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POLYMER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Polymer is a macro molecule formed by the union of many small molecules. Depending upon the structure, a polymer may be linear or branched. Ex. CH2 CH2 Polyethylene #inear CH2-- i ! i ! - i " CH2- i ! i ! $ranched silicon resin. Depending type of monomer, they may be homopolymer %made up of same monomer& or Co-polymer %made up of different monomers& ! ! Ex. CH2 CH2 - n H2' %CH2&( 'H C %CH2&) C 'H Homopolymer 'ylon (,( Polyethylene %Co-polymer& P!#*+E,- ./-!'0 -t may be defined as the process of lin1ing or 2oining together small molecules li1e monomers to ma1e large molecules. $asically there are 3 types of polymeri4ations. 5. .dditional polymeri4ation or Chain polymeri4ation 3. Copolymeri4ation 2. Condensation polymeri4ation or tep polymeri4ation

5. Additional polymerization or Chain polymerization /his polymeri4ation yields an exact multiple of basic monomeric molecules. /his monomeric molecule contains one or more double bonds. $y intermolecular rearrangement of these double bonds ma1es the molecule bifunctional. -n this polymeri4ation process light, heat and pressure or catalyst is used to brea1do6n the double co7alent bonds of monomers. 2. Conden!ation polymerization or Step polymerization +ay be defined as 8a reaction occurring bet6een simple polar-group-containing monomers 6ith the formation of polymer and elimination of small molecules li1e 6ater, HCl, etc.9 :or example, hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid condense to form a polymer, 'ylon(0(. .dditional polymeri4ation is a chain reaction con7erting of a se;uence of three steps. -nitiation, propagation and termination. a. -nitiation step is considered to in7ol7e t6o reactions. /he first is the production of free radicals, usually, by the hemolytic dissociation of an initiator %or catalyst& to yield a pair of radicals ,<. %-nitiator& 2,< %:ree radicals& ===%5&

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/he second part of initiation under the addition of this radical to the 2ust moment molecule %+& to produce the chain initiating species +5. ,
:ree radical

+
monomer molecule

+5

===.%2&

/hus the polymeri4ation of monomer CH2 B CH* ta1en in the form. H , A CH2 B CH* ,- CH2 C , b. Propagation step0 Consists of the gro6th of +5 by successi7e additions of large numbers of monomer molecules according to e;uation. +5A + +2 +2A + +3 +3A + +) or in general terms +n A + +n A 5 c. /ermination step0 .t some time, the propagation polymer chain steps gro6ing and terminates. H H H H - CH2 C A C CH2 - CH2 C C CH2 * * * * Disproportion in 6hich a hydrogen atom of one radical center is transferred to another radical center. /his results in the formations of t6o polymer molecules, are saturated and one unsaturated e.g. H H H H H CH2 C A C CH2 CH2 CH A C B C * * * * /he t6o different modes of terminations can be represented in general terms by0 +Cn A +Cm +CnAm %Coupling& +Cn A +mC +n A +m %Disproportionation& Co-polymeri4ation0 Polymeri4ation in7ol7ing t6o different monomers. Ex. Polymeri4ation of butadiene and styrene to ga7e $una . H CH2 B CH CH B CH2 A nx CH2 B CH Ph -C -CH B CH CH - -CH2 CH 5,3-butadiene %DEF& tyrene%2EF& H Ph x

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"hat i! Pla!ti#$ Plastics are the materials that sho6 the property of plasticity and can be moulded into any desired shape and dimensions by the application of heat and pressure. Plastics ha7ing 7ariety of properties are in use in present applications. /he properties are lo6 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 2 Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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thermal and electrical conducti7ities, easy to fabricate, lo6 specific gra7ity etc. /he plastics can be fabricated for large number of colours and can be used for decorati7e purpose. Plastics can be used to produce complicated shapes and accurate dimensions 7ery cheaply by moulding process. Plastics are generally used for ma1ing automobile parts, goggle, telephones, electrical instruments, optical instruments, household appliances etc. plastics ha7ing high 6ear resistance properties can be used for ma1ing gears, bearings etc. Merit! o% Pla!ti#! 5. 2. 3. ). E. (. D. G. H. 5I. 55. 52. Plastics ha7e good shoc1 absorption capacity compared 6ith steel. Plastics ha7e high abrasion resistance. plastics are chemically inert. Plastics ha7e high corrosion resistance compared to metals. +ounding, machining, drilling etc. can be easily done on plastic materials. Plastics are light in 6eight ha7ing specific gra7ity from 5 to 2, ). malleable etc. Plastics are dimensionally stable. Plastics are don<t absorb 6ater. Plastics can be made according to the order li1e hard, soft, rigid, tough, brittle, :abrication of plastics into desired shape and si4e is cheap.

/hermal coefficient of expansion of plastic is lo6. Excellent outer finish can be obtained on plastic products.

Demerit! o% Pla!ti#!

5. Plastics are soft

2. Plastics ha7e poor ductility. 3. ,esistance to heat is less. ). Cost of plastics is high. E. Plastics can deform under load.

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THERMOSET PLASTICS /hey are formed by condensation polymeri4ation. /hey


ha7e three dimensional net6or1 structures. /he cross lin1s and bonds retain their strength on heating and hence they do not soften on heating. !n prolong heating ho6e7er, charming of polymers is caused. /hey retain the shape and structure e7en on heating. Hence, they cannot be reshaped and reused. /hey are usually, hard, strong and more brittle. /hey cannot be reclaimed from 6astes. Due to strong bonds and cross-lin1s they are insoluble in almost all organic sol7ents.

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Di%%eren#e &et'een thermo !et and thermopla!ti#!(


Plastics are materials that sho6 the property of plasticity and can be moulded into any desired shape and dimension of articles by the application of heat and pressure. )( *( +( Thermopla!ti#! /hese are processed polymeri4ation. chain on cooling. 6ithout any branched or cross lin1ed chain. ,( -( .( /( by Thermo!et pla!ti#! addition )( /hese are proceed by condensation Polymeri4ation( mass on heating i.e., heat resistance. Polymer.

oftens on heating and retaining the same *( /hese are infusible and insoluble /hey are along chain linear polymers +. /hey are branched or cross-lin1ed

!n repeated heating and cooling, there is ,( ome sort of chemical changes occur !n heating. no change in chemical nature. /hese plastics undergo purely physical -(These Plastics undergo physical as 6ell .s chemical process. process. $y heating the plastics, thy can be .. /hese plastics cannot be proceed by heating. proceed. Jaste thermoplastics can be reco7ered.

#ompo0ndin1 o% pla!ti#!

materials li1e plastici4ers, fillers of extenders, lubricants, dies and pigments to the thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics to increase their useful properties li1e strength, toughness, etc. ,esins ha7e plasticity or binding property, but need other ingredients to be mixed 6ith them for fabrication into useful shapes. Compo0ndin1 o% pla!ti#! +any plastics are 7irtually useless along but are con7erted into highly ser7iceable products by combining them 6ith a 7ariety of additi7es, stabili4ers etc., by the compounding process. /he exact formulation 6ill depend upon the specific application re;uirement. /he different additi7es impart different physical properties 6hich are used to impro7e the performance of the plastic materials. .dditi7es are 6idely used for thermoplastics, >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ) Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

Compounding of the plastics may be defined as the mixing of different

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/( Jaste thermosetting cannot be reco7ered.

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thermo sets and elastomers li1e phenolics or amino resins are useless alone but by the addition of fillers, resins etc., they gi7e a re7ersible products. ome of the compounding materials are stabili4ers, plastici4ers, fillers, colorants or pigments, lubricants and accelerators.

In1redient! 0!ed in #ompo0ndin1 o% pla!ti#!


i& ii& iii& i7& i2( ome of the ingredients used in compounding of plastics are Plastici4ers. :illers or extenders. Dyes and pigments. #ubricants. Pla!ti#izer! Plastici4ers are substances added to enhance the plasticity of the material and to reduce the crac1ing on the surface. Plastici4ers are added to the plastics to increase flexibility and toughness. Plastici4ers also increase the flo6 property of the plastics. E3ample Dibutytyle oxalate, Castor oil and /ricresyl phosphate ii2( %iller! or E3tender!

:illers are generally added to thermosetting plastics to increase elasticity and crac1 resistance. :illers impro7e thermal stability, strength, non combustibility, 6ater resistance, electrical insulation properties and external appearance. E3ample iii2 i4 Dye! and pi1ment! L0&ri#ant! E3ample !ils, Jaxes, oaps etc. /hus the ob2ecti7e of compounding is to impro7e the properties of the basic resin, such that the fabrication is made easy.

6ood flour, .sbestos, +ica, Cotton, Carbon blac1, Kraphite, $arium sulphate etc. /hese are added to impart the desired colour to the plastics and gi7e decorati7e effect. /hese are added to pre7ent the plastics from stic1ing to the moulds.

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5a&ri#ation o% pla!ti#!
+any methods of fabricating plastics into desired shaped articles are employed. /his production of plastics is 1no6n as fabrication of plastics. /he methods, usually depends upon the types of resins used i.e., 6hether thermosetting or thermoplastic. Different fabrication techni;ues are described belo6. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> E Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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Mo0ldin1 o% Pla!ti#!
+oulding of plastics comprises of forming an article to the desired shape by application of heat and pressure to the moulding compounds in a suitable mould and hardening the material in the mould. /he method of moulding depends upon the type of resins used.

i2 Compre!!ion mo0ldin1
/his method is applied to both thermoplastic and thermosetting resins. /he predetermined ;uantity of plastic ingredients in proper properties are filled bet6een the t6o half pieces of mould 6hich are capable of being mo7ed relati7e to each other heat and pressure are than applied according to specifications. /he containers filled 6ith fluidi4ed plastic. /6o hal7es are closed 7ery slo6ly. :inally curing is done either by heating or cooling. .fter curing the moulded article is ta1en out by opening the mould parts.

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ii2 In6e#tion mo0ldin1


-n this method, the moulding plastic po6der is fed into a heated cylinder from 6here it is in2ected at a controlled rate into the tightly loc1ed mould by means of a scre6 arrangement or by a piston plunger. /he mould is 1ept cold to allo6 the hot plastic to cure and become rigid. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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Jhen the materials ha7e been cured sufficiently, half of the mould is opened to allo6 the in2ection of the finished article 6ithout any deformation, etc. Heating is done by oil or electricity.

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iii2 Tran!%er mo0ldin1


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-n this method, the principle is li1e in2ection moulding. /he moulding po6der is heated in a chamber to become plastic. #ater it is in2ected into a mould by plunger 6or1ing at high pressure through orifice. Due to this heat is de7eloped and the plastic melts, ta1es the shape of the mould.

d2 E3tr0!ion mo0ldin1
/his process is useful in the preparation of continuous 6ires 6ith uniform cross section. /he heated plastic is pushed into the die 6ith the help of scre6 con7eyor. -n the die, the plastic gets cooled due to the exposure to atmosphere and by artificial air 2ets. Extrusion moulding is used mainly for continuous moulding of thermoplastic materials into articles of uniform cross section li1e tubes, rods, strips, insulated electric cables. /he thermoplastic ingredients are heated to plastic condition and then pushed by means of a scre6 con7eyor into a die, ha7ing the re;uired outer shape of the article to the manufactured. Here the plastic mass gets cooled, due to the atmospheric exposure %or artificially by air 2ets&. . long con7eyor carries a6ay continuously the cooled product.

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+oulding of insulated electric cable by 7ertical extrusion moulding

Di%%eren#e! te#hni70e!

&et'een

Compre!!ion Mo0ldin1 )( /he plastic ingredient in proper Proportions are filled in bet6een the t6o half portions of the mould. /hese portions are mo7ed relati7e to each other and by the applying heat and pressure, the part can be manufactured. *( -t is applicable to both

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and

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mo0ldin1

#ompre!!ion

in6e#tion

In6e#tion mo0ldin1 )( -n this, the heated plastic is in2ected into the mould ca7ity from 6here it is cooled and ta1en out.

*( -t is applicable to thermoplastic resins.

thermoplastic

and thermosetting

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plastic resins +( +oulding is often simpler. ,( -t is less expensi7e. -( ,e;uire more operation time. .( #ess production rate. /( /here is no limitation to the design of articles to be moulded. 8( High moulding cost.

+( +oulding is some6hat complicated compared to compression moulding. ,( -t is expensi7e -( ,e;uire less operation time .( High Production rate. /( /here is limitation to the design of articles to be moulded. 8( #ess moulding cost.

Polyethylene:
/his can be obtained by the polymeri4ation of ethylene at 5EII atm and a temperature 5EI 2EI IC in presence of traces of oxygen.

Propertie! Depending upon the density, they may be #DPE and HDPE. -f 6e use free radical initiator, #DPE is the product 6hile use of ionic catalysts results in the formation of HDPE. -t is a rigid, 6axy 6hite solid. /ranslucent. -t is permeable to many organic sol7ents. -t crystalli4es easily. #DPE has a density I.H5 to I.H2E gLcm3 HDPE has a density I.H)5 to I.H(E gLcm3 HDPE is linear and has better chemical resistance. ?ses0 /hese are useful in the preparation of insulator parts, bottle caps, flexible bottles, pipes etc. #DPE is used in ma1ing film and sheeting. Pipes made of #DPE are used for both agricultural, irrigation and domestic 6ater line connections. HDPE is used in manufacture of toys and other household articles.

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P9C
Poly @inyl Chloride is obtained by heating a 6ater emulsion of 7inyl chloride in presence of a small amount of ben4oyl peroxide or hydrogen peroxide in an auto cla7e under pressure.

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@inyl chloride, so needed is generally prepared by treating acetylene at 5 to 5.E atmospheres 6ith hydrogen chloride at (IIC to GIIC in the presence of metal chloride as catalyst. CH B CH A HCl CH2 B CH Cl .cetylene @inyl chloride Propertie!0 -t occurs as a colourless rigid material. -t is ha7ing high density and lo6 softening point. -t is resistant to light, atmospheric oxygen, inorganic acids and al1alis. -t is most 6idely used synthetic plastic. :!e! -t is mainly used as cable insulation, leather cloth, pac1ing and toys. -t is used for manufacturing of film, sheet and floor co7ering. P@C pipes are used for carrying corrosi7e chemicals in petrochemical factories.

Nylon;.<.0

-t is prepared by Hexamethylene diamine and .dipic acid are polymeri4ed in 505 ratio. Propertie!0 /his is linear polymer not resistant to al1ali and mineral acids. !xidising agents li1e hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate etc. are able to degrade the fibres.

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Appli#ation! 'ylon-(,( is mainly used for moulding purposes for gear bearings and ma1ing car tyres, used for fibres etc. /his is mainly used in manufacture of tyre cord. !ther uses include manufacture of carpets, rope, fibre cloth etc.

POLYESTER

/erylene is a polyester fibre made from ethylene glycol and terephthalicacid. /erephtalic acid re;uired for the manufacture of /erylene is produced by the catalytic atmospheric oxidation of p-xylene.

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Propertie! /his occurs as a colourless rigid substance. /his is highly resistant to mineral and organic acids but is less resistant to al1alis. /his is hydrophobic in nature. /his has high melting point due to presence of aromatic ring. :!e! -t is mostly used for ma1ing synthetic fibres. -t can be blended 6ith 6ool, cotton for better use and 6rin1le resistance. !ther application of polyethylene terephthalate film is in electrical insulation.

TE5LON OR Poly tetra %l0oro ethylene

/eflon is obtained by polymeri4ation of 6ater-emulsion tetrafluoroethylene, under pressure in presence of ben4oyl peroxide as catalyst.

Propertie! Due to the presence of highly electronegati7e fluorine atoms and the re;ular configuration of the polytetrafluoro ethylene molecule results in 7ery strong attracti7e forces bet6een the different chains. /hese strong attracti7e forces gi7e the material extreame toughness, high softening point, exceptionally high chemical-resistance to6ards all chemicals, high density, 6axy touch, and 7ery lo6 coefficient of friction, extremely good electrical and mechanical properties0 -t can be machined, punched and drilled. /he material, ho6e7er, has the disad7antage that it cannot be dissol7ed and cannot exist in a true molten state. .round 3EIIc, it sinters to form 7ery 7iscous, opa;ue mass, 6hich can be moulded into certain forms by applying high pressures.

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:!e! as insulating material for motors, transformers, cables, 6ires, fittings, etc, and for ma1ing gas1ets, pac1ing, pump parts, tan1 linings, chemical-carrying pipes, tubing<s and tan1s, etc,M for coating and impregnating glass fibres, asbestos fibres and clothsM in non-lubricating bearings and non-stic1ing stop-coc1s etc.

POLY :RETHANES
Poly urethanes are obtained, commercially, by treating diisocyanate and diol. :or example, Perlon-? %a crystalline polymer& is obtained by the reaction of 5,)-butane diol 6ith 5,(-hexane diisocyanate. Properties0 5. polyurethanes are less stable than polyamides at ele7ated temperature. 2. /hey are characteri4ed by excellent resistance to abrasion and sol7ents. :!e! Polyurethanes are used as coatings, films, foams, adhesi7es and elastomers. ,esilient polyurethane fibres %spandex& are used for foundation garments and s6im-suits. /hey also find use as a leather substitute %corfoam&. /hey are used to cast to produce gas1ets and seals.

=a>elite

-t is prepared by condensing phenol 6ith formaldehyde in presence of acidicLal1aline catalyst. /he initial reaction results in the formation of !- and P- hydroxyl methylLphenol 6hich reacts to form linear polymer. During modeling hexamethylene tetramine is added, 6hich con7erts to insoluble solid of cross-lin1ed structure $a1alite.

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Appli#ation!0 -t is used for ma1ing electric insulator parts li1e s6itches, plugs, s6itch boards etc. :or ma1ing moulded articles li1e telephone parts cabinet of radio and tele7ision.

Sili#one re!in!

ilicone resins contain alternate silicone-oxygen structure, 6hich has organic radicals attached to silicon atoms. /hus, their structure is0 Jhere ,B al1yl or phenyl radical Preparation0 reacting silicon 6ith al1yl halide or silicon halide 6ith Krignard reagent. /he reaction product is fractionally distilled to get different organo-silicon chlorides, 6hich are then polymeri4ed by carefully controlled hydrolysis. 5. Dimethyl-silicon dichloride is Nbifunctional< and can yield 7ery long chain polymers, E.g. 2. /rimethyl silicon chloride is Nmonofunctional< and hence, a Nchain-stopper<. /his is, therefore, used in proportions to limit the chain-length. 3. +onomethyl silicon chlorides is Ntrifunctional< and goes cross-lin1ing to the final polymer. -ts proportion used in polymeri4ation, determines the amount of cross-lin1ing that can be obtained. Chara#teri!ti#! o% !ili#one! 5. Depending on the proportion of 7arious al1yl silicon halides used during their preparation, silicones may be li;uids, 7iscous li;uids, semi-solid, rubber-li1e and solids.

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2. $ecause of silicon-oxygen lin1s, they exhibit outstanding-stability at high temperatures, good 6ater resistance, good oxidation-stability, but their chemical-resistance is generally lo6er than that of other plastics. 3. /heir specific gra7ity ranges from 5.I3 to 2.5. ). /heir physical properties are much less affected by 7ariations in temperature. E. /hey are non-toxic in nature. Different types of silicones and their uses0 #i;uid silicones or silicone oils are relati7ely lo6 molecular-6eight silicones, generally of dimethyl silicones. /hey possess great 6etting-po6er for metals, #o6 surface tension and sho6 7ery small changes in 7iscosity 6ith temperature. :!e! 5. /hey are used as high temperature lubricants, antifoaming agents, 6ater-repellent finishes for leather and textiles, heat transfer media, as damping and hydraulic fluids. /hey are also used in cosmetics and polishes. 2. ilicone greases are modified silicone oils, obtained by adding fillers li1e silica, carbon blac1, lithium soap, etc. 3. /hey are particularly used as lubricants in situations 6here 7ery high and 7ery lo6 temperatures and encountered.

Nat0ral R0&&er

,ubbers also 1no6n as Elastomers, they are high polymers, 6hich ha7e elastic properties in excess of 3IIF. 'atural rubbers consist of basic material latex, 6hich is a dispersion of isoprene. During the treatment, these isoprene molecules polymeri4e to form, long-coiled chains of cispolyisoprene. 'atural rubber is made from the saps of a 6ide range of plants li1e He7ea brasillians and guayule. #atex0 is a mil1y 6hite fluid that oo4es out from the plant He7ea brasillians 6hen a cut is made on the steam of the plant. /he latex is diluted 6ith 6ater. /hen acetic or formic acid is added O51g of acid per 2II1gs of latexP to prepare coagulum. /his is processed to gi7e 6ither crepe rubber or smo1ed rubber.

90l#anization

@ulcani4ation disco7ered by Charles Koodyear in 5G3H. -t consists of heating the ra6 rubber at 5II 5)IIC 6ith sulphur. /he combine chemically at the double bonds of different rubber spring and pro7ides cross-lin1ing bet6een the chains. /his cross-lin1ing during 7ulcani4ation brings about a stiffening of the rubber by anchoring and conse;uently pre7enting intermolecular mo7ement of rubber springs. /he amount of sulphur added determines the extent of stiffness of 7ulcani4ed rubber. :or example, ordinary rubber %say for battery case& may contain as much as 3IF sulphur. .d7antages of 7ulcani4ation0 i. /he tensile strength increase. ii. @ulcani4ed rubber has excellent resilience. iii. -t has boarder useful temperature range %-)I to 5IIIC& i7. -t has better resistance to moisture, oxidation and abrasion. 7. -t is resistance to organic sol7ents li1e CCl), $en4ene petrol etc. 7i. -t has only slight thic1ness. 7ii. -t has lo6 elasticity. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 5D Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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=0na ? S or STYRENE R:==ER

$una- rubber is probably the most important type of synthetic rubber, 6hich is produced by copolymeri4ation of butadiene %about DEF by 6eight& and styrene %2EF by 6eight&. nCH2 B CH CH B CH2 A n CH2 B CH Ph -%-H2C -CH B CH CH --CH2 CH Ph-&n5,3-butadiene %DEF& tyrene%2EF& Propertie! tyrene rubber resembles natural rubber in processing characteristics as 6ell as ;uality of finished products.

-t possesses high abrasion-resistance, high load-bearing capacity and resilience. Ho6e7er, it gets readily oxidi4ed, especially in presence of traces of o4one present in the atmosphere. +oreo7er, it s6ells in oils and sol7ents. -t can be 7ulcani4ed in the same 6ay as natural rubber either by sulphur or sulphur monochloride % 2Cl2&. Ho6e7er, -t re;uires less sulphur, but more accelerators for 7ulcani4ation. :!e!0 +ainly used for the manufacture of motor tyres. !ther uses of these elastomers are floor tiles, shoe soles, gas1ets, foot-6ear components, 6ire and cable insulations, carpet bac1ing, adhesi7es, tan1-linings, etc.

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Nitrile R0&&er or GR;A or =0na ? N or N=R


Preparation0 -t is prepared by the copolymeri4ation of butadiene and acrylonitrile in emulsion system.
Copolymeri4ation

mCH2BCH-CHBCH2 A nCH2BCH--C' -%-CH2 CHBCH CH2 -&m%CH2 CH%C'&-&n>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 5G Polymer cience %?nit-@& Prepared by $. rini7as www.jntuworld.com

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5,3-$utadiene .crylonitrile Poly butadiene co-acrylonitrile Compounding and 7ulcani4ation methods are similar to those of natural rubber. Propertie!0 i. Due to the presence of cyano group, nitrile rubber is less resistance to al1alis than natural rubberM ii. Excellent resistance to oils, chemicals, aging %sun light&. .s the acrylonitrate percentage is increased in nitrile rubber, its resistance to acids, salts, oils, sol7ents etc. increases. $ut the lo6 temperature resilience suffers. iii. Compared to natural rubber, nitrile rubber %7ulcani4ed& has more heat resistance and it may be exposed to high temperatures. i7. -t has good abrasion resistance, e7en after immersion in gasoline or oils. :SES :or ma1ing Con7eyor belts, #ining of tan1s, Kas1ets i. Printing rollers , !il-resistance foams ii. .utomobile parts and high altitude air-craft components iii. Hoses and adhesi7es.

Thio>ol 0

/his also called as polysulphide rubber %or Kr-P&. -t can be prepared by the condensation polymeri4ation of sodium polysulphide %'a2 x& and ethylene dichloride. " Cl CH2 - CH2 Cl Ethylene dichloride A "

'a 'a A Cl CH2 - CH2- Cl odium polysulphide Ethylene dichloride -CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2/hio1ol

-t is used for the i. +anufacture of oils hoses, chemically resistant tubing and engine gas1etsM ii. Diaphragms and seals in contact 6ith sol7ents and iii. Printing rolls, i7. Containers for transporting sol7ents and 7. olid propellant fuels for roc1ets, etc.

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POLY :RETHANES R:==ERS


Polyurethane or isocyanate rubber is produced by reacting polyalcohol 6ith di-isocyanates. nO!H-%CH2&2-!HA!BCB'-%CH2&2-'BCB!PO-!-%CH2&2-!-%C!&-'H-%CH2&2-'H-%C!&-Pn Propertie! Polyurethanes are highly resistant to oxidation, because of their saturated character. /hey also sho6 good resistance to many organic sol7ents, but are attac1ed by acids and al1alis, especially concentrated and hot. /he polyurethane foams are light, tought and resistant to heat, abrasion, chemicals and 6eathering. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 5H Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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:!e! :or surface coatings and manufacture of foams and spandex fibres.

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>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 2I Polymer cience %?nit-@& www.jntuworld.com

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