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Alloy Cast Steel Designation and Chemistry

Moly-Telastic is a medium carbon, chromium-molybdenum type cast steel which is similar to an AISI 4135 specification, except with reduced chromium content. It can be heat treated by annealing or normalizing and tempering to an approximate hardness of 180 HB for all section sizes.

No. 1 Gearalloy is a medium carbon, chromium-nickel-molybdenum type cast steel used for applications requiring higher harden ability than Falk Moly-Telastic. It is similar to an AISI 8630 steel, but higher in alloy content.

No. 2 Gearalloy is a low carbon (0.20% nominal), chromium-nickel-molybdenum type cast steel containing 0.04-0.06% vanadium for grain refinement in gear castings. Chemistry is similar to an AISI 8620 steel, but higher in alloy content. This is our standard cast steel for carburized and hardened gears and has comparable harden ability to an AISI 4320 H steel. It is also used in the through-hardened, quenched, and tempered heat treat condition to a maximum hardness range of 245-285 HB for impact applications (this condition is not intended for gearing or wear applications).

No. 3 Gearalloy has higher carbon and molybdenum content than No. I Gearalloy This results in higher harden ability for increased section size or higher hardness ranges for quench and temper heat treatment. It is similar to an "8633" steel (not a standard AISI designation) but higher in alloy content.

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No. 4 Gearalloy has higher carbon content than No. 3 Gearalloy. This results in the highest harden ability alloy cast steel (maximum section size or maximum hardness) intended for hardening by quench and temper The harden ability is equivalent to an AISI 4340. Chemistry is similar to an AISI 8640 steel but higher in alloy content.

No. 6 Gearalloy has the same carbon content as No. 4 Gearalloy but has increased alloy content. This enables hardening by normalize and temper heat treatment to higher hardness ranges (325-365 HB maximum) than can be achieved with No. 4 Gearalloy normalized and tempered. No. 6 Gearalloy is not intended to be quench hardened because of quench cracking susceptibility.

Moly-Telastic and No. I through No. 4 and No. 6 Gearalloy grades of alloy cast steel do not, by intent, conform to specific standard SAE or AISI steel designations regarding carbon and alloy content, but contain modified carbon and generally higher alloy content for improved depth of hardening (harden ability). The chemical analyses for our Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades of alloy cast steels are shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 - Chemical Analyses of Our Alloy Steels* Type Moly Telastic AISI 4135 No. 1 Gearalloy AISI 8630 No. 2 Gearalloy** AISI 8120 No. 3 Gearalloy AISI 8633*** No. 4 Gearalloy AISI 8140 No. 6 Gearalloy % Carbon 0.30-0.40 0.33-0.38 0.27-0.37 0.28-0.33 0.17-0.23 0.18-0.23 0.30-0.37 0.30-0.37 0.38-0.45 0.38-0.43 0.38-0.45 % Manganese 0.70-1.00 0.70-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.70-0.90 0.70-1 00 0.70-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.70-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.75-1.00 1.05-1.35 % Chromium 0.40-0.65 0.80-1.10 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.60 0.90-1.20 % Nickel ... ... 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.70 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.70 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.70 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.70 0.60-0.90 % Molybdenum 0.15-0.25 0.15-0.25 0.30-0.40 0.15-0.25 0.30-0.40 0.15-0.25 0.40-0.50 0.15-0.25 0.40-0.50 0.15-0.25 0.55-0.60
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No. 6 Gearalloy No Similar AISI Grade No. 5 Gearalloy - Discontinued

0.38-0.45

1.05-1.35

0.90-1.20

0.60-0.90

0.55-0.60

* Percent phasphorus and sulfur (both 0.030% max.) are less than ASTM A148 permitted maximums of 0.05% and 0.06%, respectively. Silicon content is typically 0.45% ** No. 2 Gearalloy also contains 0.04-0.06% vanadium for grain refinement. Vanadium additions are also available for other grades when required. *** "8633" is not a standard AISI designation. Our alloy cast steels can be heat treated to meet the strength requirements of ASTM A148 (High Strength Steel Castings for Structural Purposes) up to grade 165-150. Minimum tensile ductility values (elongation and reduction of area) for corresponding strength levels are shown in Table 2. Other alloy cast steels which meet your specifications can be furnished for special pressure, low temperature and high temperature applications. The selection of the appropriate alloy cast steel depends upon specified chemistry, hardness, strength and design considerations. We will assist you in the proper selection of the appropriate grade to meet your design requirements.

Machinability and Processing


Alloy grades of cast steels (Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades) are readily machinable and ductile, due to our ladle deoxidation practice which uses primarily calcium and not aluminum. This, in itself, can easily result in lowering machining costs by as much as 15%. A well equipped sand laboratory monitors sand molding and core making practices. A sodium silicate sand binder is exclusively used in our core making process. This high grade material requires no oven curing, is environmentally safe, and drastically reduces potential metal solidification defects. Pattern molding can accommodate items up to 150" in diameter or diagonal. Beyond 150'*. We utilize sweep or pit molding. The largest pits measure 24' x 50' x 7.5' and 36' x 36'x 10'. The use of aluminum is limited to castings less than 8T finish weight, as it develops aluminum oxides and decreases machinability. Aluminum content used is less than 0.020%. The index of machinability, shown in Table 10, is based on hardness and is related to machinability of B1112 steel (100%). TABLE 10 - Machinability Index Hardness, HB 210-250 225-265 245-285 265-305 Per Cent Index 66 57 50 43
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285-325 300-340 335-375 350-390

38 33 28 25

Although microstructure considerations, as well as hardness, determine machinability, our machinability rating system is based on tool life as a function of cutting speed (surface feet per minute).

Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties of steel castings are generally determined from test bars machined from standard ASTM A781 test coupons. These test coupons may be attached to the casting or cast separately. Minimum tensile properties, obtained from standard cast test coupons, for our alloy cast steels are shown in Table 2. Table 2 - Minimum Tensile Properties of Our Alloy Cast Steel TYPE Heat Treatment Hardness HB Tensile Minimum Tensile Properties Yield % Elongation in % Reduction in Area

Strength PSI Strength PSI 2 Inches Annealed or Moly-Telastic Normalized & Tempered 160 (Minimum)

80,000

45,000

23

35

210-250 225-265 245-285 Qenched & Tempered 245-295@ 265-305@ 270-310@ 285-325@ 300-340@

90,000 100,000 110,000 115,000 118,000 120,000 130,000 135,000

60,000 70,000 80,000 85,000 90,000 95,000 100,000 110,000

15 14 13 12 11 11 10 9

35 33 31 29 28 28 26 23

Moly-Telastic

210-250 225-265

90,000 100,000

60,000 70,000

15 15

35 33

No.1

Normalized &

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Gearalloy

Tempered

245-285 255-295 265-305

110,000 115,000 118,000

80,000 85,000 90,000

13 12 11

31 29 28

245-285** 255-295** 265-305** No.1 Gearalloy Quenched & Tempered 270-310 285-325 300-340 310-350 335-375

110,000 115,000 118,000 120,000 130,000 135,000 140,000 150,000

80,000 85,000 90,000 95,000 100,000 110,000 115,000 125,000

13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8

31 29 28 28 26 24 23 20

No. 2 # Gearalloy

Water Quenched & Tempered

210-250 225-265 245-285

90,000 100,000 110,000

60,000 70,000 80,000

20 20 18

45 45 42

245-285 No. 3 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 255-295 265-305 285-325

110,000 115,000 118,000 130,000

80,000 85,000 90,000 100,000

13 12 11 10

31 29 28 26

265-305** 270-310** 285-325** 300-340 310-350 No. 3 Gearalloy Quenched & Tempered 335-375 350-390

118,000 120,000 130,000 135,000 140,000 150,000 157,000

90,000 95,000 100,000 110,000 115,000 125,000 130,000

11 11 10 9 9 8 7

28 27 26 23 22 20 16
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360-400 375-415 390-430 400-445

160,000 170,000 175,000 180,000

135,000 140,000 145,000 150,000

6 5 5 5

12 10 10 10

265-305 No. 4 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 285-325 300-340

118,000 130,000 135,000

90,000 100,000 110,000

9 8 6

22 18 15

310-350 335-375 No. 4 Gearalloy Oil Quenched & Tempered 350-390 360-400 375-415 390-430

140,000 150,000 157,000 160,000 170,000 175,000

115,000 125,000 130,000 135,000 140,000 145,000

9 8 6 6 5 5

22 20 12 12 10 10

300-340 No. 6 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 310-350 325-365

135,000 140,000 145,000

110,000 115,000 120,000

6 5 4

15 13 9

@ Rough machine before heat treating. ** This hardness can also be obtained by normalizing and tempering. # Unless carburized hardened, No. 2 Gearalloy is for through hardened impact applications and not for gearing or wear applications. Test bar results for tensile ductility (per cent elongation and reduction of area) and impact strength may not be representative of actual castings due to harden ability and section size considerations. Strength properties such as tensile, yield, and to a lesser degree, endurance or fatigue strength, show better correlation between test bars and actual castings, provided hardnesses are equivalent. For further information regarding the limitations of test bar data, please contact our Materials Technology Department through your local Rexnord account executive.

Impact Properties
Typical Charpy V-Notch impact strengths for Moly-Telastic and No. I through No. 4 Gearalloys are shown in Tables 3
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through 6. These values were obtained from separate cast keel blocks and 5.0 & 10.0 inch test sections. Impact strength is also a function of heat treatment, hardness and test temperature. Impact properties were evaluated at T/3 depth for test sections. Table 3 is the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for Moly-Telastic cast steel in a 5.0 test section in the normalized and tempered (N&T) condition at 160-200 HB. TABLE 3 - Moly-Telastic Cast Steel (5.0" section) Normalized & Tempered 160-200HB Temperature Ft-lbs. -20oF 7 0oF 11 70oF 22 150oF 44 212oF 52

Impact strength in the quenched and tempered condition is higher than for the normalized and tempered condition. Specific data may be obtained upon request. For applications requiring higher impact strength, due to shock loading and/or low ambient temperatures, No. I or No. 2 Gearalloy is recommended depending on the specified hardness. Table 4 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength (ft-lbs.) for keel blocks of No. I Gearalloy cast steel, as a function of heat treatment and specified hardness. TABLE 4 - No. 1 Gearalloy Cast Steel Keel Blocks (2.0" section) Heat Treat Hardness, HB 225-265 Quenched and Tempered 265-305 300-340 -50oF -20oF 0oF 70oF 150oF 212oF 37 21 16 49 26 21 58 35 24 67 51 39 69 55 46 77 57 48

Table 5 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for No. 2 Gearalloy cast steel at 70*F in the water quenched and tempered condition at 207-223HB. TABLE 5 - No. 2 Gearalloy Cast Steel (5.0" Section) Impact Strength Heat Treat Hardness, HB (ft. lbs.) 65 55

207 Water Quenched & Tempered 217-223

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Table 6 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for No. 4 Gearalloy cast steel (5" and 10" section thickness) according to hardness in the oil quenched and tempered condition. TABLE 6 - No. 4 Gearalloy Cast Steel (5" and 10" section thickness) Hardness, HB 311 Quenched and Tempered 277 302 326 Test Temperature 70oF 212oF 70oF 212oF Impact Size Strength (ft. lbs.) 5" 5" 10" 10" 16 38 18 16

Heat Treat

Metallurgical Considerations
Harden Ability Control of melting is accomplished through computer-aided harden ability (Di) calculations, coupled with statistical process control in order to ensure uniform response to heat treatment. The ideal critical diameter (Di) is defined as the diameter of a round that can be quenched under ideal conditions (ice brine) in order to obtain a 50% martensitic microstructure at the center of the section. The multiplication factors for calculating (Di) harden ability, which vary according to ASTM grain size, carbon, and individual alloy content, are available in literature and from the Materials Technology Department. Cast (Di) harden ability ranges, established in our Melt Shop as acceptance criteria for our heats, are shown in Table 7. TABLE 7 - Cast Hardenability Range Inches Grade Moly-Telastic No. 1 Gearalloy No. 2 Gearalloy No. 3 Gearalloy No. 4 Gearalloy No. 6 Gearalloy (DI) Range, Inches 3.1-4.9 5.3-7.8 4.0-6.2 6.4-9.3 7.9-11.4 13.6-19.2

The harden ability ranges are presented for reference purposes only and should not be considered as part of a material specification. They are intended to illustrate the degree of control used during manufacturing to assist in the production
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and heat treatment of castings, and may be subject to slight modification. Jominy End Quench Jominy end quench harden ability ranges from testing alloy cast steels per ASTM A255 are shown in Figures I through 4. For the same reason cited above for (Di), these Jominy end quench curves should not be part of a material specification. harden ability ranges in Figures I through 4 are narrower than those for wrought AISI designations, as illustrated in Figure 4 for No. 4 Gearalloy. Jominy end quench curves were not developed for No. 6 Gearalloy as the curves were expected to be nearly horizontal and No. 6 Gearalloy is not quench hardened.

Weldability
Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades can be welded satisfactorily, providing that necessary preheating and post-heating precautions are followed. Minimum preheating temperatures are shown in Table 9. TABLE 9 - Minimum Preheat Temp. GRADE Moly-Telastic No. 1 Gearalloy No. 2 Gearalloy No. 3 Gearalloy No. 4 Gearalloy No. 6 Gearalloy Minimum Preheat Temp. oF 300oF* 350oF 200oF 350oF 400oF 400oF

* In most instances, a 300oF minimum preheat is sufficient. Higher preheat temperature is not necessary unless extensive welding is required. The maximum preheat temperature should not be greater than 200 F above the minimum required. Minimum preheat temperature should be maintained during welding by torch heating and monitored by temperature indicating pencils or a surface pyrometer. The stress relieving temperature should be 1000-1250F for annealed castings and 50-1 00F below the final tempering temperature for normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered castings of all grades. Whenever possible, furnace preheating and post-heating are preferred to local heating with large torches. The choice of electrodes and welding techniques is normally governed by the nature and position of the weld and the mechanical properties required. Low hydrogen type manual arc weld rods, or CO2 shielded flux core process wire, selected on the basis of the required strength, are recommended. When the deposited weld metal is designed to meet the tensile properties of the casting, welding before heat treating, using heat treatable electrodes, e.g., 4340, is recommended.

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