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# 1

Tutorial 1 (Solution)

1.2 Assume that mobility of electrons in copper is 100 cm
2
/Vs. Calculate the conductivity and
resistivity of the material using the Drude model. The atomic mass of copper is 63.55; the
density is 8.96 gcm
-3
; the valence is 1. What is the resistance of a copper wire with an area of 10.
-
4
cm
2
and a length of 0.1 cm?
(Ans: n = 8.49 x 10
22
cm
-3
, Conductivity = 11.36 x 10
6
.cm
-1
, = 7.36 x 10
-7
cm
R = 7.36 x 10
-4
)

1.5 Room-temperature resistivity of copper is found to be 1.5 cm. Calculate the mobility of
electron using the Drude model. The atomic mass of copper is 63.55; the density is 8.96 gcm
-3
;
the valence is 1. What is the average electron velocity in copper when a field of 100 V/cm is
applied? (Ans: n
Cu
= 8.69x10
22
cm
-3
, =49.1 cm
2
/V.s, v=4.9x10
3
cm/s)

2

1.16 Plot the density of state (dos) for electrons that have an E-k relation

eV; 2
2
*
2 2
=
m
k
E

Calculate the result from 0 and 3.0 eV. (Ans: N(E)=6.8x10
21
(E+2.0)
1/2
eV
-1
cm
-3
; E > -2.0 eV)

3

1.17 Consider previous problem. Calculate the number of allowed electron states per cm3 between 0
and 2.5 eV. (Ans: 3.04x10
22
cm
-3
)

4

1.25 Calculate the effective dos N
c
o
). If the mass of the
electron changes to 0.1 m
o
, calculate the effective dos at the same temperatures.

(Ans: m =m
o
at 300 K: 2.56x10
19
cm
-3
at 77 K: 3.32x10
18
cm
-3

m =0.1m
o
at 300 K: 8.09x10
17
cm
-3
at 77 K: 1.05x10
17
cm
-3
)

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2.1 The effective mass of a conduction-band electron in a semiconductor is 0.1 m
o
. Calculate the
energy of this electron measured from the bottom of the conduction bandedge if the k-vector is
0.3 A
-1
. If the electron affinity of this semiconductor is 10 eV, calculate the energy of the
electron measured from the vaccum level. (Ans: 3.4 eV, the electron energy measured from
vaccum level is -6.6 eV)

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2.12 Calculate and plot the position of the intrinsic Fermi level in Si between 77 K and 500 K.
(Ans: E
Fi
E
g
/2 =-0.0128(T/300) eV )

7

31.3 In a GaAs sample, it is known that the electron concentration varies linearly. The
diffusion current density at 300 K is found to be 100 A/cm
2
. Calculate the slope of the
electron concentration. (Ans: 2.8410
18
cm
-4
)

3.14
The electron concentration in a Si sample is given by ) / exp( ) 0 ( ) (
n
L x n x n = ; x>0
with n(0)=10
18
cm
-3
and L
n
=3.0 m. Calculate the diffusion current density as a function
of position if D
n
=35 cm
2
/s. (Ans: J
n
=1.8710
4
exp
|
.
|

\
|

cm
x
4
10 3
Acm
-2
)

8

3.17 In a GaAs sample at 300 K, equal concentration of electrons and holes are injected. If
the carrier density is n = p = 10
17
cm
-3
, calculate the electron and hole Fermi levels using
the Boltzmann approximations. (Ans: E
Fn
= E
c
0.039 eV)

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