 166, 224, 225, 379n168 paleontology 162 Palestine 10 palimpsest 52 Palladius 252 De re rustica VII 57 252n36 Palmer, R. E. 122f, 254f Paneion 205 Panofsky, Erwin 60n24 pantophobia 157 paper 259, 331 paper production, commerce 248, 259, 262 Pappus of Alexandria beehives 251 combinatorics 282n74 dreams 216n42 Heron extracts 352, 353n84 in early modern age 357, 359 on Archimedes 71, 199n94 on Eratosthenes 275n40 on Menelaus 273n27 perspective 60n22 planetaria 82

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works unknown to 330 Collectio 14, 70, 240, 282n74, passages on p. 412 papyri embargo 248 nds 79, 78n92, 96, 224n71, 251, 262, see also list below paper production 259, 262 perishability of 9 quoting Euclid 321 required for good drawings 43 strategic importance 248 use of zero 43n39 P. Anastasi I 32n5 P. Bremen 63 262n92 P. Cairo Zenon 59021 260n77 P. Cairo Zenon 59028 262n90 P. Edfou 8 246n11, 247f P. Halle 1, lines 84 ff. 205n6 P. Herculaneum 1061 321n219, 322 P. Holmiensis 166n86, 168 P. Leidensis X 166n86, 168, 169 P. Londinensis 137 (in Supplementum aristotelicum, vol. III.1) col. 21:2023 177n23 col. 28:46 29:15 147n12b col. 33:4451 156, 156n45 P. Michigan III, 143 321n218, 324n238 P. Oxyrhynchus 275 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 724 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 725 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 1214, II, 16 69n60 P. Oxyrhynchus 1668 262n91 P. Oxyrhynchus 2977 262n91 P. Revenue Laws, lines 3857 262n85 289 para physin, parabola vertex of segment 399 parabola (and paraboloid) 74, 74f, 75n74, 331, 335n27, 353, see also burning mirror; focus area of segment 4951 origin of term 153n34 theorems on 399402 tracer 329n2 vertex of segment 49, 49n57 paradigm (Kuhn) 21 paradoxes 34, 35, 37, 184, 219 Paradoxien des Unendlichen 383n176 parallax 79n96, 84, 84n113, 87, 290, 290n105 Parallel lives see Plutarch Vitae parallel of latitude 67 parallelogram rule 289, 301 parapsychology 15 parasite city 257 parchment 9, 248n19

470

Paris Philoponus, John Pharos 115117, 150, 204f, 205, 207, 210, 211f, 276 phenomenon see phainomenon Phidias 96 Philiscus of Thasus 251 Philiscus the Elder (painter) 228n72 Phillip II of Macedonia 107 Philo of Alexandria 326 De confusione linguarum II, 264 (ed. Wendland) 167n91 De congressu eruditionis gratia III, 102:1525 (ed. Wendl) 326n244 Philo of Byzantium 77n86, 119n93, 123n103 and Ariston 246n11 and Galileo 353, 354 as Herons source 133 attitudes toward 202 automata 132 conveyor belts 111 dating 11, 132n132 experiments 196 gimbals 334 Herons source 141 in Renaissance 336337 little read today 389 manuscript tradition 8, 76, 169 mechanics 96 military technology 109, 109n48, 110, 110n52, 111 on Ctesibius 132 on random errors 280 on theory and experiment 111, 187 syphon 353 thermoscope 134, 280, 346n61, 354n92 Automata 141, 388 Belopoeica 110, 290, passages on p. 412 Paraskeuastica 110 Pneumatica 76, 77, 78n91, 133, 169, 186, 246n11, 280, 334, passages on p. 412 authenticity 76n82, 78n90 Polyorcetica 110 Philo the Dialectician 219, 221 Philolaus 375, 377n161 fragments (in [FV], vol. I) A1a (298:2228) 241n41 B5 (408:710) 35n15 philology 221, 282, 344, 360n110, 394 Philonides (physician) 211n17 Philoponus, John 329, 330, 331n7, 351, 351n79, 352n80, 372 In Aristotelis Physicorum libros (in [CAG], vol. XVII) 642 351n79 683 351n77

Paris 333 Parmenides 67n51, 86, 198, 306 Parmenides see Plato parts of speech 221, 222n62 Pasch, Moritz 394 177n20 pathos, Patterson, Clair C. 255n49 Paulisa siddhanta 53 Paulus of Alexandria 53 Pauly, August Friedrich 15n23 Pausanias 237n23a Pax Romana 132, 266 Peano, Giuseppe 394 Peloponnesus 128 pendulum 273n28, 355n95 Pensieri naturali, metasici e matematici 363n128 Pepin the Short 229n78 perception 57, 58, 149, 175, 177, 177n20, 185, 188, 212, 223, 384, 394 ambiguous 176f, 188 origin of term 212n24 subjects active function 213 perfumery 138, 167, 210, 210n17, 211n17, 255, 259, 332 Perga 11 Pergamonmuseum (Berlin) 208f Pergamum 10, 66, 111, 118, 119n91, 128n118, 176f, 195, 208f, 226f, 234, 247, 248, 248n19, 249 on 191n69 Peri physiolog Perinthus 107 Peripatetic school 11n12, 190, 368 Peripateticarum quaestionum libri see Cesalpino persecution of 145144 B.C. 11, 221n57, 233, 290, 291, 296 Persia 10, 67, 106, 114n76, 203, 261, 330 perspective 58, 59, 59n14, 60, 60n22, 335, 335n27, 344, 379n168 angular (Panofsky) 60n24 central 60 origin of word 59n21 pestles, industrial 257 Petronius Satyricon ix 246n9 Petrus Peregrinus see Pierre de Maricourt Pettinato, Giovanni 272, 272n22 Pfeiffer, Rudolph 78n92, 221n57, 222n63 80, 80n100, 81n102, phainomena, 154, 175, 177, 185, 382 deducibility from postulates 178 distinct from phenomenon 176, 381 observer involvement 178 phantasia logik e, 223, 223n68 pharmacology 157, 165

Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica Plato Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica see Newton Principia philosophical studies 11, 172, 174, 177n20, 202, 219, 233, 234, 240, 330, see also natural philosophy Philostratus, Flavius 112n63 Heroicus i 2 112n63 Life of Apollonius of Tyana II, xxii 213n27 Philotas 246 Phocus of Samos 113n66 Phoenicia 10, 112n63 Phrygia 256 169 phtheir o, Physica et mystica 166 Physica see Aristotle physica, 191, 193, 194 physicians 145148, 151n23, 154n38, 155158, 164n78, 165, 168n94, 177, 210, 210n17, 212, 217, 318, 343, 362 physicists 47n49 (natural philosophers) 190n65, 191193 physics see also mechanics; hydraulics; etc. Aristotelian 21, 22, 25, 70, 202, 331, 352 as part of mathematics 189, 355 experiments 194 false concreteness 382 meanings of term 191194, 202, 380 overlooked 104n30, 202 physiology 11, 143, 148, 157, 194, 194n80, 233 and pneumatics 147 as science 146 experiments 156, 195 human 143 plant 160, 250 191 physis, pi ( ) 236 Picard, Jean 273n28 Piero della Francesca De prospectiva pingendi 59n21 Pierre de Maricourt 389 Tractatus de magnete 389n187 Pindar 281 pipes see also aqueduct, syphon heating 237 Piraeicus (painter) 228n72 Pisa, Tower of 331, 351 pisciculture see sh-farming piston and cylinder 109, 123, 126, 131, 135 plane -convex lenses 331 essentialist denition 320, 323 inclined see ramp planetarium 8082, 134n139, 319, 334

471

planetary attraction 294, 295 gender 284 motion 80, 81, 85, 9093, 174, 178, 192, 283286, 293, 296302, 341, 357, 368, 370, 372, 378, see also retrogression must not stop 294 nature of comets 316 spheres 90, 284, 338, 341, 343n54 Plato see also terminology Platonic nic solids 356 communicating vessels 73n70 conception of geometric objects 38 conception of universe 86 denition of line 326 demonstrations 37, 37n21, 171, 172 even and odd 35n15 founder of modern science 327n247 geometric arguments 37, 48, 49 heliocentrism (Newton) 375 incommensurability 35n14, 36, 36n16 innity 45n46 interest in 194, 240 light and optics 57, 57n2 mathematical essentialism 179n28, 232 naming of things 152, 179, 179n28 on Archytas 72n67 on art and science 186 oral and written culture 197 physics 202 predates scientic method 22 reminiscence 190n64 role of denitions 179, 179n27, 181n34 spheroid 180n32 use of term mathematics 190 Cratylus 152n29, 181n34 Gorgias 451ab 35n15 Hippias minor 172 369c 172n3 Meno 84e85b 37n22, 37f 86e87b 197n90 Parmenides 137e:34 57n3 149a:7c:3 37n21 Phaedo 241n41 Republic 172 VI, 507c508a 57n2 VI, 509c511a 38n24, 179n28 VI, 510c 48n55 X, 602c603a 58n4 Sophista 219c:2 190n62 Symposium

472

Plato Plutarch faithfulness 282 geometric entities 325, 326 grammar 222n62 gravity 286, 289, 291, 304, 341, 373 hands and intelligence 163n71 heat 279 in early modern age 341n42, 357, 363, 363n126, 369371 lunar parallax 79n96, 290 moons motion 286, 290, 293, 294 no grasp of theoretical entities 305n147, 370 ocean voyages 114 on Archimedes 25, 26, 26n39, 52, 71, 96, 199, 233n8 on Aristarchus 80, 82n106, 311, 311n177, 363 on Chrysippus 288n96 on Erasistratus 157n50 on mathematicians 190 on Seleucus 311, 363 pitch and frequency 229n80 planetary motion 312 random motion 279n57 relation to sources 231 rock outside universe 304 siege of Syracuse 62 sling analogy 286289, 294, 296, 309, 359, 369 technological warfare 105 thrust toward the center 287, 301 Adversus Colotem 1112B 279n59 De animae procreatione in Timaeo (in Moralia) 1015BC 278n55 1020F1021A 25n37 De defectu oraculorum (in Moralia) 424E425C 304n146 425CD 305n147 434AB 255n51 De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (in Moralia) 190, 286, 357, 371 921A 270n4 921D 79n96, 290n104, 290n105 923A 80n98, 82n106, 311n177, 390n194 923CD 287n92, 369n141 923EF 369n142 923F924C 287n93 924DF 304n142, 304n146 925E926B 291n112 933B 290n103 De fraterno amore (in Moralia) 478DE 163n71 486B 163n69 De Iside et Osiride (in Moralia) 363n126 358F359A 270n4 De placitis philosophorum (spurious) 362

175d:67 73n70 Theaetetus 147d 45n46 162e163a 172n4 184ab 181n34 Timaeus 33b 180n32 62c63e 302n140 81bc 38n23 88c:1 190n62 Platonicae quaestiones see Plutarch Pliny the Elder 59, 114n77, 236, 237, 319, 344 acetum 254 agricultural machinery 252 as science writer 237 astronomy 296, 297, 312, 372, 378 attitude toward science 235 bees 236, 236n22, 251 book translation 248n18 comets 317 eye 235 fossils 163n68 Hellenistic art 236n23a human sacrice 234n12 incubators 250n28 law of nature 319n205 lenses in medicine 270 looted treasure 234 on Eratosthenes 68, 277 on Hipparchus 88, 272n23, 296 on Nero 271n15 on Syene 275, 275n37 painting 157n47, 166, 228n72 press 151 size of the earth 236 stadium 273n26 sun 298, 357 tides 307, 314n185 unreliability 151 Naturalis historia 8, 297, 344, passages on p. 413 plumb line 66 Plutarch anthills 251n31 asbestos 255 astrophysicist 372n147 authorship of De placitis 362 binocular vision 269n1 chance 278 colors 270 combinatorics 281, 282 competition 163n69 disorder 281 earths motions 80, 82n106, 311, 311n177, 363

Plutarch Posidonius III, xvii 315n187, 362 V, xix 4 163n72 De primo frigido (in Moralia) 945F 279n63 De Pythiae oraculis (in Moralia) 398B399E 281n70 408F 325n242 De solertia animalium (in Moralia) 961A 175n19 968AB 251n31 De stoicorum repugnantiis (in Moralia) 1045BF 278n56 1047CE 281n72 1054B1055C 288n96 Platonicae quaestiones (in Moralia) 363n127 1003E 325n242 1003F 326n243 1006AB 229n80 1006C 88n127, 311n176, 311n177 1009B1011E 222n62 Quaestiones naturales (in Moralia) 914A 103n27, 279n62 919AB 279n63 Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (in Moralia) 718EF 72n67 722AB 279n57 732EF 281n71, 281n72, 282n75 Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (in Moralia) 625E626E 269n1 633C 157n50 677E 279n64 681A 183n42 691C692A 279n61 Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat (in Moralia) 24A 278n52 Vitae decem oratorium 833C 216n37 Vitae parallelae 199n93 Marcelli xiv 7 71n65 Marcelli xiv 8 26 Marcelli xv 13 105n33 Marcelli xvii 34 199n93 Sertorii viii 114n71 77, 126n117, 146, 250 pneuma, in human body 146n11 Pneumatica see Heron, Philo of Byzantium Pneumaticorum libri tres 126 pneumatics 7578 and physiology 147 and progress 212 applications 134, see also air catapult, organ, pump birth of 76, 389 experimental apparatus 8, 195, 335

473

Heron 132, 135f, 186 in Alexandria 11 in Renaissance 335, 336, 336n29 mirabilia 280n67 weapons 109, 187 Poebte, Marcel 205, 206n7 podiaion poieisthai, 112 poetry 190, 224 point 35, 174 denition 320, 322, 325, 326 notion of 181, 299, 326 polar circle 67 attening 310 ice cap 255 pack ice 114 political activity see laws, cities pollution 255, 255n53 Polybius bellows 255 chorography 66 Hannibal 169 on Herophilus 154 persecution of 145144 B.C. 11 self-propelled car 139 siege of Syracuse 62, 233n8 technological warfare 105 Historiae 7 VIII, vvii 105n32 XII, xiii 11 139n146 XII, xxv-d 155n39 XXI, xxviii 15 255n50 XXXI, xx 14n18 XXXIV, xiv 11n14 Polycletus 96, 280 polygon 251, 326 Pompeii 8n7, 59, 60, 62f, 159f, 257n63, 271 Pontus 10, 78, 83, 124, 248 Popper, Karl R. 163n70, 179, 179n27, 180, 180n29, 326327, 327n247 population growth and control 207, 252, 258 Porphyry 229n80 In Harmonica Ptolemaei commentarius, 119:13 120:7 (ed. Dring) 25n37 Porta see under Della Porta Porta, Giambattista della 354 Portugal 335, 338, see also Spain Posidonius Diodorus source 123n98 earths size, shape 274, 303n141, 309 geology 161 on dreams 216 on ocean voyages 113n67 planetarium 82 planetary motion 193

474

Posidonius Proclus press (wine, etc.) 97, 134, 150, 151, 244n6, 253, 262 pressure see also under pump atmospheric 75, 353n88 hydrostatic 7, 73, 73n70, 103n23, 104f, 118, 118n91 pipe see syphon inverted water organ 229 Price, Derek J. de Solla 98n14, 100n18, 102f, 103n24, 128n119, 129f, 130, 130n120, 130n121, 133n137, 332n15, 334, 334n25, 344n55 prime mover 191 primes see under numbers primitivism 95n2, 112, 243245, 257n58, 260, 264 Principal doctrines see Epicurus Principia mathematica see Newton principle see law; postulate printing 386 Priscian of Lydia 308, 330, 360 Solutiones ad Chosroem 308 (refs. to [Prician/Bywater]) 6976 308n158 72:1012 308n159 73:48 308n160 prism 270 Pro Rabirio Postumo see Cicero probability 278n53, 281 problem see also exercise as a form of theorem 40 classical s in geometry 42, 53 solving (pre-scientic) 32 within scientic theory 17 40, 185 probl ema, Proclus cause of views on Euclid 326, 327n247 Euclids fth postulate 392n198 neo-Platonist 326 on Apollonius 98, 181 on Archimedes 25, 26 on Chrysippus 220n55 on Eudemus 33 on Heron and Euclid 320n215 on nature of epicycles 232 on optics 60 on Pythagoras 36n18 parts of mathematics 191 shortest-line postulate 324 spurious proof in Euclid 320n215 use of constructions 185 Hypotyposes astronomicarum positionum 236:1517. 232n6 In Platonis Cratylum xvi, 5:25 (ed. Pasquali) 152n32

Plinys source 308, 308n157 tides 307, 308, 315, 319, 330, 361n121 Meteorologica 192 positional system 43, 43n37, 43n39, 43n40, 53, 201, 209, 209n13, 385 postulate see also under Archimedes; Aristarchus; Euclid etc. s of spherical geometry 55 as implicit denition 182, 184 in Euclidean optics 149n17 incompatible s 75, 184, 188 logic s 219 nonveriability of s 175, 177 role in hypothetico-deductive method 17, 39, 40, 49, 155, 173, 174, 189, 193, 380, 391 rejection of 193, 381 selection criteria 174175, 177, 178, 187, 188, 391 pot garland see bucket chains power animal 119, 120 solar see mirrors burning steam see under steam waste of 255n53 water 124125, 252, 332, 334, see also water mill; water wheel wind 125128, 332, see also wind mill Pre9aux, Claire 233, 233n7, 244, 244n2 Praeparatio evangelica see Eusebius Prager, Frank David 76n81, 76n82, 78n89, 123n103, 246n11, 280n67, 334n22, 336n29, 353n88, 389n190 Praxagoras of Cos 144 Praxiteles 96 pre-Socratics 2224, 75, 163, 191, 202, 304 precession of equinoxes 79, 315 precision instruments 103, 276 precursors of modern science 7, 54, 55, 161, 162, 167, 168n96, 215, 216, 218, 218n46, 224, 228, 389, 389n191 prejudice toward Ancient science see under science Hellenistic condescension premise see postulate premonition 214 preposition 222n62 prescientic see also science regression of; technology prescientic knowledge 5, 20, 83, 92n140, 168n96, 304 status of Middle Ages 7, 21, 67, 125, 137, 267 of Renaissance 338, 344, 392 of Rome 5, 67, 68, 235, 236 transition to science 44, 93 view of scientists 199 preservation of mass 168

Proclus pulse In Platonis Rem publicam II, 218:513 (ed. Kroll) 89n134 In primum Euclidis Elementorum librum commentarii (ed. Friedlein) 326, passages on p. 414 production, economic 137, 243, 245, 254, 257259, 332, 343, see also agriculture; industry prognosis, 155 progress awareness of 211, 212 not automatic 132n132, 212 progression arithmetic 65f geometric 50, 386 project-driven science 196, 213, 276 projections, cartographic 67 projector 138n143 211 prokop e, pronoun 222n62 proof ad hoc (in Plato) 37 by complete induction 37n21 by contradiction 35, 36, 50, 173 concluding formulas 40n30 denition of 39 inspiration for s 72 irrefutability 171, 172 of incommensurability 36 role in hypothetico-deductive method 17, 34, 39, 171, 173, 189 proportion see ratio proportional mean 41n34, 48n54, 72 proposition see logic propositional; problem; theorem , 155 prorrhesis Protagoras 173, 173n10 protractor 91 pruning 250 pseudo- see under putative author (Aristotle, Euclid, Galen, etc.) pseudoscience 240 psychoanalysis 214215 Ptolemaic dynasty 139n146, 195, 245, 246, 248, 252, 261, 262, 276, see also individual rulers below Ptolemy I Soter 10, 213, 225n72 Ptolemy II Philadelphus 10, 11n11, 114n76, 115, 132, 148, 246, 248, 250, 260, 262 Ptolemy IV Philopator 115, 157 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes see Euergetes II Ptolemy, Claudius 272n23 Arabic translations 333 astrolabe 113n64 astrology 215, 284

475

astronomical observations 283, 283f authority in Arabic eyes 331 colors and Newtons disk 270n2 commentaries on 15 dating 14 earths shape 318 earths size 69, 69n59, 276 epicycles 8992, 193 Euclids fth postulate 392n198 xed stars 86, 318 geography 67, 338 gravity 304, 341 in early modern age 341, 350 in relation to heyday 194, 269, 282286, 317319, 373 longitude-nding 67 male and female planets 284 methodological inconsistencies 284 on Hipparchus 212, 285, 286, 294, 315n189, 316n190, 316n191, 318, 319 on Marinus 69 parallax 87, 290n105 partial knowledge of Hipparchus 285, 296 period of Saturn 299n135 planetary motion 8993, 285, 286 refraction 64, 65, 270 relative motion 318 star catalog 88, 88n130, 89, 284 supersession 342 Thule 114n73 trigonometry 54 use of zero 43n39 view of universe 8284, 86, 89, 341, 366 zero of longitudes 285 Almagest 55, 79, 84, 88, 89, 190, 192, 240, 282, 284, 316, 317, 341, 373, passages on p. 414 Geographia 67, 113, 117, 338 I, iii 67n53 I, xi 69n59 VII, vivii 60n22 Optics 63, 269, 270, 285, 331, 348, 373, 389 partly lost 64n38, 65, 331n9 (refs. to Lejeune edition) II 96, 60:1119 270n2 III 59, 115:16 116:8 285n86 V 270n8 V 721, 227:1 237:7 64n40 V 2330, 237:20 242:7 64n39 Planetary hypotheses 284 8 (in [Ptolemy/Goldstein]) 284n81 Tetrabiblos 284 I 56 284n83 , 223 ptosis pulley 27, 70, 71, 196 pulse 145, 148, 154, 156, 157, 355

476

pump refraction Quaestionum convivalium libri see Plutarch Quaestionum medicarum libri duo 342n46 quantum mechanics 278, 396 Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Qus) 173 Institutio oratoria I, x 3738 173n11 I, x 49 173n12 Quod caelum stet, terra moveatur 338n41 Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat see Plutarch Rnyi, Alfred 278n53 Radicati, Luigi 4 Radiciotti, Paolo 4 Raimondo, Annibale 360 Trattato utilissimo e particolarissimo del usso e del riusso del mare 360n112 rainbow 270, 270n6, 345 ramp 70, 71, 352, 354 random events see chance motion 23, 23n33, 279 Rashed, Roshdi 331n8331n10, 346n59 ratio and proportion 41n34, 4647, 60, 111, 350, 376379, 379n168, 386n180, 387, 394 Euclids denition 47, 48, 181, 350 between center and circle 87 Euclids denition 4647 existence of see homogeneous magnitudes in heartbeats 148 Rawlins, Dennis 273n26, 275n42, 277n44, 317n198 ray see light ray; visual ray; triangle rays reading, modes of 228 reality, contradiction in 37, 396, 397 reals see under numbers Reconquest 332333 rectangle 45 Red Sea 113n67, 114, 258, 276, 313n180 Redi, Francesco 164n78, 196 Esperienze intorno alla generazione deglinsetti 164n78 reductio ad absurdum see proof by contradiction reduction gears see under gears reference (semantics) 223 reference system 83, 83n110, 84, 86, 188, 318 reection 57, 63, 272n21, 331n9, 347, 349, 391 law of 61, 64f reector 116 refraction 57, 6365, 347349, see also dispersion; lenses ambiguous Greek word 272n21 and dioptra 272

pump industrial use 253 pressure 78n90, 78n91, 124f, 134, 136, 136f, 187, 336, 337 invented by Ctesibius 78 vacuum 78n90, 196, 336, 337, 353 purple 166 Puteoli 259 pyramid (Egypt) 71, 210 volume of 32, 48n54 Pyrrhoneae hypotyposes see Sextus Empiricus Pythagoras and Pythagoreans see also neo-Pythagoreans acoustics and music 24n37, 229n80 and Hipparchus 240 and Newton 376, 377, 390 backdating of ideas 25n37, 3336, 36n18, 319, 376 comets 317 conception of universe 86, 87n121, 377n161 cosmic harmony 319, 376 deductive method misattributed to 3336 even and odd 35, 35n13, 35n15, 36 niteness of segments 34, 36 foundation of school 33 in late Antiquity 240 incommensurability 34, 36n18, 39, 397 mathematics 21, 191 meaning of mathematics 190 mutability of living beings 163 no proof by contradiction 36 no spontaneous generation 164n78 notion of point 174, 326 oriental and Egyptian inuence 29 philosophical goals 37 role of integers 35n13, 36 role of sun 319, 357 theorem see under theorem fragments in [FV], vol. I B1 (448:2324) 36n18 B9 (453:3944) 35n13 B10 (454:19) 35n13 Pytheas of Massalia 113, 113n69, 114, 114n73, 305, 306, 308n157 QED 40n30, 185 quadratic equation 41n34 function 64, 348 quadratrix of Hippias 42 Quadratura parabolae see Archimedes quadrature of circle 42, 53, 53n62, 201, 201n101 of parabola 4951

refraction Rufus Ephesius apparent size near horizon 285 law 273n27, 348349, 383 measurements 64, 65f, 195n82, 270n8 recovery of knowledge 346, 388 sources lost 270, 331n9 Refutatio contra omnes haereses see Hippolytus regression of science see under science Rehm, Albert 123n101, 286n91 relativity 382 cultural 220 Einsteinian 20n26, 27, 85n119 Galilean 85n119, 366 of motion see motion absolute and relative religion 15, 137, 143, 145, 151n23, 152, 161, 165, 166, 205, 216n38, 234n12, 240, 248, 261, 262, 334, 356358, 362n122, 375, 375n155, see also Christianity, theology invention of god Serapis 213 origin of 213, 213n30 reminiscence 190n64 Remmius Favinus 239n32 Remmius Palaemon 222n64 removal of Hellenistic culture see erasure Renaissance 5, 335344, see also under geography, optics, etc. Byzantine manuscripts 335 debate on perspective 59, 60n24 early European 333 gradual recovery of science 98, 335344 Islamic 331332 meaning of mathematics 379 Scientic 5, see also science modern use of Hermetic writings 375n157 view of Antiquity 344, 375 repeating weapons 109, 336 repression (Freudian) 6, 218n46, 391 of Hellenistic culture see erasure reproductive system 144, 157 Republic see Plato il f Resa l-hikmet see ibn S a n residues (psychoanalysis) 214 resonators 229, 234n11 respiratory system 144, 147 rest see motion retina 144, 149 retrogression (retrogradation) 80, 81n101, 81f, 83, 90f, 178, 293295, 311 is apparent only 295, 297 reversibility of optical paths 63, 117n86 revolvo 311n177 rhetoric 172173, 187, 190, 196 Rhodes 10 and Alexandria 259, 273 astronomy 11, 291, 296, 319

477

Colossus 207n11, 210 public engineer 106n38 state secrets 114, 116, 137 technological center 109, 338n37 wars 105, 106, 234 Riccioli, Giovanni Battista Almagestum novum 365n133 Richter, Jean Paul 343n49, 343n51343n53 Ridley, John 252n36 rigor 45, 49, 72, 199, 201, 383, 383n173, 388 in Hellenistic vs. early modern science 387 Rio Tinto 253, 254f, 266 Robertson, Martin 59n14 Rodier, Georges 75n75, 292n114 Roger Bacon 139 Romance of Alexander 139 Rome and Alexandria 203 and Egypt 260 attitude toward science and technology 109, 198, 199n93, 235239, 245, 246, 259, 265267 boundaries of empire 12f contemporary 139 cultural evolution 233 destructive role 11, 28, 233234, 264 economic crisis 260 expansionism 7, 11, 14, 62, 63, 82n103, 105 grammar 222 parasite city 257 prescientic status 5, 67, 68, 235, 236 role as transmitter 9, 58, see also Pliny; Seneca; Vitruvius technological inheritance 98, 256, 264266 Ronchi, Vasco 384n179 Room of the Masks 60, 61f root (square and cube) 34, 41n34, 48n54 Roseman, Christina Horst 113n68 Rosenfeld, Boris A. 54n65 Rostovtzeff, Michael I. 6n2, 9, 9n8, 113n67, 243, 243n1, 245, 249n21, 249n23, 251, 251n34, 260, 261n83, 261n84, 263n93, 276n43 Roxane (in painting by Aetion) 58 Roy, Archie 4 Royal Society (England) 245, 264 Rozenfeld see Rosenfeld Rudwick, Martin J. S. 161n66 Rufus Ephesius 148, 158, 318 De nominatione partium hominum (eds. Daremberg, Ruelle) 49, 139:810 158n51 133, 151:12 158n52 Synopsis de pulsibus (eds. Daremberg, Ruelle), iv, 223225 148n14

478

ruler and compass science science see also scientic theories and art 224 and historical studies 17, 20 and technology see technology scientic applied see technology scientic; scientic theories applicability of; science Hellenistic applications as a tool for extending reality 18, 21, see also technology scientic as marvel 235, 335 as shorthand for exact science 19 as theoretical modeling 16, 40, 75, 149, 155 birth of see scientic revolution characterization of 10, 1517, 21 classical (pre-Hellenistic) 5, 2126, 29, 3339, 75 empirical see under empirical end in late Antiquity 15, 170, 240241, see also science regression exact, denition of 18 Hellenistic 170, passim; see also mathematics, mechanics, etc. Alexandrian vs. Mesopotamian 291 applications 18, 26, 26n41, 30, 30n47, 58, 62, 65, 70, 75, 76, 95, 9798, 100103, 105112, 116137, 186, 198201, 207, 243267 condescension toward 20, 22, 41, 42, 45n45, 46, 47, 53, 54, 70n61, 75, 81n101, 86, 90, 91n135, 104, 131, 149, 167n93, 201, 202, 218n46, 222, 355 conjectural reconstructions 269 crisis and interruption 11, 14, 69, 79, 82, 133, 231241, 269, 283f debt to 5, 17, 27, 46, 47, 55, 67n49, 98, 100, 110, 113, 117, 126, 136, 137, 163, 168n95, 195, 218, 220, 221n58, 228, 244, 264, 304, 310, 334, 342391 distinctive characteristics 188 gradual recovery 335344, 391395 link to techn e 186 methodological unity 189 project-driven 196, 213 history of see historiography of science importance to history 2 Kuhns concept and ours 21 rate of development 16, 29n44, 100, 132n132, 209, 212, 220, 243, 244, 244n6, 250, 385386 rebirth see science modern regression 7, 8, 15, 86, 113, 132n132, 153, 158, 165, 170, 195, 220, 231241, 267, 271, 330 revival in imperial period 14, 69, 79 rigor

ruler and compass 4043, 48, 53, 91, 112, 185, 189, 201, 385 Russo, Antonio 362n122 Russo, Lucio 82n106, 149n18, 150n20, 287n92, 296n122, 296n125, 305n148, 311n173, 311n174, 315n188, 320n211, 360n109, 360n115, 379n167 Saccheri, Giovanni 392 sailing 68, 112, 244n6, see also navigation; ships to windward 112, 112n61 Saito, Ken 72n68 Sakellarakis, Y. A. 271n13, 271n14 sakiyeh 120, 121, 125, 136, 139n147 Salmon, John 257n64 Salomon de Caus 126 salt 261 saltpeter 334n26 Salvio, Alfonso de 354n93 Sambursky, Samuel 77n84, 104, 104n29, 104n30, 202, 202n102, 371n147 Samos 11, 78, 113n66 Samothrace 221 Sand reckoner see Archimedes Arenarius Sanskrit 222n61 Santillana, Giorgio de 15n23, 244n4, 289n97, 384n179 Sarjeant, William A. S. 161n66 Sarpi, Paolo 363, 364 Pensieri naturali, metasici e matematici 363n128 Sarton, George 15n23 Saturn 299n135 Saturnalia see Macrobius Satyra (cithar player) 262n90 Satyricon see Petronius Saussure, Ferdinand de 223 save the phainomena 80, 178, 187, 189, 192, 193, 279, 382 saw, hydraulic 256, 257n59, 334, 337 scenography 5861, 186, 225 Schiaparelli, Giovanni V. 91, 91n135, 284n79, 311n177 Schmandt-Besserat, Denise 209, 209n12 Schmidt, Robert H. 200n98 Schmidt, Wilhelm 127f, 128f, 135f, 136f, 140f Schnitzer, Johannes de Armssheim 338 schoenus 273n26 scholasticism 179 scholia 36n18, 63n37, 180n30, 241n41, 282n74 Homeric 221, 221n58, 344 Schrder, Ernst and Sch. number 281, 281n73 Schramm, Erwin 109, 110n54, 111n55 Schuhl, Pierre Maxime 244n3

science Sextus Empiricus motivated by applications 199 role in modern civilization 5, 21 specialized writing 210 subsidies see state support scientic method 19, 189, 193, 196, 197, 225, 235, 240, 327, 350, 355, 380, 381, 384, 388n184 fundamental tools of 17 in medicine 151n27 misunderstanding of 283 power of 26, 30n47, 69, see also scientic theories applicability of recovery in modern times 394 rejection of 194, 231 vs. natural philosophy see under natural revolution 5, 6, 21, 27, 29, 197, 199, 203, 207, 210, 213, 213n28, 220, 221, 223, 225, 228 in agriculture 252 theories see also denitions role; postulates role; proofs role; theoretical entities; truth applicability 17, 18, 19f, 21, 30, 51, 69, 186, 193 applicability of see also technology scientic; science Hellenistic boom in 10, 22, 29 building versus using 285, 318 correspondence with world see correspondence rules denition 17 extensibility 18, 21, 48 incomprehension in post-Hellenistic times 232, 235, 238, 283, 318 limitations 18, 27 of higher order 17 predecessors 23 supersession 16, 18, 27, 37 underdetermination 395 vs. natural philosophy see under natural sclera 144 Scopas 96 screw 70, 9798, 120, 123, 131, 132, 134, 150, 196, 244n6, 253, 263 introduction of 151 making 97, 336 metal vs. wood 133 scribes 32n5 Scriptores see Historia Augusta sculpture 61, 96, 224, 226f, 280, 379n168 Scythian Ocean 114n73 Scythians 203 Scythopolis 229n81 sea see ocean; sailing; ships; tides second differences 64 second style 59

479

secrecy in technology see under technology sedimentation tanks 205n4 segment see line, parabola Segna 362 selection see also natural selection of works transmitted 7, 8, 52, 96, 143, 200, 216, 237, 275, 282n77, 388 Seleucid state 9, 10, 248, 291 Seleucus (scientist) astronomy 93, 314 Chaldean 314n183, 316n193 dating 79 heliocentrism 88, 88n128, 311, 363 place of origin 313n180 tides 311315, 361, 361n120, 362365 Seleucus I Nicator 156 Sellin, Robert H. J. 255, 255n53 semantics 184, 222223, 228, 240, 394 181, 182, 299, 320n213, 322, semeion , 322n223 Seneca Naturales questiones passages on p. 415 Seneca, Lucius Anneus attitude toward science 235 colors 270 comets 211, 316, 370, 372 earths rotation 296, 296n123 not representative of science 198, 237 on new technology 237 on refraction 64n39 on wine 236 planetary motion 293297, 306, 312, 318, 370n146, 372, 373 relative motion 296, 318 sources for 294 Epistulae ad Lucilium xc, 13 238n28 sensation 177, 232n3, see also perception Serapeum 241, 246 Serapis 213 sex 216, 237 ual organs 144, 157 of planets 284 sexagesimal system 43, 91n138, 93, 209 Sextus Empiricus 177n22 and Euclid 321323 and Heron 130n122 assent 175, 177, 177n22 body and non-body 232n2, 351n79 critique of science 240 dating 323n230 denitions 182, 321 episteme 187 niteness of segment 35n13 geometric concepts 325

480

Sextus Empiricus Solutiones ad Chosroem Simplicius astronomy vs. natural philosophy 192193, 380, 381 dating 329 free fall 351n76, 372 in Persia 330 on Aristarchus and heliocentrism 80 on Chrysippus 212n22 on Democritus 278n49 on Geminus 192 on Hipparchus 291, 292, 330, 330n5, 351 on Strato 291 role in transmitting ancient science 329 In Aristotelis categorias passages on p. 416 In Aristotelis de caelo passages on p. 416 In Aristotelis physicorum libros passages on p. 416 sine 53, 54, 348, see also refraction law origin of word 54 Sines, G. 271n13, 271n14 Singer, Charles 28, 95n2, 100 Sinj 362 Sirius 89 Sistan 125 size see under apparent; earth; stars; sun Skepticism 168n95, 175177, 182, 188, 231, 233, 287n93 Sketch of the world see Dionysius Periegetes slavery 130, 233, 234, 237, 239, 257, 262263, 266n97 minor role in Hellenistic egypt 262 Sleeswyk, Andre W. 98n14 slide rule 41 sling analogy 286289, 294, 295, 309, 358, 370 shape 309310 Smith, A. Mark 331n9 smoke, weight of 168, 169 smora 31 snail curve 98 Snell, Bruno 179, 179n26, 213n28 Snell, Willebrord 273, 273n27, 273n28, 348 s law see refraction law Doctrina triangolorum 62 273n27 Eratosthenes Batavus 273n27 snow 279 Socrates 23n32 solar system see also heliocentrism; comets; earth; moon; planetary motion; sun barycenter 366 formation 24 Solmsen, Friedrich 144n4, 212n25 solstice 67, 68, 113n69, 274, 275 Solutiones ad Chosroem see Priscian of Lydia

geometric entities 321323 heliocentrism 85n116 hypotheses 174n14 innite regress 182, 323 language change 221n59 learning 231, 231n1 logic postulates 219n51 meaning of mathematics 190 on Critias 213n30 perspective 59 phainomena 175, 176 Protagoras 173n10 refraction 64n39, 272n21 relative motion 188 rhetoric 187 semantics 221n59, 223n68 Skeptic doctrine 168n95, 231232 sound 229n80 techne 187 typosis 177n20 Adversus dogmaticos 190n65, passages on p. 415 Adversus mathematicos 190, passages on p. 415 Pyrrhoneae hypotyposes 175, passages on p. 415 Sforza, Ludovico 337 shaduf 119 . al-Q Sharh anun 147n13 . tashrh Sherwood, Andrew N. 95n1 Shetland Islands 114n73 ship building 71, 75, 115, 116, 132, 134, 228, 331, 338n37 distance-measuring 33 draining 253 hauling 25, 26, 26n41 in dreams 215 Lake Nemi 265f merchant 115, 259 relative motion 84, 294, 295, 295n122 rowerless 138, 139 warfare 105, 115, 262 wreck see underwater archeology shortest path 63 Sicily 52, 332, see also Syracuse sidereal sphere see stars sphere of xed sieges 105107, 110, see also Syracuse Siena 336 sight see optics sighting tubes 346 sign see semantics; semeion ; signum signied, signicandum 223 signum 298302 Silenus 176f Silla, Lucius Cornelius 234n13 silver 166, 253, 257n62, 259, 270n10

Somalia Stoics Somalia 67 Sophista see Plato sophistic solution 42 Sophists 173, 213, 213n29, 213n30, 216n37 Sophocles 58 Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma 61f Sorabji, Richard 331n7 sound see acoustics sound effects 135 see sozein ta phainomena, save the phainomena space 34, 39, 83 absolute 85, 85n119, 86, 365, 382 Spain 122f, 123n98, 136, 253, 254f, 266, 332, 334, 335 Spalato 345, 362 Lo specchio ustorio see Cavalieri speculation 20, 22, 25, 26, 181, 198 spermatic tubes 144 Speusippus 163, 180n30 Sphaerica see Theodosius and Menelaus 180, 180n32 sphairoeides, sphere of xed stars see under stars terrestrial see earth shape of volume of 6, 72 spherical coordinates 67 geometry see under geometry mirrors 269, 331n9 spheroid 180, 180n32, 309, 310, 390n195 spiritus 77n84, see also pneuma Split 362 spontaneous generation 164, 164n77, 164n78 spring (elastic) 109111 tides 306, 307f, 308, 361 spying 116 square root 34, 41n34 side and diagonal 3437, 39, 46 (tool) 66, 239 squaring of the circle 42, 53, 53n62 Stckel, Paul 392n199 stability of equilibrium 74, 74f von Staden see under von stadium (place) 205 (unit) 69n59, 273 Stahl, William H. 235n17 Stanley, Richard P. 281n73 stars apparent motion 86, 89 catalog see under Hipparchus; Ptolemy intrinsic motion 88, 318, 332, 373

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novae 341 size of 89 sphere of xed 84, 84n112, 8689, 232, 304, 356, 387 state support for science, technology and books 106n38, 111, 139n146, 245249, 266, 274n35, 276, 338n37 states of matter 279 statics see mechanics station see retrogression 139 statos, statues 61, 61n26, 132, 207, 207n11, 210, 239, 244n6, 337, 338n37 S of Liberty 207n11 steam engine 126, 128, 131, 137, 263, 331n6, 337, 346n61 Stein, W. 70n61 Steiner, E. 176f Stelli, Giovanni 4 Stevin, Simon 352n80, 380, 388 Van de spiegheling der ebbenvloet 379 333 (in [Stevin: PW], vol. III) 379n169 sties 158 stigm e, 181, 322n223 Stobaeus, John mixtures and compounds 167n91 on Euclid 199 on the Stoics 223n68 Eclogae passages on p. 416 stock market 261, 264, 385 Stockholm papyrus 166, 168 Stoics and Aristotle 233 assent 175, 175n18 body and non-body 223, 232 cosmic harmony 319 determinism 277, 278 divisions of philosophy 191 dreams 216 earths shape 310 Epictetus 283 epistemology 222n61 grammar 222 logic 282n76 mixtures 167 phainomena 175 physics 202 pneuma 77 Posidonius 319 randomness 280 role of sun 319 semantics 184, 222223, 223n68, 232 straight line 324 techne 187 typosis 177n20

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Stone Age technology motion of 130, 192 personied 207n11 prime mover 357 shape of 303 size of 58, 192 sundial 67, 68, 201n101, 274 surface 320, 323 surgery 212, 212n23, 236, see also medicine surveying 65, 66, 274n35, 275, 276 instruments 66, 98 Suter, Heinrich 131n127 Syene 68, 273, 274, 275n37 syllogism 172, 173, 218 282n76 symplok e, 167 synchysis, 175, 213, 394 synkatathesis, synonyms 152n32 Syntaxis mathematica see Ptolemy Almagest syphon 77, 131n128, 134, 137, 353 inverted 118, 132, 208f, 247, 336 Syracuse 6, 10, 115, 248 home of Archimedes 11, 26 pre-Hellenistic 107 siege and conquest 11, 62, 63, 82n103, 105, 199n93, 233, 233n8 Syracusia (ship) 26n41, 115, 116 Syria 10, 203, 253 syringe 353n88 system of the world 85, 366n136 Szab, rpad 34n10, 67n52 Tlle-Kastenbein, Renate 118n89, 205n4 tables astronomical 334 logarithmic 201, 386 trigonometric 43n39, 53, 201, 386 Taccola, Mariano 336, 336n30 De ingeniis 336n29 Tajikistan 10 Tannery, Paul 323n230 The Tao of physics 397n208 taxonomy 152, 153, see also terminology Taylor, Eva G. R. 338n40 Tchernetska, Natalie 72n68 teaching in Hellenistic cities 205, 209 in imperial period 324 in Skeptic doctrine 231 modern 39, 81n102, 382n173 role of the Elements 6, 7, 47, 382 143, 185187, 280 techn e, technology see also under machines; measurement; military; ship building; water; Arabs; Middle Ages classical Greece versus ancient empires 28

Stone Age 31, 32n3, 71, 250, 278n53 Strabo astronomy 248 dioptron 271 distance AlexandriaRhodes 273n30 earths shape 303n141, 309310 interest in 310 magnifying tubes 272 ocean voyages 113, 113n67, 114, 338n39 on Alexandria 205, 246, 260 on Eratosthenes 161, 273, 274n36, 275 on Hipparchus 272n24 on Massalia 266 on Posidonius 307, 319n210 on Seleucus 313, 313n180, 313n181, 314n183, 314n184, 361, 361n120, 362 on Syene 275n37 tides 305, 307, 308, 361n121, see also Strabo on Seleucus trade secrets 114, 137 zero of longitudes 285n87 zoo 248n16 Geographia 285, 309, passages on p. 416 strategus 246n11 Strato of Lampsacus acceleration in fall 291, 292n114 head of Peripatetic school 11n12 Herons source 77, 133, 292n114 hydrostatics 75 on light bodies 75n75 pneumatics 76 sensation 175 works lost 8, 76 On the vacuum 75n75 311n177 streph o, strikes 262 strings, vibrating 24n37 Stromata see Clement suction 146n12 Suda (Suidas) Antiphon 216n37 Pappus 216n42 Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius De vita Caesarum Vespasianus 18 245n8 Suez canal 114 sulfur 334n26 Sulpicius Gallus 82n103 sun see also lunisolar theory; heliocentrism attraction to 295, 297, 298, 304, 317, 332, 357, 361, 372, 376, 376n157, 377, 378 charioteer 376n157 darkness from 297 distance to 66 hearth of the cosmos 319, 356

technology Thomas Aquinas creation versus diffusion 266 history of see historiography of technology interest in 96, 96n7, 196, 237, 245, 256 pre-Hellenistic 98, 101, 106, 119 prescientic 16, 28, 29, 32, 71, 98, 101, 106, 119, 147n12, 209 scientic 18, 19f, 26, 27, 95, 9798, 100103, 105112, 116137, 199200, 207, 210, 332 economic role of 243, 245, 264 secrecy surrounding 110, 116, 137, 165 subsidies see state support teeth 160 in machinery 252, 334, see also under gears Teheran 331n10 teleology 146n12, 159161, 178, 233 telescope 272, 343, 346347 temperature 17 temples 59, 126, 138, 161, 165, 205, 210, 261, 262, 375 factories in 262 temporal bone 150, 342 terminology see also Greek t. borrowed introduction of 144, 148153, 158, 179, 180, 197, 221, 222n60, 223, 310 Platonic vs. conventional 152, 152n29, 179, 320 terracing 66, 203 Thales of Miletus 29, 33, 34, 113n66, 198 Thamugadi 258 Theaetetus see Plato Theaetetus of Athens 45n46 theater 28, 58, 71, 186, 187, 196, 205, 229, 259 automatic 132, 139 Theatrum mundi et temporis 360n111 Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus Graecarum affectionum curatio VI, xx 310n170 Theodoric of Freiberg see Dietrich Theodorus (mathematician) 45n46, 172n4, 181n34 Theodosius of Bithynia 55n69, 273n27, 393n200 Sphaerica 55, 55n70 Theologoumena arithmeticae 240n39 theology 194, 356, 358, 368, 380, 387, see also religion Theon of Alexandria 15, 15n22, 63, 149, 232 editor of Euclid 15 Commentary on the Almagest (refs. to [Theon/Rome]) 347:5 348:1 (on I, iii) 63n34 492:68 (on I, x) 320n215 Theon of Smyrna 319, 357 Expositio rerum mathematicarum (ed. Hiller) III, xxxiii, 187:1418 319n207

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III, xxxiii, 188:27 319n208 216n38 theopemptos, Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria 241 Theophrastus of Eresus 159163 Aristotelian corpus 181n37 botany 250 density of water 103n27 hypothesis 174 lenses 270 mutability of living beings 160, 233 plants 235, 250 smells 210n17 viticulture 250 De causis plantarum 160 II, xiii 3 160n58 III, xi 1 xvi 4 250n26 IV, iv 11 160n57 De igne (ed. Gercke) xiii 73, 20 270n10 De lapidibus 3738 163n68 De odoribus 210n17 Historia plantarum 160 II, iii 160n56 IV, xiii 4 174n13 Metaphysica (Ross and Fobes ed.) 10a:22 11b:26 160n59 On petrication 163 On waters 103n27 theorem see also theorema s on parabolas 49, 399402 rst s 33 geometric s 33, 37, 40, 48, 49, 72 in grammar and music 191 in optics 58 not a t. without a proof 33 of existence 95n3 on ratio of circles 47 on the innity of primes 44 Pythagorean 3335 versus problem 40 40, 76n78, 185, 191 theor ema, theoretical entities 17, 3840, 57, 68, 153, 173, 174, 179, 180, 182, 183, 221, 223, 231, 232, 283, 305n147, 351n79, 382, 383, 396 Die Theorie der Parallellinien 392 thermal dilation see under dilation insulation 279 thermodynamics 17, 27, 202 thermoscope 134, 346n61, 354n92 thermostatics 27 Thesaurus Linguae Grecae 325n241 Thomas Aquinas 193, 194, 198, 380, 381 Summa theologica

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Thomas Aquinas universal joints Trattato utilissimo e particolarissimo del usso e del riusso del mare 360n112 Treatise on architecture, engineering and the art of war 336 Treatise on the Apocalypse 374n155 Treatise on wisdom see ibn S n a Resa triangle see also trigonometry; triangulation angles in 184 area of 50, 131 as nourishment 38 congruent 33 equilateral 40, 185, 300 exhaustion by s 5051 in astronomy 298300 in screw-making 97 isosceles 35, 37, 300, 326 rays 297302, 378 right 35, 37, 40, see also theorem Pythagorean spherical 55, 273n27, 392, 393 triangulation 33, 51, 66, 273n27, 276 trigonometry 47n49, 5255, 66, 79, 113, 201, 201n101, 218, 223, 385, 386 earliest use 66 spherical 55 use of sexagesimal base 43 trigonum 298n134 trine 298n134 Trinity 356 tripleuron 273n27 trireme 115 trisection of the angle 42, 201, 201n101 trompe lil 59 tropic 274n36 truth in scientic theories 1618, 20, 85, 149n18, 155, 188, 189, 193, 349n70, 380, 382, 392 Tunisia 258 Tusculanae disputationes see Cicero tympanum 119, 119f, 120 223, 223n68 tynchanon, , 177n20 typosis Tyrannion the Elder 234n13 Tyre 107, 270 Ucelli, Guido 265f ufology, UFOs 15, 15n24 ultimate proportion 387 underwater archeology 9, 115, 128, 226f, 265f, 344n55 exploration, supposed machine for 138 unit 320, see also stadium United States 207 The unity of human knowledge 396 universal joints 110

I.32, article 1, reply to objection 2 194n78 Thompson, E. A. 252n36 Thomson, William 36n18 Thrace 222 threading 344n55 thrust 287, 288f, 290, 301, 374f Thucydides 211 Historiae, I, lxxi 3 211n19 Thule 114, 114n73 Tiberius (emperor) 222n64, 245, 317 tides 305309, 319, 330, 356, 360365, 372, 379n169, see also lunisolar theory as power source 332n12 solar t. prove heliocentrism 312, 363 Timaeus 311, 363 Timaeus see Plato time as a variable 104 measurement 101105, 145, 146, 148, 195, 354, 355n95 notion of 34, 39, 103 Timgad 258 tin 259 Titus Livius see Livy Toeplitz, Otto 70n61 toise de Paris 273n28 tokens 209 77n84 tonos, Toomer, Gerald J. 11n13, 62n28, 62n29, 79n95, 79n96, 114n73, 272n24, 282n77, 283f, 285n90, 286n91, 318n203 tooth see teeth; gears top 316 toparchs and topoi 276 Topica see under Aristotle, see Aristotle topography 58, 65, 201n101 torch 205, 207n11 torcular Herophili 144, 150, 153 Torelli, Giuseppe 168n95, 343n51 Torricelli, Evangelista 389 torsion 107 Touliatos, Diane 229n79 tourism 257, 257n62 toy devices 78n91, 244, 245, see also under Heron Tractatus de magnete see Pierre de Maricourt Tractatus de iride et de radialibus impressionibus 345n58 Tractatus de occulta causa uxus et reuxus maris see Crisogono trade see commerce translation see under books trapezoid 179 Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare 336

Universit di Roma La Sapienza Vogel, Kurt Universit di Roma La Sapienza 196n86 Uniwersytet Warszawski 247f urban development and planning 66, 203210 Uruk 9 Usher, Abbot Payson 353n86 utterable 232 Uzbekistan 10 vacuum 75n75, 77, 78n89, 289, see also pump; void Valerius Maximus Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX IX, ii, ext. 5 11n16 valve 78, 103, 104f, 124f, 131, 132, 135, 146, 147, 186, 263 heart 144, 144n6, 146, 147, 147n13, 342 Van de spiegheling der ebbenvloet see under Stevin van der Waerden, Bartel Leendert 15n23 van Helmont, Jan Baptist 279n60, 354 vanishing point 59, 60n22 variational principle 391, see also minimization Varro, Marcus Terencius 235, 249, 250n24 De re rustica 8 I, i 8 ff. 249n20, 249n22 I, v 12 235n18 III, ii 1314 250n24 vascular see circulatory Vatican Library 52 vectors see parallelogram rule veins 144, 146n11, 147, 236 Veltman, Kim H. 59n16 vending machine 130 Venice 127f, 221n58, 344, 360 Venus 297, 317 Ver Eecke, Paul 384n179 verb see conjugation; parts of speech verdigris 255 vertex of parabolic segment 49, 49n57 Vespasian, Titus Flavius 245, 258 Villard de Honnecourt 333, 333n21, 334n22 sketchbook 22v 334 9r 334 vinegar 169, 254 Virgil (Publius Virgilius Maro) 233, 338n41 virgula 270n6 vis insita 367 viscosity 103n27, 195n82, 279 visual instruments see under optics perception 177 rays 5760, 149150, 183, 185, 192, 272, 290, 331, 345, 384

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as physical objects 232 denition 150n20 discreteness 57, 149, 149n17 non-directionality 183 straightness 57, 58 uneven distribution 150 versus light rays 57n2 resolution 149 Vita Marcelli see Plutarch Vita pythagorica see Iamblichus Vita Sertorii see Plutarch Vitae decem oratorium see Plutarch Vitae parallelae see Plutarch Vitae philosophorum see Diogenes Laertius vitalism 23n33 viticulture 235, 250 Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus acetum 170 acoustics 229n81 astronomy 296 attitude toward applied science 238 automata 132 awareness of limitations 238 Hellenistic art 237n23a in relation to heyday 130 in Renaissance 336, 336n29 looted treasure 234n11 mechanics 96 notion of point 299 on Archimedes 52, 238 on Ctesibius 76n79, 76n80, 78, 78n91, 102 on difculty of Greek sources 238 on Hipparchus 296n126 perspective 59 pigments 166 planetary motion 297298, 372, 378 pumps 337 relatively high level 239 scenography 58 siege towers 106n37 signum 298302 suns attraction 297, 357, 378, 379 suns darkness 297 surveying 66 use of letters 299, 299n137 water level 238 water mill 125 water organ 228n76, 229f water wheel 119 De architectura 8, passages on p. 417 Viviani, Vincenzo 350n75 letter to Leopoldo de Medici (in [Galileo: Opere], vol. XIX, pp. 647659) 355n95 vivisection see dissection in vivo Vogel, Kurt 330n6, 333n18

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Vogt, Heinrich zero Weierstrass, Karl Theodor Wilhelm 46, 47, 47n50, 220, 394 weight inside the earth 293, 293n117, 330n5 lifting 27, 71, 99f, 134, 138, 139, 185, 186, 245, 334 of planets see sun attraction to science of s 332 Welles, C. Bradford 258n68 Whewell, William 390n195 whirlpool 315, 362 White, Michael 374n155 Whittaker, Charles R. 257n63 Wikander, rjan 118n89, 124n106, 124n107, 256n55, 256n56, 257n59 William of Conches 332 Dragmaticon philosophiae III 332n17 IV 332n17 William of Moerbeke 168n95 Wilson, Andrew 258n65 Wilson, C. 284n85 winch 70, 71, 196 windmill 125, 126, 131, 332n12, 336 wine 237, 257n62, 271, see also press; viticulture Winter, Frederick E. 107n45 Wissowa, Georg 15n23 Wittfogel, Karl A. 30n47 Wolf, Friedrich August 221n58 women professionals 15, 157, 157n47 wonders of the world 117, 210, 390 Woodbury, Robert S. 123n103 W wool 73n70, 258, 279 work (mechanics) 71 Wren, Christopher 376 writing 239, 385, see also cuneiform origins of 32n3, 209 Xenocrates of Chalcedon Xenophanes 161 282

Vogt, Heinrich 284, 284n84 Voicu, Andre9s Juan 352n83 void 77, 84, 89n132 Voigt, Eva-Maria 271n16 Voltaire 390, 390n194 Dictionnaire philosophique entry for systme 390n194 Lettres philosophiques letter 15 390n194 volume 6, 32, 48n54, 72, 359 von Fritz, Kurt 35n14 von Staden, Heinrich 143, 143n1, 145n8a, 145n9, 145n10, 146n11, 148n13a, 148n14, 150, 150n21, 151n27, 156n43, 157n48, 177n22, 188n58, 195, 195n84, 216n39216n41, 342n47, 343n48 vortices 24 Waerden, van der see under van wage negotiations 262 Walek-Czernecki, Tadeusz 252n42 Wall Street 261 walled cities 107 Wallis, John 364365 An essay . . . about the ux and reux of the sea 364n132 Tractatus de sectionibus conicis 372 Walters, H. B. 124f Walzer, Richard 154n35 war see military technology; Rome destructive role; ship warfare water clock 78n91, 101103, 132, 136, 145, 146, 195, 238, 239n34, 244n6, 355n95 ow rate 103n27, 279 in free fall 287, 289, 291, 292n114, 293 level 100, 238, 238n29, 239, 336 lifting 119123, 246, 252, 253, 353 mill 124125, 128, 244n6, 248, 255256, 256f, 266 organ 229, 229n78, 244n6 purication 205, 205f refraction in 64 screw 120, 122f, 196, 266n97 supply 118, 205, 205f, 207, 239 technology 29n44, 30, 76, 98n14, 118125, 131, 134, 187, 335 wheel 119, 134, 254f, 332n12 waves 229n80, 376, 396 wax 251 weapons see military technology weaving 138, 261 weblike 144, 149, 150 wedge 70, 71, see also ramp Wehrli, Fritz 67n50, 75n75, 83n107

Yates, Frances A. 375n157 Yellow River 30n47 Young, Thomas 391 Zadar (Zara) 360 Zeller, Eduard 289n97 Zeno of Elea 34, 35, 39, 45, 213n28 fragments (in [FV], vol. I, 247258) 34n11 Zenobia (queen of Palmyra) 234n14 Zenon, aide to dioecete 262 zero s and ones 42 introduction in Hellenistic era 43, 43n39, 44 of longitudes 285

Zeuthen, Hieronymus Georg Zosimus of Panopolis Zeuthen, Hieronymus Georg 186n48 Ziggelaar, Augustus 346n60, 362n123 Zinner, Ernst 347f zodiac 298, 299 zoology 152, 153, 158, 180, 191, 194 ical garden 195, 248, 250 Zoroaster 248n18 Zosimus of Panopolis 165, 166 Authentic memoirs (ed. Mertens) IV, i, 17:3034 165n81 VII, ii, 23:810 165n81 X, vii, 41:135137 165n81

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