Anda di halaman 1dari 8

CIÊNCIA APLICADA AO DESIGN

Aula 2 — Movimento e Energia

Paulo Tribolet Abreu


IADE, Licenciatura em Design 2009/10, 1º semestre
MOVIMENTO

Posição e tempo.

Mudança de posição com o tempo: velocidade.

Mudança de velocidade com o tempo: aceleração.


"x "v
v= [m/s] a= [m/s ]
2

"t "t

Conversão
! para km/h:
! 1 m/s = 3,6 km/h

2
MOVIMENTO
Sem resistência do ar, os corpos caem com a mesma
aceleração: 10 m/s2. Em cada s, a velocidade aumenta
10 m/s (36 km/h).

No entanto, prefiro levar com uma pena na cabeça do


que com uma pedra.

Com resistência, caem com acelerações diferentes até


estabilizarem (a velocidades diferentes). Porquê?

É preciso acelerar um carro para manter a sua


velocidade. Porquê?

3
ENERGIA

O movimento contém energia: Energia Cinética Ec.

1 2
Ec = m v
2
2x massa = 2x energia;

2x velocidade
! = 4x energia.

O que é? Capacidade de realizar trabalho


(mover massa).

4
TIPOS DE ENERGIA
1
Cinética: Ec = m v 2
2
Potencial: gravítica, Ep = mgh
elástica, Ep = 1/2 Kx2
! química ...

Calor (no fundo é cinética).

Os tipos de energia convertem-se uns nos outros


sem perdas (excepto para o que nos interessa ).

Exemplos...

5
UNIDADES DE ENERGIA
1 2
[E] = kg . (m/s)2. Complicado ... Ec = m v
2
Unidade de energia Definição e equivalência

joule J (SI) elevar 1 kg a 10 cm


kilojoule kJ 1000 J
aquecer 1 g de água a 1 C
caloria cal
! 1 cal = 4,18 J ≈ 4 J
Caloria Cal (alimentação) aquecer 1 kg de água a 1 C
kilocaloria kcal 1 Cal = 4180 J ≈ 4 kJ
3600 kJ = 861 kcal ≈ 1000 kcal
kilowatt-hora kWh
0,12 €
BTU (British Thermal Unit) 1 BTU = 1055 J ≈ 1 kJ = ¼ kcal

“Quadrilião” de BTUs = 1015 BTU ≈ 1018 J


Quad Mundo ≈ 400 quad/ano
EUA ≈ 100 quad/ano

6
Joule) because it makes their equations look simpler. There are about 4000 joules
in a Calorie, 3600 in a Wh, 3.6 million in a kWh.

ALGUNS VALORES
The energy table below shows the approximate energies in various substances.
I think you’ll find that this table is one of the most interesting ones in this entire

DE ENERGIA
textbook. It is full of surprises. The most interesting column is the last one.

Energy per gram


object Calories joules compared to
(or Watt-hours) TNT
bullet (at sound speed, 1000 ft per sec) 0.01 40 0.015
battery (auto) .03 125 0.05
battery (rechargeable computer) 0.1 400 0.15
battery (alkaline flashlight) 0.15 600 0.23
TNT (the explosive trinitrotoluene) 0.65 2,723 1
modern High Explosive (PETN) 1 4200 1.6
chocolate chip cookies 5 21,000 8
coal 6 27,000 10
butter 7 29,000 11
alcohol (ethanol) 6 27,000 10
gasoline 10 42,000 15
natural gas (methane, CH4) 13 54,000 20
hydrogen gas or liquid (H2) 26 110,000 40
asteroid or meteor (30 km/sec) 100 450,000 165
uranium-235 20 million 82 billion 30 million
Note: many numbers in this table have been rounded off.

7
Stop reading now, and ponder the table of energies. Concentrate on the last
gives the most Calories per dollar? It isn’t obvious, since the different fuels are
measured in different units, and they provide different amounts of energy. But if
ALGUNS PREÇOS
you put all the numbers together, you get the following table. The table also shows
the cost of the energy if it is converted to electricity. For fossil fuels, that increases
DE ENERGIA
the cost by a factor of 3, since motors convert only about 1/3 of the heat energy to
electricity.

fuel market cost cost per kWh cost if converted


(1000 Cal) to electricity
coal $40 per ton 0.4¢ 1.2¢
natural gas $10 per million 3¢ 9¢
cubic feet
gasoline $3 per gallon 9¢ 27¢
electricity $0.10 per kWh 10¢ 10¢
car battery $50 to buy battery 21¢ 21¢
computer battery $100 to buy $4.00 $4.00
battery
AAA battery $1.50 per battery $1000.00 $1000.00

Porque
The wide não usamos
disparity of thesemais
prices carvão (há países
is quite remarkable. que usam)?
Concentrate on the
third column, the cost per kWh. Note that it is 25 times more expensive to heat
your home with electricity than with coal! Gasoline costs 3 times as much as
Porque
natural usamos
gas. That pilhas
has led some e baterias?
mechanics to modify their autos to enable them to
use compressed natural gas instead of gasoline.
Note that for heating your home, natural gas is 3 times cheaper than
8
electricity. Back in the 1950s, many people thought that the “all electric home”